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and anteriorly with yellow ; entire breast gamboge-yellow, obscured with
olivaceous-gray across the jugulum (probably entirely gray at first, the
yellow feathers being probably the beginning of the first moult). Ab-
domen white ; flanks and crissum pale buff. In my collection from Mt.
Carmel, III., July 19, 1875." — R. R.

38. Myiodioctes ocmadensls.

First plumage : female. Remiges, rectrices, etc., similar to the adults.
Rest of the upper parts, including wing-coverts and sides of head, uniform
deep dull cinnamon ; the greater coverts tipped with fulvous. Throat,
breast, and sides very light cinnamon, tinged w^ith olive. Anal and ab-
dominal regions pale sulphur-yellow. No conspicuous spots, stripes, or

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in Various Species of North American Birds, 61

markings anywhere. From a specimen in my collection shot at Upton,
Me., August 4, 1874. This bird was so young as to be scarcely able to fly,
and, with the rest of the brood, was attended by the female parent.

Adult in autumn: male. Similar .to adult in spring, but with the yel-
low of the under parts much more intense, and the black spotting on the
breast slightly clouded by the yellow tipping of the overlapping feathers.
From a specimen in my collection shot at Upton, Me., August 29, 1874.

Young in autumn : male. Pileum and back greenish-olive ; nape and
rump bluish-ash, slightly tinged with olive. Centres of a few feathers on
the forehead and cheeks, with a continuous line along the side of the neck
to the breast, dusky-black. A broad band of very small spots (each one
not more than one quarter of the size of those exhibited in the adult
plumage) across the upper part of the breast black. OtherwisiB similar to
the adult In " History of Birds of North America,** Vol. I. p. 320, Mr.
Ridgway says, " In the young [these spots] are obsolete.'*

39. Geothlypls Philadelphia.

First plumage : female. Remiges, rectrices, etc., as in adult Rest of
upper parts, with wing-coverts and sides of head, dull reddish-brown,
becoming almost cinnamon on the back, and tinged strongly with ashy on
the pileum. Entire under parts light reddish-brown, most pronounced
on the abdominal and anal regions, becoming lighter on the throat, and
darker, with a strong olive suffusion, on the breast and sides. No appre-
ciable maxillary or supra-orbital stripes. From a specimen in my collec-
tion shot at Upton, Me., August 11, 1876. This bird was very young ; in
fact, barely able to fly. A slight doubt exists in my mind as to its iden-
tity, for I did not actually see the parent birds feed it, though both were in
the immediate vicinity and exhibited much solicitude. This specimen is
separable from the corresponding stage of G. trichas by the ashy cast of
the pileum and the absence of brownish on the sides.

Autumnal plumage : young male. Entire upper parts olive-green, the
feathers of the pileum and nape being just tipped with this color and
showing plainly the ashy underneath when disarranged. Sides of head,
with broad bands extending down each side of the throat and nearly meet-
ing across the jugulum, ash, washed with greenish-olive. Sides, with a
broad connected band across anal region and breast, dull olive-green.
Rest of under parts, with central areas of throat and jugulum, very clear
rich yellow, intensifying into a spot of orange on the breast. In two
specimens (both males) a yellow tipping of the feathers on the jugulum
nearly conceals much black underneath, which becomes conspicuous when
the plumage is slightly disarranged.

Autumal plumage : young female. Similar to the male, but with a more
olive cast to the green of the dorsal aspect, less ashy on head, and the
spot on the breast of richer, deeper color, and broader diffusion. The
young of both sexes in autumnal plumage have the upper and lower eye-

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62 Brewster's Descriptions of the First Plumage

lids conspicumisly fulvcms-yellow. In one specimen (male, taken August
21), the eyelids are dirty-white. From seven specimens (two females, five
males) in my collection shot at Upton, Me., August, 1874. Irrespective
of generic characters, the young of G. Philadelphia in autumn are at once
distinguishable from those of Oporomis agilis in corresponding stages, by
the total absence of ashy on the central regions of throat, jugulum, and
breast. So marked is the difference that obtains in this respect that I am
easily able to separate the two species, when lying side by side, at a dis-
tance of fifteen or twenty feet

40. Geothlypls maogillivrayL

Young autumal plumage : male. Entire upper parts exactly as in 0,
Philadelphia of corresponding age and sex. (See preceding species.)
Sides of head very dark ashy, washed with olive. Eyelids white. Fore-
part of the breast light ashy-gray, with a slight superficial wash of olive,
shading into buflpy-white on the chin. (Again compare with preceding
species.) Rest of under parts clear rich yellow, obscured somewhat with
greenish-olive on the sides. Upon raising, or even slightly disarranging,
the feathers of the throat, broad subterminal 'bands of black appear on
each feather. These bands or blotches, as in the young G, Philadelphia^
are concealed by the ashy tips of the overlapping feathers. From a speci-
men in my collection shot at Nicasio, CaL, by Mr. C. A. Allen, August 1,

41. Geothlypis trichas.

First plumage : male. Remiges, rectrices, etc., as in adult. Wing-
coverts continuously light brown. Rest of upper parts, including sides of
head, brown, lightest on rump, and slightly tinged with olive on the back.
Throat yellowish-olive, deepening to dark clear olive on jugulum, breast,
sides, and anal region. Abdomen dull yellow, with its lateral margins
bounded by bands of fulvous-brown. From specimen in my collection
shot at Upton, Me., August 26, 1874. Two other specimens, taken respec-
tively July 28 and August 10, present no appreciable difference from the
birds first described.

42. Pyranga mbra.

Occasional plumage : male. Wings and tail black ; entire plumage of
body rich orange, with a greenish tinge on flanks and anal region. From
a specimen in my cabinet, collected by Mr. .C. J. Maynard, at Waltham,
Mass., May 27, 1869. This remarkable specimen I for a long time con-
sidered unique, but I have recently examined another in the possession of
Mr. Ai-thur Smith, of Brookline, which is its precise counterpart, and
Mr. Ridgway tells me he has seen still others. This plumage is not to be
confounded with the ordinary immature one of this bird, where the scarlet
is simply of a lighter shade or mixed with patches of yellowish-green. It
is a pronounced uniform coloring, and apparently a completed plumage.

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in Variovs Species of North American Birds. 63

Unquestionably it is abnormal, but hardly to be placed in a category with
albinism, and probably it is not very unfrequent. Adult males of P.
rubra change to the greenish autumnal plumage of the female and young,
a fact not generijly known. They may in that stage be distinguished by
the blacker coloring of the wings and tail. I have never seen the young
males in autumn with red feathers appearing in the plumage, as spoken of
by writers ; probably such specimens may be referred to adult birds taken
in August or September, with the moult only partially effected ; many of
such examples I have now before me, all unquestionably adults. The
scarlet bands on the wing-coverts of some specimens are to be r^^arded as
individual adornments, independent of age. Many comparatively imma-
ture specimens possess them, while in some of the finest birds they are

43. Hinmdo horreomm.
First plvmage : female. Fork of tail not deep ; outer feathers project-
ing one-half inch beyond the inner ones. Remiges and rectrices brown ;
upper parts, in general, glossed with dull steel-blue ; feathers of rump
and upper tail-coverts edged with rusty ; frontal band narrowed to a mere
line of pale fawn-color. Beneath similar to adult, but every^vhere paler.
From a specimen in my collection taken at Rye Beach, N. H., August 21,
1872. •

44. Tachyoineta bioolor.
First plumage : male. Upper parts uniform dark slate, with a fine silky
gloss ; feathers of interscapular region faintly edged with pale fawn.
Secondaries edged and tipped with pale cinnamon-gray. Under parts
soiled white, with a faintly indicated pectoral band of pale ashy-brown.
From a specimen in my collection, shot at Cambridge, June 22, 1872.

A good series of summer specimens shows well the transitional stages.
The first plumage is worn much longer than in most birds, and the au-
tumnal dress very slowly acquired, the metallic tinted feathers appearing
one or two at a time. The remiges are also moulted by the young, as well
as by the adult, and both in the autumnal plumage have the last pair of
secondaries broadly tipped with pure white. This remarkable feature, so
far as the specimens at hand go to show, is entirely characteristic of this

45. Petroohelidon lunifrons.
First plumage : male. Top of head, back, and scapulars dark brown ;
collar around nape, dull ashy, tinged anteriorly with maty. Rump as in
adult, but paler ; forehead sprinkled with white, and with a few chestnut
feathers. Secondaries broadly tipped with ferruginous. Throat white, a
few feathers spotted centrally with dusky. Breast and sides ashy, with a
rusty suffusion, most pronounced on the latter parts. A very small area
of pale chestnut on the cheeks. From a specimen in my collection taken
at Upton, Me., July 27, 1874.

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64 RiDGWAT on Birds of Calaveras County, California,

46. Cotyle riparia.

First plumage: male. Upper parts brown, each feather edged with
ferruginous, this edging broadest on the rump and secondaries, narrowest
on the crown and nape. Beneath like the adult, but with the pectoral band
strongly washed with ferruginous, and the throat thickly spotted Mrith the
same color. In my collection, from Rye Beach, N. H., August 24, 1872.
Autumnal specimens have the secondaries tipped with white, but not so
broadly as in Tachycineta bicolor.

47. Ampelii oedronim.

First plumage: female. Above generally duller cinnamon than in
adult, with obscure streakings of dusky-buff ; rump grayish-brown with a
tinge of olive. Tail narrowly tipped with gamboge-yellow. Two secon-
daries on each wing slightly tipped with the red waxen appendages. En-
tire under parts brownish-buff, palest about anal region, deepest on throat
and chin ; breast and sides streaked thickly with cinnamon-brown. A
dull black line, starting from the nostril, passes through the lore to the
eye, where it terminates, embracing, however, the anterior half of both eye-
lids. From a specimen in my collection, taken at Upton, Me., August 14,
1874. I have seen specimens of this species in the first plumage with
not only the secondaries wax-tipped, but several of the tail-feathers also.
Kor is this homy appendage peculiar to the male, as has been stated, for
seveml undoubted females before me have it fully developed. Much va-
riation likewise obtains among different individuals in respect to the num-
ber and position of these appendages. One specimen (a male, Cambridge,
March 21, 1870) has every feather of the tail conspicuously wax-tipped, in
addition to nine of the secondaries on each wing, while another has the
primaries (excepting the first three) tipped broadly with white, and in the
centre of each white spot a smaller one of yellow.



Several small lots of birds received at the National Museum
from its correspondent, Mr. L. Belding, of Marysville, California,
collected chiefly in Calaveras County, in that State, are of great in-

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RiDGWAY on Birds of Calaveras County, California. 65

terest, as showing a somewhat remarkable fauna for a locality
situated as this is on the Pacific slope of the Sierra Nevada, there
being a curious intermingling of Eastern, Northern, and Southern
species with those usually considered as truly "Califomian." The
collections thus far received embrace only forty-seven species (in-
cluding races), a list of which, with remarks, is given below : —

1. MimuB polyglottuB. No. 73,609, December 26, 1877.

2. Myiadestes townsendi. No. 73,610, $ ad., May 4, 1877.

3. Phaenopepla nitens. No. 73,534, Murphy's, May, 1877.

4. CincluB mezioantui. No. 73,533. No date.

5. Regulus satrapa. No. 73,535, ^ ad. No date.

6. Catherpes mezioautui, )9. oonsperstui. No. 73,045, Murphy's,
February 7, 1877.

7. Thryomanes bewicki, fi, spilunui. No. 73,612, January 5, 1877.

8. Sitta oarolinensls, p. aculeata. No. 73,608, January 5, 1877.

9. Sitta canadensis. No. 73,534. Big Trees, alt. 4,500 feet, May 19.

10. Helminthophaga rufioapilla. Several specimens in very bright
spring plumage, agreeing entirely with Eastern examples both in colors
and proportions. The supposed Western race, " var. gutturalis '* (Hist N.
Am. Birds, I, p. 191), based upon a special plumage, is therefore untena-
ble. This common " Eastern " species, of which autumnal specimens
only have been recorded from the Western Province, Mr. Belding finds
quite common on the Sierra Nevada, and has asceitained that it breeds
in Calaveras County.

11. Helminthophaga oelata, /S. lutesoens. Nos. 73,613, juv., Big
Trees, May, 1877, and 73,614, ad., January 8, 1878 (!) A permanent resi-
dent, both' breeding and wintering.

12. Dendroeoa ocoidentalis. Nos. 73,039, ^, and 73,040, 9 , Big
Trees, May 20, 1877. In the brightest spring plumage, the male with the
whole head, except throat, pure gamboge-yellow, the pileum inmiaculate !

[13. DendroBoa ooronata. Mr. Belding writes that he thinks he has
got this species " during a recent visit to Murphy's." This is very likely,
since it is now known to be of not uncommon occurrence in certain parts
of California.* I have a specimen obtained April 9, 1877, at Nicasio,
Marin County, by Mr. C. A. Allen, who writes me that he has frequently
taken it. I am also informed by M. J. A. Allen that the Museum of
Comparative Zoology possesses specimens collected at Haywood, Alameda
County, by Dr. J. G. Cooper.]

[14. Geothlypis triohaa. Two specimens seen at Marysville, Janu-
ary 2, 1878(!)].

15. Lanivireo solitarius. Nos. 73,041, and 73,042, males. Big

* Has been sabsequently received from Mr. Belding.

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66 ItoawAY on Birds of Calaveras County, California,

Trees, May 10, 1877. Apparently the true iolitaritu. Of common oc-
currence, and breeding.

16. Lanivlreo oassinL No. 73,537, ad. No date.

17. VireosylTia gilva, /3. swainsonL No. 73,043. No date.

18. CoUurio borealis. Noe. 73,615 and 73,616, January 2 and 8,

19. CoUurio ludoTiciantui. Nos. 73,617 and 73,618. No date.
These examples, like most Californian ones, are by no means referable to
txcMtwoideSf but are fully as dark as the darkest individuals of true
ludovicianut from the Southern Atlantic and Gulf States.

20. Hesparlphona vespertiiia. No. 73,538, ^ ad. No date.

21. Pinicola enucleator, /3. canadensis. No. 73^539, ^ juv. Soda
Springs, Placer County, September 28, 1877.

22. Carpodacus cassinL No. 73,048, ^ ad. Big Trees, May 20,

23. Chrysomitris tristis. No. 73,630. No date.

24. Chrysomitris lawrenoit No. 73,629, ^ ad., January 9, 1878.

25. Chrysomitris pinus. No. 73,540. Murphy's. No date.

26. Chondestes grammaca. No. 73,541. Murphy's, February,
1877 (I).

27. PooBcetes gramineus, /3. confinis. No. 73,542. No date.

28. Passerculus sandTichensis, y. alaudinus. Nos. 73,071, April,
1877 ; 73,625-7. No date. (" Summit of Sierra Nevada, lat 39**.")

29. Zonotrichia leucophrys. No. 73,543. No date.

30. Spizella socialis, fi, arixonce. Nos. 73,544, Soda Springs, Placer
County, September, 1877, 73,628, Calaveras County. No date ; also seen
January 6, 1878.

31. Melospixa fosciata, /3. guttata. No. 73,050, $ ad. Murphy's,
March 20, 1879. No. 73,619. No date.

32. Melospixa fasciata, y. fallax. No. 73,621. No date.

33. Melospixa fasciata, d. heermannt No. 73,621, July, 1877.
Probably the resident form.

34. Melospixa lincolnt Nos. 73,540, 73,622-4. No dates.

35. Passerella iliaoa, d. megarhynoha. No. 73,049, ^ ad. Big
Trees, May, 1877.

36. Myiarohus oinerasoens. No. 73,546. Murphy's, April 17, 1877.

37. Sayomis nigricans. A very curious albinescent example of this
species (No. 73,611) is colored as follows : Prevailing color very pale pearl-
gray, fading to white on the abdomen and lining of the wing. Wing-
coverts tipped with creamy buff, forming two distinct narrow bands. The
specimen is a full-grown young one, as shown by the buff wing-bands and
the texture of the feathers. Slight indications of the normal plumage are
seen in a small black spot just above the posterior angle of the right eye,
and several black feathers among the lesser wing-coverts, while, according
to the collector, there was a spot of the same color on the breast, but tlus

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EiDGWAY on Birds of Calaveras County, California, 67

was carried away by the shot. The specimen was obtained at Stocton,
July, 1877.

38. Contopns rlohardsoiiL No. 73,547. No date.

39. Empidonax puoiUus. No. 73,044. Stocton, July, 1877.

40. Empidonax obsonnui. No. 73,047. Murphy's, April 28, 1878.

41. Bmpidonax hammondL Nos. 73,045 - 6. Murphy's, April 28,

42. Pious nuttalli. No. 73,033. Murphy's, Calaveras County (alt
2,000 feet), April, 1877.

43. Pious pubesoens. An adult male (No. 73,606), collected Decem-
ber 27, 1877, is absolutely typical P. fvhtscens. There is a large cluster
of white spots covering the lesser wing-covert region, while the greater
coverts have a row of white spots at the base, more or less concealed by
the middle coverts ; the secondaries and tertials are likewise completely
crossed by bands of white spots. I have seen very many Western exam-
ples of this bird approaching the true pvhescent, to a greater or less
degree, but this is the first I have seen having the row of spots at the base
of the greater coverts, and the conspicuous cluster of white spots, forming
an irregular broken patch on the middle coverts, — the essential charac-
ters of pubesceTis, as restricted.

44. Pious pubesoens, /S. gairdneri No. 73,607, g ad. December,
27, 1878.

45. Sphyrapious thyroideus. Nos. 73,548, ^ ad. and 73,559, 9 ad.
No dates.

46. Colaptes auratus, /3. mezioanus. Nos. 73,603, and 73,605.
December, 1877.

47. Colaptes auratus, y. hybridus. Nos. 73,602-4, Djecember, 1877.
This series is one of great interest One specimen corresponds very nearly
to C. " ayresii " of Audubon, having red " mustaches," gray throat, and
yellow shafts ; the latter, however, have a decided orange cast, while there
is merely a trace of the scarlet occipital crescent The most interesting
specimen of all, however, is No. — , of which, unfortunately, the tail
only was sent In this the rectrices are deep red, as in true wsxicanus,
with the exception of the middle pair, which are pure gamboge-yellow,
without a trace of orange ; the contrast being thus very striking. An-
other specimen, of which the tail only was sent, is similar except that the
middle tail-feathers are pale-pinkish instead of yellow.

Becords of the occurrence on the Pacific Slope of species formerly con-
sidered exclusively Eastern, have now become so numerous as to render
it extremely probable that, as the various districts of our Western domain
are more fully explored, the number of species common to both sides of
the continent will be considerably increased and the list of those peculiar
to the Eastern Province correspondingly diminished. The transfer from
the latter category to the former may be considered as established with
regard to several of the species enumerated above, as Drndroeca coronatay

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68 Cooper on Nest and Eggs of two Western Birds,

ffelminthophaga ruficapillay LanMreo solitariuSy CoUurio ludovicianuSf and
Zonotrichia Uucophrys, It should be borne in mind, howerer, that everj
species is very much more local in the West, where modifications in
topographical details are intricate, involving very great variations of di-
m&te and vegetation within a small compass of territory, than in the East,
where the whole country presents a great imiformity of surface, thus al-
lowing a much more general dispersion of vegetable and animal life.



Hutton's Vireo ( Vtreo huttont) breeds in the vicinity of Santa
Cruz, though not in abundance. Retiring in habits, their nests and
eggs are rarely found. April 7, 1874, I found a nest placed ten
feet from the ground, suspended from a dead branch of a Negundoy
containing three eggs incubated about five days. March 30, 1 875,
I found another nest placed eight feet from the ground, suspended
from the small twigs of a FrangvJa. The bird showed little signs
of fear, and would not leave the nest till I almost touched her ;
then she flew to a tree near by, and uttered a single note, iwea^ re-
peated every three or four seconds. When I took the nest she
hopped around me from twig to twig, venting her sorrow in a plain-
tive ttoik^ twea ; twik, twea.

The nest — a neat, compact structure, composed of fine vegetable
fibres, bits of paper, and grasses covered on the outside with green
and gray mosses, lined with fine grasses — measures 3.25in ches in
diameter outside, 1.75 inside ; depth 2.25 outside, 1.50 inside.

The eggs, four in number, are white (a delicate blush-color be-
fore blown), marked with minute dots of reddish-brown, more nu-
merous toward the larger end. ^They measure respectively, .70 x .62,
.70 X .51, .69 X .51, .68 x 52. Two other nests were found, each
containing four eggs. They were placed, one in a Negundo^ thirty
feet high, the other at the extremity of an oak limb, twenty-five feet
from the ground. Of the latter the female was so unsuspicious that
when caught and removed from the nest she immediately returned
to it.

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Mearks's Description of Unusually Developed Spedes. 69

April 4, 1877^ while collecting on the foot-hills four miles horn
Watsonville, my undivided attention was drawn toward a Gray Tit-
mouse, whose scolding outcry, if not intended for me, was neverthe-
less so taken. Observing that the bird had a large insect in its bill,
I concluded it was about to feed its young, or possibly its mate.
Taking my station behind the trunk of a tree, I waited in vain for
nearly an hour for it to enter its nest. It flew from one branch to
another, favoring one part of the tree, uttering its cry continually.
My time being limited, I concluded to examine the tree, and was
agreeably rewarded by finding the nest immediately. This was
placed in a hollow in the end of a limb of an oak, five feet from the
ground, the mouth of the hole very smalL The female was on the
nest, and would not leave, fighting even unto death.

The nest is composed outwardly of grasses, the inner portion of
fur of rabbits and other animals, besides a few hairs and feathers.
It measures 7.50 inches in diameter outside, 2.50 inside ; depth, 2.50
outside, 1 inside.

The eggs, four in number, had been incubated about five days.
The ground-color is white, marked over the whole egg with minute
irregular spots of a pale reddish color. The most spotted egg has
a perceptible pinkish appearance. Measurements, .68 x .53, .68 x
.52, .64 X .52, .64 x 52.

I anticipate finding, in additional sets of the eggs of this species,
deeper-colored* and larger markings, with considerable variation of
size and shape, besides a larger number of eggs.

Santa Craz, California.



1. Geothlypls Philadelphia, (Wilsou) Baird. Mourning Warbler.
— A specimen of this species (No. 1000 $y May 26, 1876, K A. M.) is re-
markable for its high development. All of its markings are unusually
bright ; 'the chin, throat, and forepart of breast almost solid black ; the
feathers of the chin and upper part of the throat only exhibiting the

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70 Mearks's Description of Umisually Developed Species,

faintest margins of ash. Professor Baird * has remarked : *' It is quite
possible that in the full-plumaged male the entire throat may be bUck, ai

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