N.Y.) Art Foundation (New York.

ARTnews annual online

. (page 3 of 14)
Online LibraryN.Y.) Art Foundation (New YorkARTnews annual → online text (page 3 of 14)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


winged creatures, which guarded palace gates, in the
Metropolitan's small but superior collection.

All these civilizations, throughout their long spans,
made few innovations in artistic styles, but instead
there is a deliberate perpetuation of traditional types
and established formulas. Their art bears the unifying
traits of massiveness, large scale, simplification of
forms, clarity and directness in handling material.



1. EGYPTIAN BEFORE 3200 B.C.: PREDYNASTIC POTTERY JAR

2. EGYPTIAN, 150M447 B.C.: AMON. GOLD STATUETTE. KARNAK

3. EGYPTIAN, 13751350 B.C.: ALABASTER PERFUME VASE, THEBES

4. EGYPTIAN. 712-30 B.C.: GOLD AMULET, SACRED EYE OF HORUS

5. EGYPTIAN. 945-300 B.C.: LIMESTONE MODEL OF RAM'S HEAD

6. EGYPTIAN, 945-332 B.C.: FLYING FALCON. POLYCHROME FAIENCE

7. EGYPTIAN. CA. 350 B.C.: HATHOR HEAD FROM WOODEN CAPITAL

8. EGYPTIAN. CA. 1494 B.C.: WOODEN CHAIR FROM THEBES

9. ASSYRIAN. 900-800 B.C.: WINGED BULL. OVER LIFESIZE

10. EGYPTIAN. CA. 2000 B.C.: YACHT MODEL FROM TOMB. THEBES



3500 B.C.-3000 B.C.

Pre-Dynastic period in Eg)pt it

followed by early Dynastiea.

Sumeriana settle in region later

known at Babylonia. Tribal wart

in Sumer and Akkad.
3000 B.C.-2500 B.C.

Region of Aasur settled by Semites;

becomes vassal sometimes of Babylonia,

sometimes of Hittites.

Old Kingdom in Egypt with Memphis

as center. Building of pyramids of

Khufu. Khafre, Menkure.
2300 B.C.-2000 B.C.

Sargon I of Akkad. a Semite.

est^lishes his line over Akkad and

Sumer. Hammurapi. king of

Semetic Amoritea of Syria, siezes

Assur region; establishes Babylon

as a leading city; is great warrior

and organizer.
2000 B.C.-15B0 B.C.

Middle Kingdom in Egypt. Feudal

age with Thebea as center. Period

of clifF-tombs. Fleets reach the

.Aegean. Military expansion north

and south under kings Sesostoris I,

II. and III.
1580 B.C.-1400 B.C.

New Kingdom: Empire in Egypt with

Thebes as center extends from

Euphrates to fourth cataract of Nile.

Period of Queen Hat-shep-sut.

Thut-mose HI undertakes miliury

campaigns in the Aegean, begins

Temple of Kamak. Period of Job.

Old Testament prophet.

Amenhotep HI the most extravagant

of Emperors. Period of folk-tales.

prototypes for sihbad the sailor, etc.
1400 B.C.-1300 B.C.

Amenhotep IV assumes name of

Akh-en-aten and establishes monotheistic

worship of Aton in Egypt. Makes

Amarna his center.

Egyptian Empire begins to fall as

Hittites take northern territory in

Syria and Jews take southern

territory in Palestine.
1300 B.C.1200 B.C.

Assyrians sweep acrosa Euphrates.

descend on the Tigris and capture

Babylonia.

Exodus of the Jews from Egypt.

Egyptian Empire partially restored

by Sethy I and Rameses II greatest

of royal monument builders.

Temple of Luxor.

Epic poems of Pentaur.

Tyre rises to prominence among the

Phoenician cities.
1200 B.C.-800 B.C.

Assyrians are baited by Syrians

(Arameans) at Damascus.

Saul becomes king of Israel and

Judah.

Late Dynastic period in Egypt.

David king of Israel and Judah.

Solomon king of larael and Judah.

Temple of Solomon built with

Phoenician workmen.

Separation of kingdoms of Israel and

Judah.

Phoeniciana are greatest navigators.
800 B.C.-600 B.C.

Ashurnasirpal leads Assyrians.

Carthage founded by Phoenicians.

Damascus falls to Assyrians, who

capture all of the Fertile Crescent.

SargoD II becomes Emperor, conqueri

kingdom of larael.

Sennacherib becomes Emperor and city

of Nineveh reaches greatest glory.

Saite period in Egypt.

Assurbanipal, Aasyrian Emperor, it

militarist and patron of arts.

Assaults on Assyrian Empire by the

Chaldeans, another Semitic tribe.

and the Indo- Europeans (Medea and

Persians) .

Isaiah and Jeremiah, Old Testament

prophets.

Necho of Egypt attempts to connect

Nile with Red Sea; his sailors

circumnavigate Africa.

Josiah*s reforms in Judah.

Chaldeans and Indo- Europeans destroy

Nineveh.

Medes increase power of Iranian

Empire, follow teachings of 7oroaster.

Chaldean Empire established with

capital in re-built Babylonia.
600 B.C.-400 B.C.

Nebuchadnezsar II becomea Chaldean

Emperor under whom Jerusalem is

destroyed. End of Kingdom of Judah.

Cyrus of Anshan. a Persian vassal.

conquers the Medes and Lydians. as

well as Babylon (which Belshazzar

is ruling), thus establishing the

Persian Empire.

Cambyses, Cyrus* successor, conquers

Egypt.

Rebuilding and dedication of The

Temple in Jerusalem.

Darius the Great. Persian Emperor.

hat successful reign.
500 B.C.-323 B.C.

Persepolia. Darius* center of the

Perxian Empire, at its height.

Persian wars against Creerr.

Revolts in Egypt, which is reconquered

by Artaxeres ol Persia.

Alexander the Great of Greece

conquers Egypt and the Persian Empire.
323 B.C.-30 B.C.

On death of Alexander. Egypt falU

to Ptolemy, founder of Ptolemaic

Dynasty.
30 B.C. Egypt becomes province of

Roman Empire under .AuguMu*.



Digitized by



Google



SUMERIAN, CA. 3000 B.C.
STATUETTE



Girved of white gypsum, this statuette (11 inches high) of a worshiph
per comes from a temple at Tell Asmar near Bagdad founded in 300G
B.C. It represents an early phase of the civilization of mounuJo
people who settled before the third millennium in the fertile valley be-
tween the Tigris and the Euphrates. The notched hair and beard, col
ored with bitumen, are rare on Sumerian figures which are usually
clean-shaven, and may indicate a Semitic racial type (for at this time
Semites were already sifting in from the desert) or may be a fashion
of Sumerian officials. The hands are clasped in a conventional gesturt
of adoration. The pointed elbows are characteristic of early Sumeriaa
figures as is the severely abstract rendering of the face, whose staring
eyes of shell inlay add to its mystery. Peculiar to the Near East an
such artistic formulas as rigid frontality and massive structure, qual>
ties which continued into Babylonian art when the mighty kings Sar
gon (ca. 2750 B.C.) and Hammurapi (2123-2081 B.C.) became rulen
of the Mesopotamian valley, later to give way before the Assyriari.



10



EARLY CIVILIZATIONS



Digitized by



Google



This alabaster relief (91Vi by 65% inches), once polychromed, comes
from the Palace of King Ashur-nasir-apal II (825-820 B.C.), who,
¥dth slave labor recruited by his ferocious armies, rebuilt the city of
Nimur, constructing a Palace on which the sculptured reliefs were
traditionally panegyrics to himself as conqueror. Although it shows
Oriental predilection for pattern, Assyrian sculpture is as convention-
alized as the Egyptian. Forms are simplified; the most characteristic
aspect of each part is shown, as the full- face eye in the profile above;
overlapping and superposition are used instead of perspective; the
inscription of Ashur-nasir-apal is made part of the decoration. The
Museum also owns two monumental Assyrian winged creatures and
glazed tile lions from Nebuchadnezzar's later Babylonian civilization.



ASSYRIAN, 825-820 B.C.:

A WINGED BEING

OFFERING A POMEGRANATE BRANCH



C^ T

DigitizediiARLY'aVILIZATIONS



11



The seated figure of Egyptian marble (about 6^^ feet high)
represents the Queen who thirty-four centuries ago usurped
the throne in the youth of Thut-mose III and built a gigantic
mortuary temple at Deir el Bahri, whence comes this statue.
After her death Thut-mose violently destroyed all traces of
her. Beginning in the early nineteenth century archaeolo-
gists began discovering and reconstructing the temple and
statues in the vast debris. With ingenuity of detectives the
brilliant scholars of the Metropolitan's Egyptian Expedition
of 1929 recognized fragments of the head as belonging to
a statue of which pieces were in Berlin and in Leyden.
Through exchanges Hat-shepsut was brought together and,
jig-saw-like, restored. Its author, disciplined by the rigid tradi
tions governing Egyptian sculpture, such as posing his figure
in strict frontality, still manages to create an imaginatively
majestic image, a permanent refuge for Hat-shepsut*s soul



EGYPTIAN, EMPIRE, 1580-1090 B.C.:
QUEEN HAT-SHEPSOT, ca. 1500 B.C.



EARLY CIVIUZATIONS



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



The tranquil power of Egyptian sculpture is seen here in a grey gran-
ite head (17 inches high) of the local Theban god who was raised to
universal prominence, eclipsing all other deities, during this period
of the Egyptian Empire. To him, whose name was even linked with
that of Re, the supreme Sun God, the Pharaohs attributed their suc-
cessful enterprises and on his temples lavished their wealth — although
for a brief period King Akh-en-aten, overthrowing all gods to worship
only Aton, the sun, persecuted Amun most doggedly. The head origi-
nally had two ostrich plumes rising from the circlet. The dignity of FPYPTT AN FMPTRF 1 ^ftH inOH R C .
Egyptian sculpture, still valid today, is expressed in elimination of i^^irilAlN, tLMinnt, IDttU-lUVU K.l..:
non-essential detail and fluid surfaces, even in this particularly TUT? m>l7 \T> nriT\ w/iil'W locrk r> r^
hard stone. It is a monument of the greatest U. S. collection of *"^ GKhAl (yUD AMUIN, CA. 1350 B.C.
Egyptian art, which includes reconstructed tombs and chapels and
objects of daily and religious life as well as monumental sculpture.



QoQn^o



Digitized by

EARLY aVILIZATIONS 13




5.000 YEARS OF ART:

THE CLASSICAL WORLD

As the civilization of Greece emerged from the Bronze
Age in the Aegean Basin, through the period of Dorian
and Ionian expansion, it came into contact with the
older cultures of Egypt and Assyria, still dominant in
the Near East. Gradually, from the eighth century
B.C. onward, a common literary language, a religion
which worshipped gods in human form, and a love of
independence fostered by the city-states gave a special
character to Greek culture which reached its culmina-
tion in Athens of the fifth century under the fereat
ruler Perikles. However, shortly after the defeat of
Athens in the Peloponnesian War in 404 B.C. Alex-
ander the Great extended his conquests over the old
Oriental kingdoms and brought the whole of Western
Asia and Egypt under his sway, so that Hellenic cul-
ture became international. Finally Rome, which had
steadily risen in importance since it had ejected the
Etruscan usurpers and set up a Republic in the sixth
century B.C., defeated both Greece and Asia and be-
came the controlling power in the Mediterranean. This
Greco-Roman period, which began with the Sack uf
Corinth in 146 B.C., led to the mighty Roman Empire
— enormous in extent, which ultimately made Italy,
Spain, Gaul, and Britain direct heirs of ancient civili-
zation.

Greek art, from the marble statuettes of the second
millenium B.C. and the geometric products of the
eighth century B.C., is traced in the Metropolitan
through the generalized, patterned expression of the
Archaic period to the idealistic and noble conceptions
of the age of Perikles. Thence it leads on into the
individualistic, realistic objects of Hellenistic art and
the illusionistic realism of the Greco-Roman style.

The Etruscan collection, unique in American mu-
seums, represents this curiously eclectic yet original
art. In its Roman Collection, the Metropolitan is
especially rich in portraits which, aside from architec-
ture and engineering feats, constitute perhaps the
greatest artistic contribution of the factual Romans.



1. CREEK. 800-700 B.C.: AMPHORAS, GEOMETRIC STYLE

2. GREEK. 800700 B.C.: HORSE. BRONZE. GEOMETRIC STYLE

3. CREEK. CA. 425 B.C.: I.NTACLIO. CARNELIAN SCARAB

4. GREEK. CA. 425 B.C.: MAENAD. MARBLE RELIEF

5. GREEK. 400300 B.C.: MARBLE FINIAL OF ATTIC GRAVESTONE

6. GREEK. 300-200 B.C.: TERRACOTTA STATUETTE FROM TARENTUM

7. HELLENISTIC. 300100 B.C.: SLEEPING EROS. LIFE-SIZE BRONZE

8. GRECOROMAN. A.D. 1200: DUCKS. MOSAIC FROM A FLOOR

9. ETRUSCAN. 550-540 B.C.: CHARIOT. WOOD WITH BRONZE SHEATHING
10. ROMAN. A.D. MOO: YELLOW SIDONIAN JUG. PROBABLY FROM SYRIA



3000 B.C.— 1000 B.C.

Bronre Age. Center of art
in Crete in the Aegean Basid.
Parallel development in Crprua.

1000 B.C.— 900 B.C.

Dark Ages. Dorian invasion into
the Peloponnetns. Dorian colonies
established in Asia Minor.

900 B.C.— 800 B.C.

Firat Olympiad (Greek game*), 77b.
Poema of Ileaiod and Homer.
Legendary founding of Rome, 733.

700 B.C.— 550 B.C.

Etruscan civilization begins. Italy
Early archaic art in Greece. Dorian
and .\colian expanaion. Age of tb<'
Eupatrids (enlightened tyrania)
brings rise of democracy. Sappho,
lyric poeteu. Pisialratus, tyrant
of Athens, 560. encourages learning.

560 B.C.-^«0 B.C.

Tarquin. Etruscan ruler, expelled
from Rome. Roman Republic bcfias.
Late archaic art in Greece. Piodar.
lyric poet.

Persians, having quelled revolt o(
Ionian cities, begin attack on the
Greek mainland; Greeks are victort.

480 B.C. - 450 B.C.

Transitional period of Greek art.
Aeschylus. Greek dramatist. Myron.
Greek sculptor.

450 B.C.— 400 B.C.

Socrates, philosopher. Euripidea tmi
Great Age 1 of Greek art; Perikles.
Sophocles, dramatists. Herodotus and
Thuycidides. historians. Polykleiio*
and Phidias, sculptors. Iktinos.
architect of Parthenon. Hippocistea.
father of medicine.
Peloponnesian War between Sparta
and Athena. 431 to 404. result* in
defeat and downfall of Athens.

400 B.C.— 350 B.C.

Great Age II of Greek Art with
center in Asia Minor. Plato and
Aristotle, philosophers. Praxitiles,
Skopas. Lysippus, sculptors.
Philip II of Macedon combines Creek
city-states under his protection.

350 B.C.— 300 B.C.

Alexander the Great pacifies Greece:
destroys Thebes; conquers Peraisn
Empire and Egypt; dies 323.

300 B.C.— 250 B.C.

Hellenistic period of Greek art.
which spreads to the East.
Euclid. Greek mathematician.
First sundial at Rome; time first
divided into hours.
Pharos, famous lighthouse, huili at
Alexandria. Egypt, center of
learning and trade.
Colossus of Rhodes erected.
First Punic War, 264-241. beiweea
Romans and Carthaginians, ends with
Rome's acquisition of Sicily, her
first colony.

250 B.C.— 100 B.C.

Hannibal, Carthaginian general,
crosses the Alps with elephants to
invade Italy, 218. during course of
Second Punic War, fought in
Italy. Sicily, Spain, and Africa,
ending in complete Roman triumph. 2\^
Third Punic War, 148-146, ends in
Roman conquest of Corinth and CjrtiMr
Greco-Roman period of art begin*.

100 B.C.— A.D. 1

Cicero. Roman statesman and orator,
becomes consul Iq 63.
First Triumvirate of Roman consuls;
Pompey. Caesar, Crassus. Caesar
completes conquest of Gaul. 51: is
aasaasinated. 44.

Vitruviua. writer on architecture.
Mark Anthony divorcee Octavian*a
sister in favor of Egyptian Cleopatra,
hoping to share Eastern Empire. War
with Egypt ends with Octavian'a
victory in Battle of Actium. 31.
27 B.C.— A.D. 68.

Beginning of Roman Empire. Julio-
Claudian emperors until A.D. 68.
Octavian as Augustus becomes sole
ruler of Roman world.
The Pantheon built.
Horace. Virgil. Ovid, poets; I.ivy.
historian; Strabo, geographer.
Syria becomes Roman province. A.D. M
Nero becomes emperor in A.D. 63.
Rome burns; his colokn house built.
68—96

Period of Flavin Roman emperors.
Pliny the Elder's natural history.
Emperor Titus destroys Jenisalem.
ending Jews* existence as a nation.
The Colosseum completed.
96—193

Emperors Trajan, Hadrian, and the

.Antonines. Under Trajan. Empiie

reaches its greatest extent, from

B'itain'to Africa, from Spain to

the Caspian Sea.

Taciiua, historian; Plutarch.

biographer; Ptolemy, Egyptian

astronomer and geographer; Pau«anii»-

travfllcr and writer.

End of PAX ROMANA. over two centunr*

of peace in the Empire.

193—284

Period of the Sever! Emperors; war.
Northern invasions, plagiie. famine.

284-323

Emperor Diocletian holds Empire
together : institutes reforms.
Constantine the Great becomes
Emperor in 306; unites whole Empire
under his rule; is converted to
Christianity in 323.



Digitized by



Google



CYPRIOTE, CA. 500 B.C.:
HEAD OF A VOTARY STATUE



The culmination of mature Cypriote sculpture is exhibited in this
limestone head (10% inches high), the lips still bearing traces of
red pigment, which came to the Metropolitan as part of the Cesnola
Collection in 1874. The island of Cyprus, situated near Syria and
Asia Minor, a few days voyage from Egypt and Greece, was subjected
to artistic influences from all these civilizations. Assyrian contacts
of the eighth century B.C. gave way to Egyptian ones in the seventh;
subsequently Cyprus came under Persian rule. When Cyprus was
involved in the revolt of the Ionian cities, Greek influence became
predominant This head is close to contemporary Attic sculpture
at the beginning of the fifth century. Oriental influences are still
in the decorative patterning of the hair and beard. Eyebrows
and mustache are in very low relief, the latter still retaining
feather tooling. Later such heads became coarser, the hair twisted
in tighter curls, and the wreaths elaborate with naUn\l/bfrii«^



The ultimate synthesis of realism and stylization, which is char-
acteristic of Greek sculpture of the first half of the fifth century
B.C., is apparent in this stately bronze horse (15i%6 inches high). The
hole in the mane suggests a place for a bridle and the rendering of
the open mouth indicates that reins may have run through it, so that
the horse has been thought to belong to a dedicatory chariot group.
There is even a theory which suggests it may have been part of a
model for a large group, by so renowned a sculptor as Kalamis,
famous for horse and chariot ensembles. Its bronze casting in a high
state of perfection, the statuette is probably of Attic or South Italian
origin. It is one of the treasures of the Metropolitan's Classical col-
lection which, including gems, sculpture, vase painting, and arch-
itectural fragments from the Bronze Age to Roman art of the Christian
era, boasts the greatest group of Greek art in this hemisphere.



THE CLASSICAL WORLD



Digitized by V:jOOQIC



This kylix, or two-handled shallow drinking bowl (5 inches high,
12% inches in diameter), is by Douris, great vase painter of Athens
at this period. It is a precious example of Greek painting, known to
us only from such vessels, where line and design have been perfectly
adapted to convex and concave surfaces. This style, where a black
glaze was applied to the red clay, is characteristic of the fifth century,
a period when mythological subjects became less popular than such
scenes from daily life as our example of two women undressing. The
inscription which reads "The boy is handsome," common on Attic
▼ases at this time, is a dedication to the youth to whom the kylix was
presented. Douris, who was potter as well as painter, lived long,
and this vase comes from his late period when his finished drafts-
manship displays new monumentality. Problems of three-dimensional
form have been solved, and foreshortening is no longer a difficulty.



GREEK, CA. 470 B.C.:
RED-FIGURED KYLIX, detail



DigitizecTH^



tl:A^6>iirwS.D



17



GREEK, CA. 600 B.C.:
"APOLLO" TYPE OF YOUTH



GREEK, CA. 440-430 B.C.:
WOUNDED AMAZON



This weathered marble statoe (6 feet 4 inches high) consolidates
into a new Greek style the earlier linear geometric sculpture with the
massive art of Egypt and Mesopotamia. Of Attic origin, made at the
period when Athens was beginning her career under the wise rule of
Solon, the youth is of the group called "Apollos" which may have been
gods in the temples, or votive figures, or idealized tomb statues of
famous athletes. Characteristic are the frontal pose, contained silhouette,
almond-shaped eyes, patterned ears, schematized hair, and contrasts
between shallow and deep curves, as in clavicles and pectorals
respectively. A few traces of red color remain on necklace and fillet.



Polykleitos, Athenian contemporary of Pheidias, was sculptor of the
statue*s first version, probably bronze, of which this marble is an excep-
tionally fine Roman copy (6 feet 4% inches high). Pliny tells of a
competition of four sculptors to make an Amazon for the Temple of
Artemis at Ephesos. "This (by Polykleitos) proved to be the statue each
artist placed second to his own." Polykleitos sought a generalized, ideal
beauty, with normal proportions of the body. The harmonious counter-
poise of the stance with weight on one leg is a motif identified with
him. This is possibly one of the statues discovered in 1771 in Tor
Colombaro on the Appian Way. Formerly in the Lansdowne Collection.



18



THE CLASSICAL WORLD



Digitized by



Google



ETRUSCAN, CA. 500 B.C.
MARS OR A WARRIOR



Of terracotta (8 feet high), its dark semi-glaze coating embellished
with red and white paint, this vehement figure dates from the best
period of Etruscan art, when the Tarquin kings, ruling from the Alps
to Southern Campania, made Etruria the greatest power in Italy.
Inspiration, despite certain Oriental influences, came primarily from
Greece. The exuberant vigor of this figure is specifically Etruscan. Its
finished workmanship (in contrast to carelessly executed detail in much
Etruscan sculpture) presupposes as its author a Greek artist working
in Etruria. The Metropolitan was the first museum in America
to devote a gallery exclusively to Etruscan and Italian antiquities.




Digitizedi^



:S:l^



LASSICAL WORLD



19



ROM
PORT



A contc
lican R
a preci
busts a)
the stn
ganizers
later to
of the



20 THE CLASSICAL WORLD r^. ,. . .

Digitized by



Google



The sonorously colored frescoes of a cubiculuni, or bedchamber, from a
villa at Boscoreale (near Pompeii), destroyed when Vesuvius erupted
in A.D. 79, has been reconstructed with the original window and grat-
ing in the Metropolitan (in a room alwut 11 feet by 37 feet, nearly
8 feet high). The paintings are probably copied from a Greek version
which has perished, and show the Greco-Roman preoccupation with
realism, precise to the point of convincing illusion. Porticoes, loggias,
balconies, and hanging gardens of the period are thus recreated, in
colors predominantly red, yellow, green, with brown, white, and purple.



ROMAN, EARLY I CENTURY A.D.:
WALL FROM A VILLA AT BOSCOREALE



Digitiz



(kA5^ii)wrf?b



21



5.000 YEARS OF ART:

EARLY CHRISTIAN ART:
EAST AND WEST

The Emperor Constantine proclaimed Christianity the
Roman state religion in 323. Seven years later he
moved his capital to Constantinople, thus splitting the
Empire into East and West. From the start the new
city of Constantinople was a brilliant center, where
law, literature, medicine rose along with a rich art.

In the West, in contrast, the barbarian tribes which
had been threatening from the north finally conquered
the decaying government of Rome. The Church, now
released from its secret and persecuted status, was the
one power to hold firm and thus, through the subse-
quent "Dark Ages," to lay the groundwork for its
supremacy in the Middle Ages.

Despite the differing histories of the two halves of
the Empire under Christianity close artistic relations
existed between them, fostered by the establishment of
an Eastern ecclesiastical seat at Ravenna and the
travels of pilgrims and traders. Too, the iconoclastic
controversy in the East (lasting from 726 to 842),
whereby representation of sacred subjects was forbid-
den, drove many Byzantine artists to Italy.

Of the rare early Christian painting and sculpture
of the West, characterized by new subject matter in
coarsened and technically crude versions of late
Roman models, the Metropolitan has meagre examples.
More adequately shown in the Museum is the eclectic
art of the Copts, who were native Christians in Egypt.

It is in its decorative and minor arts that the art of
Byzantium is found in the Metropolitan, especially in
the Morgan Collection. The luxurious courts of the
East and the Church itself were lavish patrons of the
skilled craftsmen. In ivory carvings, in objects of
gold, enamel, and jewels the principles of Byzantine
style can be observed. It was an art which, although
sumptuous and rich, was always grave and schema-
tized, with representation reduced to symbolic, ab-
stract images, marked by mysterious solemnity. Ad-
hering rigidly to its fixed traditions to the very end of
the Byzantine Empire (1453), it became the basis of
Italian painting up to the new realism of Giotto.



1. PALMYRENE. 100-300: STONE GRAVESTONE RELIEF

2. COPTIC, 100300: WOVEN TAPESTRY FROM AKHMIM


1 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Online LibraryN.Y.) Art Foundation (New YorkARTnews annual → online text (page 3 of 14)