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brown. Wing, 15.50 ; tail, 9.75.

• See Pr. Ac' Nat. ScL Philad., March 30, 1875, p. 115.

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This plumage is so well represented in the upper figure of Plate
XXXIII of Naumann's Vogel DeutscManda^ that the illustration
must have been taken from an exceedingly similar specimen ; the
figure, however, represents a slightly darker bird, with a few spots
on the breast and lesser wing-coverts. It is also very much like the
young of Buteo horealu krideri, as represented in Plate V, Pr. Ac.
Nat. Sci. Philad., 1873, so far as regards the relative amount of
brown and white ; but the markings are quite different, especially on
the remiges and rectrioes.

Light Phase J Adult (No. 56,107, (Germany). Above grayish-brown,
quite light on the tertials, some of the wing-coverts, and scapulars, which
have still lighter (nearly white) borders ; all the feathers bordered with a
paler, grayer ehade, and showing distinct black shafts ; upper tail-coverts
brown, naiTowly tipped with soiled pale buff, the outer webs with a
slight mottling of ochraceous. Tail grayish-brown narrowly tipped with
dull huffy white, and crossed with nine or ten narrow bands of dusky,,
these mostly indistinct, but well defined on the inner webs of the interme-
diee where the ground color is lighter and mixed with ochraceous. Head,
neck, and breast light brown, the feathers edged with whitish, causing a
slight streaked appearance ; flanks uniform brown, the feathers with nar-
row whitish tips ; abdomen white, heavily spotted with dark brown ; Um
ahdominal hell separated from the lighter and more waiform brown jugular
patch by a somewhat crescentic pectoral belt of white nearly free from mark-
ings ; tibise nearly uniform brown, lighter in front ^d on the inside, the
longer plumes tipped with light fulvous; crissum immaculate white.
Lining of the wing mixed rusty-rufous, buff and brown. Wing, 16.00 ;
tail, 9.30.

* This specimen presents a curious and very strong resemblance
to the adult Archihuteo lagopus in the coloration of the lower parts,
not only in the colors and markings but in the peculiar pattern.

Dark Phase, Adult ? (No. 56,109, Germany). — General color sooty-brown,
this darkest on the head, neck, back, and breast (which have a decided
purple reflection in certain lights), the general duskiness relieved only
by rusty edges to the feathers ; scapulars " spattered " or blotched with
pale cinnamon-rufous ; rump and upper tail-coverts uniform sooty-brown,
the latter with very narrow and indistinct rusty tips. Tail grayish-brown,
with narrow bands, of which about eight or nine ai*e distinct, the inner
webs of the middle pair much tinged with rufous. Abdomen marked
with broad bars, or bands of dark brown and buffy-white, of about equal
width ; the white bars most distinct and regular anteriorly, thereby throw-
ing into greater relief the dusky pectoral patch, which has a convex poste-

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rior outline ; flankfi and tibic^ neariy uniform brown ; crissuni white, with
very regular wide bars of brown ; lining of the wing dusky, spotted with
rusty. Wing, 16.60 ; tail, 9.50.

In the ooloration of its lower parts, this example calls to mind
certain specimens of PemU apivorvM which we remember to have
seen. A sconewhat similar individual is represented in the lower
figure of Plate XXXII of Naumann's Vogd Beutschlands,

Dark Phase, Young ? (No. 23,407, Himgary). — Lower parts white, tinged
in places with ochraceous, the tibiae uniform dark brown on the outside,
spotted brown and ochraceous on the inner sides. Throat, jugulum, breast,
and abdomen marked with longitudinal stripes of dark brown, those on
the throat narrow and linear ; on the sides of the breast broadly ovate and
blended, on the abdomen tear-shaped ; crissum white, with a few scat-
tered spots of brown. Tail grayish-brown, tipped with bright ochraceous,
and crossed by very indistinct darker bands. Upper parts in general
nearly uniform dark brown, the scapulars and lesser witig-coverts tinged
with rusty. Wing, 16.40 ; tail, 9.75. '^

List of SpecimenB in U, S, National Museum.


Sex and








. • • •


• . • •

S. F. Baird.






Count Lamar.






H. Schlatter.





• . . •



; ad.













SiNOB the publication of Mr. R. Ridgway's " Catalogue of the
Birds ascertained to occur in Illinois," * several species not named
therein have been taken in the State, and many interesting notes
respecting other little-known species have been gathered. Only the
most important of the latter will be noticed in the present paper.

• Ann. N. Y. Lye, Vol. X, Jan., 1874.

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All matter enclosed between quotation-marks is from the manu-
script notes of .Mr. Ridgway, who has kindly furnished them for
use in the present connection. The remainder, with a few excep-
tions (where due credit is given), are from my own observations.
The first list comprises the fifteen species new to the State.

1. MTiadeates townsandi, Cah, TowNSKNiys Solitaikb. — A fine
specimen of this bird was obtained December 16, 1875, by Mr. Charles
Douglas at Waukegan, Illinois. The specimen is considerably darker
than one in my collection from Utah, collected about the same time of year.

2. CotamicaloB leoontai, Bon, Lbcontb's Bunting. — A single
specimen of this rare bird was obtained by the writer at Riverdale, Il-
linois, May 13, 1875. It was flushed from a slight depression in the open
prairie near the Calumet River, where the moisture had caused an early
growth of coarse grass, about three inches in height After darting o£f in
an erratic course for a few rods, it suddenly turned, and alighting ran
rapidly through the grass, from which it was with difiiculty started again
and secured?

3. AmmodromoB oaudaoutna var. nelaoni, AUtn. Western
Short-tailed Finch. — This variety of the Sharp-tailed Finch was first
obtained September 17, 1874, in the Calumet Marsh, and described by Mr.
J. A Allen in the Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History
(December, 1874), with a few notes regarding its habits. Since then I have
learned of its capture at several widely separated localities in Northern
Illinois, it appearing to frequent all suitable situations. The 12th of
June, 1875, I saw several of these birds in the dense grass bordering
Calumet Lake, where they were undoubtedly breeding. They were very
numerous November 10, 1875, in the wild rice bordering Grass Lake,
in Lake County, Illinois. A sharp frost that night caused them to leave
so suddenly that the next afternoon not one was to be found.

4. Chordelles popatna var. hanryi, Camn. Western Nioht-
Hawk. — Two specimens of this variety were obtained by my friend Mr.
F. L. Rice near Waukegan, Illinois, July, 1875. In the same vicinity I
have obtained several specimens of this variety the present season. In
comparing specimens from Illinois with typical specimens of henryi in
my collection from the Rocky Moimtains, I find they agree in all the
characteristics upon which the variety is based.

5. Butao borealis yar. calnrus, Ccu$in. Black Red-Tail. — In my
collection is a fine adult specimen of this variety which was captured
near Chicago in April, 1873, by my friend, Mr. Charles Smith.

6. Ardea rufa, Bodd. Reddish Egret. — This species was quite com-
mon in the vicinity of Cairo during the last week of August, 1875. The
unusually high water of that season caused a much larger number of herons
to appear along the rivers in this vicinity than usual. Although Ardea

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egrtUa and A, eofntUa — both of which epeciea were seen by the hundred
daily — were quite unBuspicious, A, rufa was ao exceedingly shy that it
was almost impossible to get within gunshot of one.

7. Branta oanadenais var. leucoparia, Casein, Whitb-collarbd
Gooes. — Specimens of this yariety are frequently taken during their

8. BuoeptkBlsLiMlandioa, Badrd, Barrow's Qoldbn-Ete. — "Obtained
in December, 1874, at Mt Carmel, by Professor F. Stein, C. K, in charge
of the improvements of the Wabash River." Also occurs on Lake Michi-
gan in winter.

9. Bomateria molUflBima, Leach. Eider Duck. — An immature speci-
men was shot near Chicago in December, 1874, and is now in my collec-
tion. Dr. H. B. Bannister of Evanston has seen other specimens taken
near that place.

10. Bomateria apeotabilia, Leach. Kino Eider. — " An adult female,
obtained at Chillicothe, on the Illinois River, in the winter of 1874, has
been sent to the National Museum by W. H. Collins, Esq., of Detroit,
Mich." Undoubtedly occurs on Lake Michigan.

11. Qldamia perapioillata, ^atfp. Surf Duck. — *^ A single speci-
men, an immature bird, was obtained at Mt. Carmel by Professor Stein
in October, 1875. This is the first instance known to the writer of this
species being obtained at any inland locality. Mr. E. W. Nelson, of
Chicago, has, however, informed me of its recent capture on Lake Michi-
gan, near that city." I have since learned that this species is common on
the lake and adjacent waters.

12. Bteroorariua pomatorhinns, Lawr. Pomarine Jagbr. — From
the description of a bird seen with a flock of gulls near Evanston, 111., by
F. L. Rice of that place, and the account of a strange gull occasionally seen
by a sportsman who does considerable shooting on Lake Michigan, I am
certain this species is a rare visitant during severe winters.

13. Lama argentatua var. argentatua. Herring Gull. — Among a
number of gulls obtained in the Chicago Harbor, March 27, 1876, was one
specimen, an adult female, which has been pronounced by Dr. Coues
to be a typical example of the European form (var. argentatus) of the
Herring GulL In this specimen the iris was hazel, while in several adult
specimens of the common American form (var. imiihionianue) the iris
was blight yellow.

14. Lama laucoptema, Fabr. White-winged Gull. — A regular
winter visitant to Lake Michigan. Very shy.

15. Zama aablnei, Bonap. Sabine's Gull. — While collecting along
the shore of Lake Michigan, the Ist of April, 1873, I shot a specimen of
this species in breeding plumage. Unfortunately it fell into the water
just beyond my reach, and a gale from off shore soon^rifted it out of sight

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The following species^ although not new to the State, are still
imperfectly known as residents of Illinois. The quotations, as in
the preceding list, are from the notes of Mr. Ridgway.

1. Protonotarla oitrcea, Baird, Prothokotart Warbler. — Rare
summer visitant to the northern portion of the State. Two specimens
were taken near Chicago during the summer of 1876.

2. BinroB Indovicianus, Bon, Large-billed Water Wagtail. —
Quite abundant, and breeds in the northern portion of the State.

3. Oporornla agUis, Baird, Connecticut Warbler. — Contrary to
the generally received statements, this species is as abundant during the
fall as in the spring migrations. They were quite common the Ist of Sep-
tember, 1875, in the Calumet Marsh.

4. MTiodioctes mitratna, Avd, Hooded Fltcatching Warbler.
— A rare summer resident in the northern portion *of the State. One speci-
men was taken May 10, 1875, near Chicago, and a second specimen near
Waukegan, IlL, May 20, 1876.

5. Vireo belli, Aud, Bell's Vireo. — This species was abundant in
the dense bushes bordering the ravines intersecting Fox Prairie, Richland
County, 111., August 9 to 15, 1875. They were exceedingly shy, and al-
though several could be heard uttering their curious song at the same time,
and repeated efforts were made to secure them, only two specimens were
obtained. I have since examined a specimen of this species shot in the
vicinity of Chicago, in June, 1875, and further search will doubtless reveal
their presence throughout the State.

6. Pleotrophanea pictns, Swains, Painted Lark Bunting. — The
last of March, 1875, near Calumet Lake, I found a flock containing about
seventy-five individuals of this species. Their habits were quite similar
to those of P, lapponicus while upon the ground, except that while the
latter species preferred the wet portions of the prairie, the former were
found only about the higher portions. When flushed they invariably
uttered a sharp clicking note, rapidly repeated several times. When
driven from their feeding-place by my approach, they would rise in a
straggling flock, and after wheeling about once or twice, start off in a di«
rect line, gradually rising higher, until they disappeared. After a short
time their peculiar note would be heard, and the flock, darting down from
a considerable height, would alight near the place from which they were
driven. Although the flocks of P. picttu and P. lapponictu often became
mingled while flying over the prairie, I did not see them alight together.

7. Pauosea ssstivalis, Cab, Bachman's Finch. — This species was
quite common in the vicinity of Mt. Carmel in July, 1876.

8. Buteo awalnaoni, Bon, Swainson'b Buzzard. — In August, 1876,
I obtained four fine specimens of this bird, an adult pair and two young,
upon Fox Prairie. The young were shot from the tree on the border of

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the prairie in which they were reared, the remains of the nest in which
thej were hatched heing pointed out by a farmer living near.

9. Tantaloa looulator, Linn. Wood Ibis. — This species was very
abundant in the vicinity of Mound City, on the Ohio, and Cape Qirar-
dean, on the Mississippi, the last of August, 1875.

10. Nyotheroditui violaoaaa, Reich, Yellow-crowned Night-
Heron. — " In my * Catalogue of the Birds ascertained to occur in Illinois »
(p. 386), the Yellow-crowned Night- Heron is included as a * summer vis-
itant to the extreme southern portion of the State,' and in my later * Cata-
logue of the Birds of the Lower Wabash Valley ' it is given in the list of
'species found only in summer' (p. 26) as 'common?' More recently,
however, we have received information, in the shape of two flue adult spe-
cimens shot from their nests, accompanied by an account of their capture,
which confirms the breeding of the species in considerable numbers as far
up the river as Mt. Carmel. The locality where they were found is a
portion of bottom-land known as * Coffee-flat,' where a small colony was
found nesting by Mr. Samuel Turner and my brother, John L. Ridgway,
on the 6th of May, 1874. Two fine adult specimens in their breeding
plumage were obtained, as were also a few eggs. One nest is described as
situated in a white-oak tree about sixty feet from the ground, on a branch
four inches in diameter, twelve feet from the trunk of the tree, and upon
so small a limb that the eggs could not be obtained. The nest was com-
posed of sticks, the outer ones about half an inch in diameter, the in-
terior ones finer, and so loosely put together that the eggs could be plainly
seen through the nest. There were four eggs, and another ready to be
laid was taken from the parent bird. The number of nests found in this
locality is not stated in the letter, but another nest is mentioned which
was upon a tree about fifty feet distant."

11. Poraana noTaboraoensis, Cas8, Yellow Hail. — Not very rare
in the northern portion of the State, and without doubt breeds.

12. Porsana Jamaioensis, Cass. Black Bail. — A regular summer
resident, and not very rare. During the spring of 1875 I saw threft speci-
mens in the Calumet Marsh ; and Mr. Frank De Witt of Chicago, while
collecting with me near the Calumet Biver, June 19, 1875, was fortunate
enough to find a nest of this species containing ten freshly laid eggs.
The nest was situated in a deep cup-shaped depression, and in shape and
situation resembled that of the Meadow Lark, except that the Bail's nest
is much deeper in proportion to the diameter. The nest was more elab-
orately made than the nest of any other of the genus I have seen. The
outer portion is composed of grass-stems and blades, the inner portion
of soft blades of grass arranged in a circular manner and loosely inter-
woven. Owing to the small diameter of the nest there were two layers of
eggs. The ^gs are clear white, thinly sprinkled with reddish-brown
dots, which become much more numerous about the large end.

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13. Harelda glaoialls, Ltack. Long-tailed Duck. — ''Obtained bj
Professor Stein at Mt Carmel, in December, 1874." Exceedingly abundant
on Lake Michigan eveiy winter.

14. OracaloB dUophos yar. flozldaniui, Ciyiu$. Flobida Cormo-
rant. — "In the spring of 1874, several very fine specimens of the Florida
Cormorant were obtained at Mt Carmel by Mr. S. Turner and my brother,
John L. Ridgway, and others were obtained during the succeeding sum-
mer, the species being abundant along the river. This form is a summer
resident, while the true G. dilophus occurs only in winter and dming the



[The following account of the breeding habits, nests, and eggs of Clarke's
Crow is based on observations made the present year in the vicinity of Camp
Harney, Oregon, by Captain Bendire, and is compiled, with his permission,
from his letters addressed to the writer. The only previous account of the
nest and eggs of Clarke's Crow seems to be that given by Mr. J. K. Lord (in
his " Naturalist in Vancouver "), who found this species nesting near Fort Col-
ville, in Washington Territory, in the top of a high pine, two hundred feet
from the ground. — J. A Allen.]

On April 22, 1876, I succeeded in finding two nests of Clarke's
Crow. One contained three young, possibly four days old; the
other, one young bird and two eggs, one of the latter already
cracked. The nests were placed in pine trees. On the 27th I
again visited the mountains, and made thorough search near where
the first nests were found, and discovered another in which the
young could not have been more than one day old. One of the
nests discovered on the first visit I brought away in excellent
order. It was placed on the extremity of a branch, on a pine
(Pinus ponderosa\ about twenty-five feet from the ground, and well
protected from view by longer branches projecting both above and
below the nest. It is a bulky affair, like all the others I have
seen, but looks quite small as viewed from below. The nest proper
rested on a platform of small sticks of the white sage, placed on the
pine branches, and is composed of dry grasses, vegetable fibres and

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the fine inner bark of Junipems occidentalis. The whole mass is
well woven together, and makes quite a warm, comfortable struc-
ture. The outer diameter of the nest is eight and a half inches ;
the inner, four and a half;* depth inside, three and a quarter inches;
outside, five inches. The two eggs measure respectively 1.22 by
.95 inches, and 1.20 by .90. Ground color, light grayish-green,
speckled and blotched with grayish, principally about the larger
end. On the smaller egg the spots are finer and more evenly dis-
tributed, a few of them being rather of a lavender color than gray.
These eggs resemble in shape those of Maximilian's Jay {Gymnokitta
cyanocephela), two of whose eggs I have from Mr. Aiken out of the
nest found by him in Colorado. The markings on those, however,
are darker and thicker than on those of Clarke's Crow, and the
eggs are a little smaller.

All the nests I have seen were placed in pine trees, well out on
the limbs, and generally twenty to forty feet from the ground.
Trees with plenty of branches seem to be preferred, and the edges
of the pine timber to the interior of the forests. Now that I know
where to look for these nests, I have no difficulty in finding them,
and feel certain of getting a number of nests if I am here next
year. I regret that I did not discover one a few weeks earlier.

The female seems to be a very close sitter, and the birds seem
very devoted to their young and eggs. When the first nest was
visited the bird would not leave it at all, and though the man
pulled out part of its tail in taking it off, it came back again before
he left the nest himself On the second visit, in order to see how
much disturbance these birds would bear when on the nest, I fired
a chai^ of shot into the limb on which the nest was placed from
which I took the two eggs, and about two feet from the nest, and
no bird leaving I threw sticks at it and hit the base of the nest
once or twice, but still no bird appeared. Then I had the man
who was with me climb the tree, and only after he was within a
foot of the nest and in plain sight of the bird did it fly ofif. The
young one left in the nest had grown very much during the five
days since the first visit.

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Chaulelasmiui couesl

Bill nearly as long as the head, about as deep as broad at the base,
depressed anteriorly, sides nearly parallel but converging slightly toward
the base, tip rounded, and unguis abruptly curved ; frontal angle short
and obtuse ; dorsal line at first sloping, rather more so than in C, itrepe-
rus, anterior portion broad, straight, and flattened. Internal lamellse
numerous, small, and closely packed, about seventy-five in number, — in
ttreperus only about fifty. Nostrils sub-basal, lateral, large, and oblong.

Plumage {vmmature). Head above dark brown, the feathers tipped
with a lighter shade ; frontal feathers with the central portion black, and
edged with brpwnish-white ; throat and sides of head brownish-white,
shafts of the feathers brown, a small brown spot at the extremity of each ;
lower portion of the neck and breast all around with the feathers marked
with concentric bars of black and light reddish-brown ; under surface
of the body white, each feather with a broad dark band near the extrem-
ity, which gives to this region a mottled aspect ; toward the tail the
white of the abdomen assumes a dull reddish -brown tinge ; the brownish-
red color becomes more decided on the flanks and sides of the body where
covered by the wings. On the back the plumage is more mature. Color
dark brown marked transversely by fine wavy lines of black and white ;
scapulars dark brown and fringed with a narrow rim of reddish-
brown. Middle wing-coverts chestnut ; greater, velvet black ; speculum
pure white, the inner web of the white feathers grayish-brown ; in the
third feather in the speculum, coimting from within, the white gives
place to a hoary gray with a black outer margin ; the primaries light
brown, the portion of both webs nearest the shaft lighter ; shaft light
brown. Tail containing fourteen feathers, hoary plumbeous-gray, under
surface lighter and shining ; under tail-coverts crossed by transverse bars
of black and white ; upper coverts composed of dark brown and black
feathers mingled. Under wing-coverts and axillars pure white. Bill
and feet black, somewhat lighter on the inner side of the tarsus. Tibia
bare for about half an inch. Length, 17 inches ; wing, 8 ; tarsus, 1.40 ;
commissure, 1.65 ; culmen, 1.46 ; height and breadth of bill at base, .55 ;
average width of bill, .55. First toe, .30 ; second, 1.48, including claw,
shorter than third toe without claw ; third toe, 1.88 without claw, longer
than outer toe without claw ; outer toe, 1.75.

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A female is similar, but with little trace of the peculiar wing marlungs,
both the chestnut and black being wanting, and the speculum being
hoary gray instead of white. Both the specimens before me are imma-
ture ; the adults, it is presumed, will show the peculiar vermiculated ap-
pearance of C itreperus. They resemble [the immature condition of C.
tireperus so closely that one description of the coloration would answer for
both species ; but the C. couesi is immediately distinguished by its greatly

Online LibraryNuttall Ornithological ClubBulletin of the Nuttall Ornithological Club: a quarterly jjournal of ornithology → online text (page 5 of 50)