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Contributions from the
Herbarium of Columbia College

uollege UNew York

3 2044 106 400 708



Digitf ed by


Digitized by


Digitized by




Herbarium of Columbia College.

VOL. 1.

[Nos. 1-25.]


Digitized by


Digitized by



No. 1.

No. 2.

No. 3.

No. 4-

No. 5.

No. 6.

No. 7.
No. 8.

No. 9.













A Preliminary List of North American Species of CyperuSy

with Descriptions of new Forms. By N. L. Britton (1886).
Cerastium arvense L., and its North American Varieties.

By Arthur HoUick and N. L. Britton (1887).
Plant Notes from Termiscouata County, Canada. By J. I.

Northrop (1887).
A List of Plants collected by Miss Mary B. Croft at San

Diego, Texas. By N. L. Britton and H. H. Rusby (1887).
New or Noteworthy North American Phanerogams — L By N.

L. Britton (1888).
An Enumeration of the Plants collected by Dr. H. H. Rusby

in South America, 1885-1886. Parts I-XXIIL ByN. L.

Britton. The account of the general features of the region

traversed by Dr. Rusby ; the algae and fungi determined

by Prof. W. G. Farlow, the Lichenes by Dr. J. W. Eck-

feldt, the Musci and Pteridophyta by Elizabeth G. Britton,

the Hepaticae by Dr. Richard Spruce (1886-1896). '
The Genus Hicoria of Rafinesque. By N. L. Britton (1888).
A recent Discovery of Hybrid Oaks on Staten Island. By

Arthur Hollick (1888).
A List of Plants Collected by Dr. E. A. Mearns at Fort Verde

and in the MogoUon and San Francisco Mountains, Ari-
zona, 1884-1888. By N. L. Britton.
The General Floral Characters of the San Francisco and

the MogoUon Mountains and the Adjacent Region. By H.

H. Rusby (1888).
Contributions to American Bryology — L By Elizabeth G.

Britton (1888).
Preliminary Notes on the North American Species of the

Genus Tissa Adans. By N. L Britton (1889).
The Genus Eleocharis in North America. By N. L. Britton

New or Noteworthy North American Phanerogams — IL By

N. L. Britton (1889).
A List of State and Local Floras of the United States and

British America. By N. L. Britton (1889).
A Descriptive List of Species of the Genus Heuchera, By

Wm. E. Wheelock (1890).

Digitized by


No. 1 6. New or Noteworthy North American Phanerogams — III. By

N. L. Britton (1890.)
No. 17. The Flora of the Desert of Atacama. By Thos. Morong

No. 18. Contributions to American Bryology — II. By Elizabeth G.

Britton (1891).
No. 19. Notes on North American Halorageae. By Thos. Morong

No. 20. New or Noteworthy North American Phanerogams — IV. By

N. L. Britton (1891).
No. 21. Notes on the North American Species of Eriocauleae. By

Thos. Morong (1891).
No. 22. New or Noteworthy North American Phanerogams — V. By

N. L. Britton (1891).
No. 23. The American Species of the Genus Atumone and the Genera

which have been referred to it. By. N. L. Britton (1891).
No. 24. Review of the North American Species of the Genus Xyris,

By Heinrich Ries (1892).
No. 25. A Preliminary List of the Species of the Genus Meibomia

occurring in the United Slates and British America. By

Anna M. Vail (1892).

Digitized by


Py^ ^^ ••> *^^^^ (^


A Preliminary List of North Ameri
can Species of Cyperus, with De-
scriptions of New Forms.

By n. l. Britton.



Digitized by


It- (•


I \

Digitized by



A Preliminary List of North American Species of Cyperus, with

Descriptions of new Forms.

By N. L. Brixton.

(A) Sub-genus Pycreus, Beauv.

* Umbel simple or capitate ^ rarely slightly compound,

t Superficial cells of the acheniura oblong.

1. Cyperus flavescens, L. Canada to Texas throughout east-
ern North America ; also in northern Mexico, Brazil, southern
Europe, northern Africa and western Asia.

1 1 Superticial cells of the achenium quadrate.

2. C diandnis, Torrey. Throughout eastern North
America, extending westward to Arkansas and New Mexico.
(Fendler, No. 869.)

Van castaneuSy Torrey. (C ElliottianuSy Roem. and Schultes,
Mant. ii., p. 100.) With the type. I cannot agree with Mr. C.
B. Clarke, (Journ. Linn. Soc, xxi., p. 65) in regarding this plant
as a distinct species under the name C, rivularis^ Kunth, The
varieties eluta and depauperata which he proposes (1. c.) are, in
my opinion, but forms of the variable C diandrus. There is
still another form, characterized by elongated spikelets, which
has been collected by Hunter in Lincoln Co., N. C, and by Leg-
gett at Summit, N. J.

Van CAPITATUS, n. van Inflorescence a single capitate cluster
appearing somewhat lateral ; involucre of one or two elongated
leaves with one or two bracts; glumes generally brown-mar-
gined. Texas and northern Mexico to California. Here I in-
clude the van castaneus of Watson in Botany of California, ii., p.
214 ; No. 1949 of C. Wright's New Mexican Collection, and No.
49a of Dr. Palmer's Chihuahuan Collection of 1885.

3. C, bipartitus^ Torrey. New Orleans, La., (Dr. Ingalls
in Torrey Herbarium.) This appears to be distinct, but more
specimens are needed to establish its relationship ; it may be but
a single-spiked form or variety of C. diandrus.

4. C Nnttallii, Eddy in Spreng. Neue Entdeck., i., p.
240 ; Torrey. In salt meadows along the Atlantic and Gulf
coasts (Curtiss, N. A. Plants, 3050.) For synonomysee Torrey,
Ann. Lye, iii., p. 252. C. Cleaveri^ Torrey, is but z^ depauper-
ate, single spiked form, of this species.

Digitized by



5- C, Olfersianus, Kunth. Umbel very simple, I to few-
rayed ; heads composed of few straw-colored spikelets; achenium
oblong, its surface marked with quadrate cells ; otherwise re-
sembling C, flavescens. Plaquemines Co., La., (A. B. Langlois,
1882); Mexico, West Indies and eastern South America.

6. C. polystachyus, Rottb. New Orleans, (Torrey Herba-
rium ; an old specimen.) Widely distributed in tropical regions.

Var. Uptostachyus^ Boeckl. (C microdontus^ and C.
Gaiesii, Torrey, C Texensis, Steud.) Virginia to Florida (Cur*
tiss, N. A. Plants, No. 3049, part), and Texas, (E. Hall, 6^6^

7. C, leucolepis, Carey, MS., fide Clarke 1. c, p. 61, (not
of Boeckl. ; C. divergens, Chapm., not of HBK.) Quincy, Flor-
ida. Related to C. pumilus^ L., of India.

8 C, unioloides, R. Br., var. bromoides, Clarke. Spikelets
much larger than in any of the foregoing species, straw-colored.
Cienaga, Los Angeles Co., Cal., (J. C. Oliver in Gray Herba-
rium) ; Mexico, West Indies and South America ; the type in

* * Umbel compound.

9. C. flavicomus, Vahl, Torrey, Ann. Lye, iii., 253, Boeck-
eler, not of Michaux. which, according to Mr. Clarke (1. c. p.
71), is C strigosus, L. Virginia to Florida; also in Brazil.

10. C. Hochstetteri, Nees. (C. flavicomus, Torrey, Bot. Mex.
Bound. Survey.) Glumes dark reddish brown ; achenium broadly
ellipsoidal, twice or three times the size of that of the foregoing
species, which it otherwise resembles. Louisiana (Hale) ; Texas
and New Mexico (C. Wright, No. 1965) ; also in tropical Amer-
ica, Australia, India and Africa.

(B) Sub genus JUNCELLUS, Griseb.

11. C. lavigatus, L. Southern California (Brewer, Lem-
mon, Wright, Parish, No. 1050.) Widely distributed in tropical

(C) Sub-genus EUCYPERUS, Clarke.
Section I. ^m/^//, Kunth.

* Spikelets digitate,

12. C. amabilis, Vahl. (C aureus, aurantiacus and oligo*
stachyus, HBK; C, glarcosus, Liehm.) Sanoita Valley, south-
ern Arizona, (Rothrock, No. 599, in Expl. and Surveys West of

Digitized by



looth Meridian, under C, Nuttallii) ; Mexico, (Dr. Palmer, No.
49b, 1885); also in the West Indies, South America, eastern
India and Africa.

• • Spikelets in dense terminal clusters,

13. C. aristatus, Rottb. {C, inflexus, Muhl ; C. confer tus^
Chapm., S. Flora, not of Swartz.) Throughout North Amer-
ica, but local. (E. Hall, PL Oreg., 557, and PI. Tex., 677) Dr.
Chapman's specimens from South Florida, marked C confertuSy
differ mainly in the reddi.sh- brown glumes, which is the charac-
ter given by Clarke (1. c, p. 92), for his forma versicolor. The
species is widely distributed in temperate and tropical regions,
not, however, occurring in Europe.

14. C. sesleroideSy HBK. Sanoita Valley, southern Arizona,
(Rothrock, No. 614, Expl. and Surveys West of lOOth Meri-
dian) ; also in Mexico, Hartweg, No. 256 ; Liebmann ;. Parry and
Palmer, Nos. 910, 911 and giij4\ Chihuahua, Dr. E. Palmer,
No. 49 J^, 1885. named by me C. spectabilis^ which appears to be
a totally different plant. Specimens from various other Mexican
localities in the Gray Herbarium very closely resembling those
here cited are determined as C divergens, HBK., which nearly
related, if not identical species Boeckeler and Clarke refer to
C. spectabilis, Schreb. Following these authorities I was led into
error in my determination of Dr. Palmer's plant.

Section 2. Compressiy Kunth.

15. C. cotnpressus, L. Maryland and southward along the
Atlantic and Gulf coasts to Texas (Curtiss, N. A. Plants, No.
3026; E. Hall, PI. Tex., 682); also in ballast at Camden and
Philadelphia ; Mexico and Central America and in the warmer
portions of Asia and Africa.

16. C, Rusbyiy Britton in Bull. Torn Bot. Club, xi., p. 29.
Near Silver City, New Mexico, Dr. H. H. Rusby, 1880.

17. C. Buckleyi, Britton. Valley of the Lower Rio Grande,
(Buckley) ; rocky hills near Chihuahua (Pringle, Plantae Mex.,
1885, No. 311); Indian Terr. (E. Palmer, 347).

18. C Schweinitzii, Torrey. Western Pennsylvania and
Canada to Texas and Arizona (Lemmon, No. 2905) ; westward
to the Pacific coast, extending north to Oregon (Geyer) ; also in
Mexico, (Parry and Palmer, 907).

Digitized by



Van DEBILIS, n. var. Much smaller and more slender, about
6-8 inches high ; inflorescence very simple ; spikelets few flowered ;
glumes blunt, strongly nerved. Arizona and New Mexico (C.
Wright, No. 1944 ; Rusby, No. 430, Coll. of 1880) ; also in Mex-
ico (Bourgeau, No. 529.)

19. C. FendlerianuSy Boeckl. Texas, Arizona and New Mex-
ico (Fendler, No. 865 ; C. Wright, No. 1945 ; Rusby; Matthews;
also Hall and Harbour, Rocky Mountain Flora, No. 584,)

Section 3. Viscosi^ Clarke.

20. C, viscosuSy Alton. (C trachynotus, Torrey.) Florida
to New Mexico (Nos. 1943 and 704, C. Wright; No. 1515, Mex.
Bound. Survey); Mexico, West Indies and northern South

Section 4. Luzuloidei, Kunth.

21. C. Lusulce, Rottb., var. UMBELLULATUS, n. var. (C
vegetus, Pursh, Muhlenberg, Elliott, Torrey, Chapman, &c.. not
of Willd. ; C, virens. Gray, Manual, not of Michaux ; C. dis-
tinctus and pseudo-distinctus, Steud.) ; Delaware (Canby) to
Florida (E. Palmer, No. 586, 1874), and westward through the
Gulf States to Texas (Lindheimer, No. 201), the Indian Territory
and Arkansas. Differs from the type mainly in the compound in-
florescence. Specimens received from Mr. Ravenel, collected at
Aiken, S. C, closely approach the type, which occurs in Mexico,
the West Indies and South America, (Mart. Herb. Flor. Brazil,
No. 245.)

22. C. virens, Michx. North Carolina to Florida (Curtiss,
N. A. Plants, No. 3062), and westward through the Gulf States
to Texas (E. Hall, No. 680) ; also in Mexico and Guatemala,
(fide Hemsley) ; California (vide Watson, Bot. Cal., ii., p. 214.)

23. C Siirinamensis, Rottb. (C Drummondii^ Torrey);
Florida, (Curtiss, N. A. Plants, No. 3032) to Texas; in ballast
grounds, Camden, N. J., (Parker); also in Mexico, the West In-
dies and South America.

24 C. ochraceus, Vahl. {C. formosus, Vahl (?), vide Torrey
in Ann. Lye, iii., p. 269; C. aureus {?), Britton in Bull. Torr.
Bot. Club, xi., p. 85 ) Abbeville, La. (Langlois, distributed as
No. 85 Sc); Texas (Buckley), and in the West Indies and Mex-
ico (Botteri, Nos. 739, 740); Mex. Bound Survey, No. 1519.

Digitized by



25- C. serrulatus, Watson. Placer Co., Cal, G. R. Vasey;
Alta, Cal, Pringle ; Sacramento, M. E. Jones, Flor. Cal, 3530.

26. C reflexuSy Vahl (C rufescens. Torn and Hook.) Texas,
(Drummond ; E. Hall, No. 679, in part ; Wright ; Nealley.)
Specimens recently received from Mr. Nealley show that the
scales are not always red, and that the spikelets may be as many
as 30- flowered.

27. C cyrtolepis^ Torr. and Hook. Texas Drummond,
Wright, Mex. Bound. Survey, No. 1520, E. Hall, 678 in part,
Buckley, Reverchon) ; Camp Grant, Arizona, (Rothrock, Exp.
and Surv. W. of looth Merid., 390); Indian Terr., (Palmer 351.)

Var. DENTICARINATUS. (C rufescens, var. denticarinatus,
Britton in Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, xi., p. 85.) After a re-examin-
ation of Mr. Buckley's specimens from the valley of the lower
Rio Grande, I am convinced that they belong rather to this
species than to C. rufescens.

28. C. acuminaius, Torr. and Hook. Illinois and Tennes-
see to Louisiana, Kansas and Arizona ; also collected by Howell
(No. 567) along the Columbia River in Oregon, and by J. W.
Congdon in Tulare Co., Cal. A form of this species collected by
E. Hall at Hempstead, Texas (PI. Tex., 679), has dense heads of
many spikelets.

Section 5. Haspani, Kunth.

29. C. Haspan, L. Virginia, North Carolina (Curtis, Can-
by), to Florida (Curtiss, N. A. Plants, No. 3041), and westward
to Texas (E. Hall, No. 683) ; also occurring in Mexico, the West
Indies, South America, Africa, Asia and Australia.

30. C. dentatus^ Torrey. Cumberland Co., Maine (J. Blake),
Rhode Island and northern New York (Leggett), to South Caro-
lina, mainly near the Atlantic coast, but extending westward to
West Virginia (Mertz.)

31. C Lecontei, Torrey. Florida (Curtiss, N. A. Plants,
No. 3045) to Louisiana.

Section 6. Fusci, Kunth.

32. C, lateriflorus, Torrey. East of Santa Cruz, Sonora,
(C. Wright, No. 1950.) Not since collected. The species is
nearly allied to C, difformis^ L., of the tropical regions of the
Old World, and may be the same.

Digitized by



33- C. Iria, L. Santee Canal, South Carolina (Ravenel ;
Curtiss, N. A. Plants, No. 3043.) According to Dr. Chapman
i| was probably introduced from eastern Asia, where, as elsewhere
in warm-temperate countries, it is a noxious weed in rice fields.

34. C fuscuSy L. In ballast sand, Camden (Parker) ; Revere
Beach, Mass. (H. A. Young, in Gray Herbarium.) Adventive.

Section 7. Glomeraii, Clarke,

35. C. cephalanthus, Torr. and Hook. Texas (Drummond,
3d Coll., No. 445) ; Louisiana (Carpenter, Langlois.)

36. C. spectQbilis, Schreb. Texas (Drummond, in Calcutta
Herbarium, fide Clarke, 1. c, p. 142.) Arizona, (Rothrock, 600
and 601, in Expl. and Surveys W. of icx)th Meridian.) (See No.
14 of this List.)

37. C. distans, L. Eastern North Carolina (Gerald Mc-
Carthy, 1885.) The species was recorded from the same region
by Pursh (Flor. Amer., Sept., i., p. 53) and its rediscovery by
Mr. McCarthy confirms Pursh's statement that it grows **in wet
woods, Carolina and Georgia." It is widely distributed in trop-
ical countries.

Section 8. Corymbosi, Kunth.
• Culm jointed^ leafless,

38. C. articulatus, L. South Carolina and Florida (Curtiss,
N. A. Plants, No. 3024) to Texas along the Gulf Coast (E. Hall,
No. 703.) In all tropical regions.

Var. conglomeratus, Britton. Valley of the lower Rio Grande

A form of this species with the spikelets greatly elongated
has been collected by Mr. Nealley in Texas.

• • Culms leafy,

t Perennial by luberiferous stolons.

39. C rotundns, L. North Carolina to Florida (Curtiss, N.
A. Plants, No. 3055) and Texas (E. Hall, 684); also in ballast
grounds at Jersey City (Brown), Philadelphia and Camden
(Parker), and at Port Eads, La., (Langlois); throughout the
warmer regions of the globe. For synonomy see Clarke, 1. c.»
p. 162.

40. C esculentus, L (C phymatodes, Muhl. ; C repens.

Digitized by



Ell.) New Brunswick (Fowler) and Wisconsin to Florida (Cur-
tiss, N. A. Plants, No, 3052) and Texas throughout eastern
North America ; westward to California and extending north-
ward along the Pacific coast to Alaska (J. O. Rainer, 1871) ; also
in Mexico, South America, southern Europe to the Cape of Good
Hope, and in Australia.

Var. macrostachyiiSy Boeckl. (C lutescens, Torr. and Hook,
Ann. Lye, iii., 433). Florida (Chapman), Texas (C. Wright,
1849, No. 705 ; Drummond, 3d Coll., No. 452), San Diego, Cal,
(Orcutt, No. 1 3 14.)

Var. ANGUSTISPICATUS, n. var. Spikelets narrowly linear,
about one line wide and three-fourths of an inch long; a well-
marked form. Kentucky (Short), Missouri (H. Eggert), Wash-
ington, D C, (Vasey), Lexington Co., S. C, (J. Donnell Smith.)

Var. Hermanni. {C. Hermanni, Buckley; C. phymatodeSy
var. Hermanni^ Watson). Kern River, Cal., (Blake, in Torrey
Herbarium) ; Bank of San Joaquin (Lemmon, Flor. Cal., 1509.)
41. C. Hallii, n. sp. Culm triangular, 2 to 3 feet high ;
leaves elongated, 2 to 3 lines wide ; involucre of several leaves,
one of them elongated far beyond the others and reaching a
length of a foot or more ; umbel more or less compound, of 5 or
6 elongated rays and several shorter ones; involucels setaceous;
spikelets linear, 9 to 15 -flowered, arranged in loose heads;
glumes ovate, acute, strongly 7 to 9-nerved, dark reddish- brown,
with lighter colored margins and apices; achenium triangular,
linear. Rootstocks scaly.

Texas (E. Hall, PI. Tex., No. 685, distributed as C. phyma-
iodes, van); valley of the lower Rio Grande (Buckley); Indian
Territory (E. Palmer, No. 353).

t t Annual or perennial ; roots fibrous, but stems ofieii bard and corm-like at

tbe base.

42. C. strigosus, L. {C, Michanxianus, Schultes, not of
Torrey, fide Boeckeler ; C. flavicomiis, Michx., not of Vahl ; C.
stenolepis, Watson, Bot. Cal., not of Torrey.) Canada and Min-
nesota to Florida (Curtiss, N. A. Plants No. 1820, distributed as
C, stenokpis.) and Texas, throughout eastern North America ;
also in California. Among the many forms of this variable
species I think the following may be distinguished :

Digitized by



Var. robustior, Kunth. Enum., ii., p. 88. Spikelets large,
elongated, lo to 25-flowered. With the type.

Var. capitatHS, Boeckl., Linnaea, xxxvi., p. 347. Inflores-
cence of several capitate clusters, rays short. Indiana (Dr.
Clapp. 1838); St. Louis, Mo., (Engelmann) ; Illinois (Dr.
Schneck); Massachusetts (Morong); Camden, N. J., (Martin-
dale); Texas, (Bigelow.)

Var. COMPOSITUS, n. var. (C strigosus, var. Torrey, Ann.
Lye, iii., p. 262.) Umbel compound ; spikelets one-third to
one-half inch long, 4 to 5-flowered. Astoria, Long Island
(Leggett) ; Peimsylvania and New Jersey to Alabama,

Var. GRACILIS, n. var. Slender, leaves shorter than the
culm, umbel of 1-3 short rays, bearing few, linear, spreading
spikelets. Valley of the Lower Rio Grande (Buckley) ; Fayette-
ville, Ark., (Harvey.)

Var. ELONGATUS. (C Michauxianus, var. (?) elongatus, Tor-
rey, Ann. Lye, iii., p. 432 (?). Rays much elongated, bearing
single, capitate clusters. North Carolina (Curtis, in Torrey
Herb.) The originals of Dr. Torrey 's variety were collected by
Drummond in Texas, but there are no specimens from there in
his herbarium, and I have no means of knowing if they are the
same as the one from North Carolina on which the present variety
is based.

43. C. stenolepisy Torrey. North Carolina to Florida and

44. C. setigerus. Torn and Hook. (Including C, lutescens,
Torrey, Bot. Mex. Bound. Survey, p. 227, and Herbarium.)
Texas and New Mexico (C. Wright, No. 705 ; Buckley ; Bigelow,
and Herb. Berland. Texano-Mexicanum, Nos. 2410 and 980.)
I can see no reason for keeping the two species separate, and Dr.
Torrey states (1. c.) that his C. lutescens is probably too close to
C. setigerus.

45. C, sphacelatits, Rottb. Southern Nevada (Lieut.
Wheeler, 1 87 1, in Gray Herbarium); Cal. (Parish); ballast.
Mobile, Ala., (Mohr.) ; the specimens almost exactly match the
others from St. Thomas, W. I. (Eggers), and No. 636, Sagot,
Guyane Francaise. Resembles the last, but the glumes are

Digitized by



46. C. refractuSf Engelm. (Boeckeler, in Linnaea, xxxvi., p.
369 ; see also Vasey, in Bull. Torr. Hot Club, x., p. 32.) Trenton, .
N. J., to North Carolina and Missouri. Appears to me nearest
allied to C, strigosuSy but is also related to C. Lancastriensis,

47. C filiformis, Swartz. Southern Florida; also in the
West Indies. The Florida specimens do not quite agree with
C. Wright's from Cuba.

48. C. hrunneus, Swartz. (C purpurascens, Vahl ; C, ligti-
laris, Chapm., S. Flora, p. 507, not of L. nor of Chapm. Suppl., p.
659.) Southern Florida (Curtiss, N. A. Plants, No. 3025*), and
in the West Indies.

49. C. tetragonns. Ell. North Carolina and Florida (Cur-
tiss, No. 3059) to Texas ; also in Mexico (fide Hemsley.)

50. C. dissitiflorus, Torrey. Florida to Louisiana and
Texas. (E. Hall, Plantae Texanae, No. 690, distributed as
C. litos, Schultes) ; also in Mexico and Brazil (fide Boeckeler.)

Section 9. Papyri^ Kunth.

51. C. giganteus, Vahl. (tT. erythrorhizos^ Muhl, var.
erectus, Britton, in Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, xi., p. 85 ; C. densu
florus, Meyer.) Texas and Mexico (Herb. Berland. Texano-

Mexicanum, Nos. 876, 3223 and 2306; Buckley; Nealley.)
Cuba (C. Wright, No. 1529.)

52. C. erythrorhizos, Muhl. Lawrence, Mass., (Robinson);
Hartford, Conn., (fide Bishop, Cat. Plants Conn., p. 17); eastern

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