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posed, frost often crusting the ground, and ice skimming ponds and slug-
gish streams), I never failed to hear the notes of these indefatigable little
songsters.

33. Siunui motaoilla, (Yieill.) Coues. Large-billed Water
Thrush. — Abundant after March 13, in swampy localities.

34. OporoniiBformostui,(Wils.)Bd. Ebntdckt Warbler. — 'Arrived
April 9, and soon became common, frequenting the same places as the pre-
ceding species. I did not find them the active bird they have generally
been described, but rather leisurely in their movements. Nor do they,
as has been asserted, always walk when upon the ground, but frequently
move about by the hopping, or rather jumping, motion common to most
small birds. They were apparently not breeding at the time of my
departure.

35. Oeotfalypia trlohas, (L.) Cab. Maryland Yellow-throat. —
On February 7, Mr. Bond reported having seen a solitary male in a dense
swamp ; but it was not imtil the 5th of March that the species appeared
in numbers. Thereafter they were common during my stay.

36. loteria Tirens, (L.) Bd. Yellow-breasted Chat. — Arrived
April 20 ; became common a week later.

37. Myiodiootes mitratus, (Gm.) And. Hooded Warbler. —
Rather the most numerous summer resident of this family. The males
arrived March 28 ; the females, about two weeks later. A female taken
April 22 was on the point of laying.

38. Setophaga mtioilla, (L.) Sw. Redstart. — First seen April
19. Not very common. No females observed.

• 39. Pyranga rubra, (L.) Vieill. Scarlet Tanagbr. — But one speci-
men observed ; a female, in swampy woods, April 25.

40. Pyranga aMtiva, (L.) Vieill. Summer Redbird. — First speci-
men noted March 31 ; became common April 8. Apparently not breed-
ing at the time of my departure. Found almost exclusively in pine
woods.

(To be continued,)



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Brewstee's Descriptions of First Plumage?. 175



DESCRIPTIONS OF THE FIRST PLUMAGE IN VARIOUS SPE-
CIES OF NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS.

BT WILLIAM BREWSTER.
IV.»

78. Agelsens phcBnioens.

Tint 'plumage : female. Above dark seal-brown : every feather of the
crown, nape, and interscapular region, with the greater and middle wing-
coverts, primaries, secondaries, and tertiaries, edged and tipped with
brownish-fulvous. Beneath light yellowish-brown, thickly and broadly
streaked everywhere with dull black. Sides of throat and head, including
a considerable space around the eye, bare skin (of a brownish orange-color
in the dried specimen), with a few scattering pin-feathers. From a speci-
men in my collection obtained at Cambridge, Mass., June 24, 1872. Males
in first plumage before me differ but little from the individual above de-
scribed. All have the bare spaces on the sides of the throat, although
these are probably feathered before the first moult is begun. A male
in transitional dress (collected at Ipswich, Mass., July 15, 1874), with the .
head fully feathered, has the throat dull brownish-yellow, with a strong
tinge of the same color on the breast. The wing and tail feathers are re-
newed during the first moult.

Autumnal plumage : young male. Crown dark brown, with a faint
rusty edging upon each feather ; nape brownish-yellow, with a rusty tinge,
finely spotted with dark brovm ; interscapular region, and a broad outer
edging upon the secondaries and tertiaries, deep dull reddish-brown, each
feather having a broad V-shaped mark of dull black. Rump glossy black,
every feather edged with fulvous ashy ; shoulder dull red with black spot-
ting ; middle coverts fulvous ; greater coverts tipped with the same color.
Superciliary stripe brownish-yellow. A. space anterior to and beneath the
eye dusky black. Entire under parts black, each feather upon the ab-
domen edged broadly with pale ashy, elsewhere with yellowish-brown.
The light edging of the feathers gives the under parts a conspicuously
scutellate appearance. From a specimen in my collection taken at Cam-
bridge, Mass., October 6, 1876. This plumage (although not to my knowl-
edge previously described by writers) is the characteristic one of the young
in autumn. I am unable to state if the adult male retains his unifonn *
black coloring at all seasons. A remarkable variation from the typical
plumage is afforded by a fine adult male in my cabinet, which has a broad

♦ For Parts I, II, and III, see this volume, pp. 15-28, 66-64, 115-123.



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176 Brewster's Descriptions of the First Plumage

crescentic patch of pale yellow tinged with rose-color upon the breast.
Nor is this specimen unique, for I have seen several others with a similar
but less conspicuous mark. It probably represents an exceptionally high
condition or phase of ornamentation, like the conmioner one of scarlet or
yellow wing-markings, in the Scarlet Tanager (Pyranga rubra). Very old
females of A.phomicetu have the throaty delicate peach-color ; illustrated
by several specimens in my cabinet from Nantucket and Ipswich, Maas.

79. lotenui baltimore.

Fint plumage: Top of head, nape, and interscapular region brownish-
olive ; wing-bands pale fulvous ; mmp, breast, anal region, and crissum
olivaceous-yellow ; throat dull yellow ; abdomen pale huffy-yellow ;
patches of ash on the sides. From a specimen in my collection shot in
Cambridge, Mass^ July 18, 1874. Autumnal adults have the orange-red
richer and clearer than in spring, and the wing-quills much more broadly
and conspicuously edged with white. Neither wing nor tail feathers are
changed during the first moult

80. Sool^oopliagiis fenmgiiieiM.

Several young birds of both sexes shot at Upton, Me., August 5, 1873,
have apparently nearly completed the first moult ; but one, a male, has
the head still covered with the feathers of the first plumage, which are of
a uniform plumbeous color. All are moulting the wing and tail feathers.
In each specimen a worn central pair of rectrices projects about three
inches beyond the others, which are of a uniform length, and evidently
just sprouting. Other individuals seen at the same time were conspicu-
ously characterized in the same way, all presenting, when flying, the ap-
pearance of birds with long forked tails, the elongated central feathers
being slightly spread apart.

81. QniBoaltui purpurens.

First plumage : male. Uniform dark plumbeous, darker above, lighter
and with a faint brownish edging on the feathers beneath. Sides of
throat and a large space around the eyes completely bare of feathers.
From a specimen in my collection obtained at Upton, Me., June 25^ 1873.
Both wing and tail feathers are replaced during the first moult.

82. TTrannns oarolinensis.

First plumage: male. Above uniform dark sooty-brown, with a
scarcely appreciable lighter edging on the feathers of the nape. No con-
cealed red on the crown. Wing-bands yellowish-white. Breast soiled
white, with a band of ashy- white across the breast From a specimen in
my collection shot at Upton, Me., July 24, 1872.

83. Sayomis fusons.

First plumage : female. Crown and nape dark sooty-brown. Rest of



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in Various Species of North American Birds, 177

upper parts brownish-olive, shading into reddish-olive on the romp.
Wing-bands and tips of rectrices ferruginous ; secondaries edged with
vellowish-olive. Throat, breast, and sides olivaceous-drab, darkest on
sides of breast Abdominal and anal regions soiled white, with a yellow-
ish tinge. From a specimen in my collection taken at Cambridge, Mase.,

July 13, 1874.

M. Contopns borealis.

First plwmage : male. Above olivaceous-plumbeous, darkest upon the
crown ; wing-bands ferruginous ; secondaries edged with pale fulvous.
Sides of throat, breast, and body dark plumbeous, with a brownish tinge ;
central line from base of bill to crissum — partly interrupted upon the
breast by the encroachment of the darker color of the sides — strong
creamy-buiF. Lower mandible hlackf with a limited area of brownish-
orange at the base. From a specimen in my collection shot at Rye
Beach, N. H., July 24, 1872. Autumnal specimens in my collection
have the lower mandible black, the under parts much more strongly
tinged with yellow than the adult, and the wing-coverts faintly tipped

wiUi ferruginous.

85. Contopna vireiui.

First pluTnage : male. Above olive, with a brownish cast, the feathers
of the crown and interscapular region with a faint edging of pale fulvous,
those upon the nape having a much broader one of dull ash, producing a
well-defined band or collar. Wing-bands light reddish-brown. Beneath,
with sides of throat, breast, and body, light olivaceous-ash ; rest of imder
parts pale sulphur-yellow. From a specimen in my collection taken at
Upton, Me., August 8, 1874. The young in autumnal plumage differ
from adults in having the wing-bands pale fulvous, the under parts of a
slightly deeper yellow.

86. Bmpldonaz aoadions.

First plvmage. Above nearly pure olive, with indistinct narrow trans-
verse bands of darker. Wing-bands pale reddish-brown. Under parts
soiled yellowish- white, with an olivaceous cast on the sides of the breast.
From a specimen in my collection shot by Dr. J. M. Wheaton, at Colum-
bus, Ohio, June, 1876.

87. Bmpidoiuuc pusilliui trallli

First plumage : male. Above olive-brown, the feathers of the crown
with darker centres. Wing-bands light reddish-brown. Throat, breast,
and sides ashy, tinged with olive upon the breast and sides. Abdomen,
anal region, and crissum pale sulphur-yellow. Distinguishable irom E,
cteadictts in first plumage by the darker color of the upper parts, especially
of the crown, and by the entire absence of the narrow transverse bands
upon the back. From a specimen in my collection shot at Upton, Me.,
July 21, 1874.



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178 Brewster's Descriptions of the First Plumage

88. Xfanpldonaz minimnB.

First plumage: male. Similar to the adult, but with a stronger olive
cast, and a faintly indicated collar of ashy-brown across the nape. Wing-
bands light reddish-brown. Beneath almost precisely similar to the adult,*
with perhaps a slightly stronger yellowish cast upon the abdomen and
crissum. Distinguishable from E. trailli and E, acadicus in corresponding
stages by the decidedly paler and less yellowish under parts ; especially
by the nearly clear ashy on the sides of the breast. From a specimen in
my collection taken at Cambridge, Mass., July 2, 1872. Other specimens
in first plumage before me differ little from the one above described, but
autumiujU specimenSf singularly enough, are much yellower below and
more olivaceous above.

89. Empidonaz flavlventris.

First plumage : male. Above uniform yellowish-olive. Beneath dull
yellow, with a brownish cast, tinged strongly with olive upon the throat,
breast, and sides. Wing-bands brownish-yellow. Altogether verj' similar
in general appearance to the adult. From a specimen in my collection
shot at Upton, Me., August 4, 1874.

90. Chordeiles virgiinianua.

First plumage. Above dull black, irregularly marbled everywhere with
reddish fawn-color and pale rusty. All die feathers are tipped, edged, and
barred with the lighter colors, the black appearing for the most part in
subterminal spots or blotches. The primaries (which are but just sprout-
ing) are black, broadly tipped with pale rusty. Under parts clothed
thickly with fluflfy whitish down, beneath which, on the breast and sides,
true feathers of a dull white barred with dark brown are beginning to
appear. From a specimen in the cabinet of Mr. N. C. Brown, taken at
Deering, Me., June 29, 1875. It seems probable that yoimg of this species
— and perhaps of the whole family, like those of the Tetra^onidce and some
others — pass through a stage of plumage previous to the usual primal
one. The specimen above described is, strictly speaking, in process of
transition between the two, and still retains patches of the soft whitish,
down which must have constituted its entire covering at an earlier period.

91. Coooyzua erythrophthalmns.

First plumage: female. Above lustrous plumbeous-ashy, feathers upon
the crown, nape, and anterior part of the back, narrowly tipped with pale
ashy ; those of the interscapular region and rump, together with the scap-
ulars and upper tail-coverts, more broadly so with ashy- white. Outer edges
of quills light rufous. Beneath delicate pearl-gray, lightest on the abdo-
men, slightly tinged with pale brownish-yellow on the throat and breast.
From a specimen in my collection shot in Lincoln, Mass., June 17, 1871.
Autumnal specimens (probably only the young birds) differ from spring
adults in having the naked skin around the eye yellow instead of red.



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in Various Species of North American Birds. 179

92. PiCQS vUlosns *

First 'plumage: male. Forehead spotted thickly with white ; crown dull
scarlet, each feather subterminally spotted with white ; nuchal crescent
entirely wanting. Rest of upper parts dull dead black, marked and
spotted with white as in the adult. Lores yellowish-white, maxillary line
very faintly indicated. Beneath soiled yellowish-white. From a speci-
men in my collection shot at Upton, Me., August 1, 1874. The first
plumage of this species is exceedingly evanescent The scarlet patch
upon the crown is soon lost, the feathers dropping out one by one ; a few
scattered ones, however, usually remain until the feathers of the nuchal
crescent have begun to appear.

A female in first plumage (Upton, Me., August 20, 1874) differs so
little from adults as scarcely to require a detailed description. The black
of the upper parts, as in the male just described, is of a dead or plumbe-
ous cast. The crown is entirely unspotted. I have, however, seen speci-
mens which had the forehead spotted with white.

93. PicuB Tillosiui hanisL

First plumage : male. Differs from the adult only in having the fore-
head spotted with white, and a patch of scarlet covering the crown.
From a specimen in my cabinet collected by Mr. C. A. Allen at Nicasio,

CaL, June 8, 1875.

94. Pious pabesoens.

First plumage : male. Forehead and nape thickly spotted with white.
Crown deep scarlet ; no red on nape ; rest of upper parts marked as in the
adult, but the black duller. Beneath ashy -white, thickly streaked on the
sides of the breast and body with dusky ; on the sides of the abdomen
these dusky markings assume the character of broad though poorly defined
transverse bars. From a specimen in my cabinet collected at Upton, Me.,
August 14, 1874. Several other young males show a considerable amount
of variation in the character and extent of the dusky markings beneath.
In one or two the streaks are nearly continuous across the breast and abdo-
men. A very young male (Upton, August 1, 1874) has the forehead and

• As stated elsewhere, the young of most, if not all of the Woodpeckers,
regularly moult the wing and tail feathers with the rest of the first plumage.
No exceptions to this rule occur among large series of the common North
American species examined, and it may probably be found to hold good among
all excepting, perhaps, some highly specialized groups. Another peculiar feature
in the early development of the species most thoroughly investigated, and one
which is i)erhap8 common to all the members of this family, is the fact that a
certain proportion of the females in first plumage possess to a greater or less
degree the adornments which in more advanced stages are peculiar to the
males alone, and which are lost with the first moult Marked examples of this
are afforded by young females of Colaples auralus, Picus pubeaoens, and others, of
which detailed descriptions are given in the text.



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180 Brewster's Descriptiong of the First Plumage

nape dull, unspotted black, and a decided greenish-yellow tinge to the
white both above and below.

First plumage : female. Forehead slightly spotted with white ; crotm-
patch scarlet, exactly as in the male. Nape unspotted. Beneath brownish-
white, barred obscurely npon the flanks and spotted continuously across
the breast with dusky. From a specimen in my collection obtained by
Mr. W. D. Scott, at Coalburgh, W. Va., July 25, 1872. Another speci-
men before me (Upton, Me., August 13, 1874) has the forehead and occi-
put, with a narrow median line connecting them, thickly spotted with
white, but no scarlet Still a third, in the collection of Mr. C. J. May-
nard, has the crown irregularly patched with scarlet feathers. The sex of
all these specimens was determined by the most careful dissection.

95. PiooidM arcttoufl.

First plumage : male. Similar to the adult, but with the yellow crown-
patch rathCT more restricted ; the black of the upper parts duller ; the
white beneath tinged with brownish, and the bars upon the sides dusky
instead of black. A few feathers upon the lower interscapular region are
spotted with white. From a specimen in my collection shot at Upton,
Me., July 31, 1874. Unfortunately no females in strictly first plumage
are available for comparison. A moulting specimen, however, which has
acquired most of the second or autumnal plumage (Upton, Me., August
10, 1874), shows a patch of thickly sprinkled yellow feathers upon the
crown, while another, taken as late as September 5, still retains several
similar feathers. There can be little doubt but that among a good series
of young females in first plumage many would be found to occur with
yellow crown-patches quite conspicuously developed. All among a laige
number of adult females examined have the crown entirely plain.

96. Bphjrtqpioum Tariiis.

First plumage : male. Crown dull yellowish-green obscurely tinged in
places with dusky-red ; nape and a broad stripe extending through and
behind the eye dull plumbeous-ash spotted with brownish- white ; rest of
upper parts like the adults, the white spots, however, tinged with pale
greenish-yellow. Throat dull yellowish-scarlet. Malar stripes meeting
below the throat-patch, mottled with dusky. Central line of abdomen
greenish-yellow ; rest of under parts dull greenish and olive, barred every-
where with dusky or dull black. From a specimen in my collection shot
at Upton, Me., August 10, 1874. The amount of variation exhibited by a
large series of males in first plumage is considerable. In one or two there
is no red upon the throat ; in others that part is brownish- white with a
few scattered red feathers ; many have the crown dull-brown, thickly
spotted with brownish- white.

First plwnage: female. Crown very pale greenish-buff, each feather
narrowly tipped with brown ; feathers of interscapular region dusky, with



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in Various Species of North Avieriean Birds. 181

transveTBe bands of yellowish-white ; rest of upper parts like the adult.
Throat brownish- white ; abdomen pale brownish-yellow ; breast and sides
dull brownish-olive, thickly barred with dusky. From a specimen in my
collection shot at Upton, Me., August 6, 1873.

The first plumage of this species is worn for a longer period than that
of any other bird with which I am acquainted. Some specimens taken as
late as October and November seem not to have fully perfected their first
moult, many of the earlier feathers being still retained. In this condition
they present a curiously patched appearance, and scarcely any two are
alike. Full justice has hardly been done by writers to the adult plumage
of this species. Among the males, it is true, only a comparatively small
amount of variation obtains, and the full dress i? always acquired the first
spring. But the females in spring plumage differ to a degree which seems
dmost endless. This mutation is, however, chiefly in relation to the color
and markings of the crown. Thus, out of thirteen females before me, all
collected in the breeding season, only six have the full patch of crimson
upon the crown. In one specimen the whole top of the head is spotted
thickly and evenly with brownish- white. Another exhibits two lateral
patches of brownish-orange which extend nearly to the occiput, while a
third has a few scarlet feathers upon the forehead. The remainder are
variously marked over the crown with mixed yellow and crimson. This
excessive variability is probably a purely individual tendency to aberration
from a given type, as several spring females not as yet through the
moult, and plainly shown by the remains of the previous plumage to
be birds entering upon their first breeding season, have fully developed
crown-patches of pure crimson.

97. CentuniB oarolinna.

First flumage : female. Crown dull ashy, each feather tipped broadly
with plumbeous ; nape with a luurrow, inconspicuous collar of pale dull
brick-red. Rest of upper parts marked as in the adult, with, however, a
brownish tinge in the transverse white bands. Abdomen dull saffron ; rest
of under parts brownish-ashy, nearly every feather in a broad band across
the breast with a narrow, obscure shaft-streak * of purplish-brown. From
a specimen in my collection obtained by Mr. W. D. Scott, at Coalburgh,
W. Va., July 23, 1872.

98. Colaptas auratfis.

First plumage : male. Crown washed with dull red ; nuchal band dull
scarlet. Otherwise similar to the adult, but with the throat tinged with
ash and the spots upon the under parts dusky instead of black. From a
specimen in my collection taken at Cambridge, Mass., July 6, 1873.

• Several Woodpeckers, unmarked beneath in maturer stages, show a tendency
to spots or streaks upon the sides and breast when in first plumage.



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182 Recent Literature.

The female in first plumage I have not seen, but two young females
before me, which have nearly perfected their autumnal plumage, have
each a weU-defined mustache, — not black, however, as in the male of any
age, but of a dark plumbeous color. Upon raising the feathers, many of
them are found to be nearly black at their bases, and a few entirely black
ones appear. I have seen two other females, both young birds in imper-
fect autumnal dress, which had similar dark mustaches. It seems not
unlikely that many females of thia species may in first plumage be marked
nearly like the males.



^tctnt %itnatuvt,

Elliot's Review of the Ibidinjs, or Ibises. — During the past year
three important papers have appeared relating to different groups of the He-
rodiones. In June, 1877, Mr. D. G. Elliot published a paper on the Ibises,*
Dr. Ant. Reichenow has reviewed the whole group of Herodiones, and
later Mr. Ridgway has .written about some of the American species. Mr.
Elliot treats the Ibises and Spoonbills as subfamilies of one family, for
which he adopts the name Ihidida, After a short rimmi of the literature
of the subject he gives a key to the nineteen genera (three being new),
among which he distributes his twenty-five species. Then follows a sys-
tematic review of the species, with their principal synonymy, and various
critical and descriptive remarks, with generally a short account of their
habits and geographical distribution. The genus J&w is very properly re-
stricted to embrace only the Sacred Ibis of the Egyptians and a few other
allied species. Falcinelltu is employed as the generic designation for
the Glossy Ibis and its allies. Of this group four species are recognized,
three of which (F, guarauna, F, ridgwayi, and F, thalassintu) are exclu-
sively American, the other (F, igneus) being " cosmopolitan," and repre-
sented with us by the " Ibis ordii " of Bonaparte and most American
writers. The generic name Ibis being untenable for any of the New
World species, Eudocimtis (Wagler, 1832) is taken as the only generic
name applicable to our White and Scarlet Ibises. — J. A. A.

Ridgwat's Studies op the American Herodiones. — The first t of
the series of papers here begun deals mainly with the Ardeida and Cico-

• Review of the Ibidinae, or Subfamily of the Ibises. By D. G. Elliot, F. R.

5. E., F. L. S., etc. etc. Proc. Zool. See London, 1877, pp. 477 - 510, PI. LI.
+ Studies of the American Herodiones. Part 1. — Synopsis of the American

genera of Ardeidcc and CiconiidcB ; including descriptions of three new genera,
and a monograph of the American species of the genus Ardea. By Robert
Ridgway. Bull. U. S. GeoL and Geogr. Survey, VoL IV, pp. 219-261, February

6, 1878.



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Recent Literature, 183

niirfflp. Five families of American Herodiones are recognized, namely,
Cancromida, ArdeidcB, Ciconiidcey lUdidce, and Phtaleidce, of each of which
a concise diagnosis is given. The Ardeidw are treated so far in detail as to
give the characters of the genera, and a monograph of the American spe-



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