N.Y.) Herbarium Columbia College (New York.

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Long Island (E. S. Miller); Camden, N. J., (Martindale), and
southward to Florida and New Mexico ; also in California.

Var. pumilus, Engelm. (C occidefitalis, Torrey.) Missouri
to California, extending northward to Oregon (E. Hall, PI.
Oreg., No. 558), and Washington (Suksdorf, 221.)

53. C. HalEI, Torrey, ined., in letter to Mr. Charles Mohr,
1868, who has kindly furnished me with the following descrip-
tion :

Umbels many-rayed, shorter than the involucral bracts;
spikes cylindrical, one-half to three-fourths inch long, sessile or
stalked, forming dense clusters with a few linear, acuminate in-
volucels; spikelets flat, 12 to 14-flowered ; scales with scaricus
margins, brown, sharply carinate on the back, indistinctly

Digitized by



5 -nerved, blunt, mucronulate, somewhat appressed ; stem 2 to 3
feet high, obtusely triangular, tumid at the base ; leaves as long
as the stem, broadly linear, very rough on the edges ; achenium
small, triquetous. Marshes and borders of lakes in the Red
River Valley. Repides, La., (Hale); eastern Florida (Leaven-
worth); Carrabelle, Florida.

(D) Sub-genus DICLIDIUM, Nees.

54. C. speciosus, Vahl; Torrey in part. {C. Michauxianus,
Torrey, not of Schultes.) New England to Wisconsin, and
southward to Florida (Curtiss, N. A Plants, No. 3048) and
Texas (C. Wright, 1849, No. 706); also in California.

Var. SQUARROSUS, n. var. {Cferruginescens, Boeckl.) Scales
spreading or recurved, reddish. New Mexico (Fendler, No.
870); St. Louis, Mo., (Engelmann); Texas (Buckley.)

Var. PARVUS, n. var. {C, parvus, Boeckl.) Low, i to 3
inches high ; umbel very simple, generally of a single cluster of
short terete spikelets. Cited by Boeckeler as collected by Dr.
Engelmann at St. Louis, and Drummond's Collection, No. 34 ;
No. 1946, C. Wright, New Mexico, answers Boeckeler*s descrip-

55. C. feraXy Richard. (C. flexuosus, Vahl; C. pennatuSj
Boeckl., not Lam.) Missouri (F. Bush); Texas (Bigelow, Buckley);
Arizona (Pringle) ; Cahfornia (Parish, 1064); West Indies and
widely distributed in tropical regions. For synonomy see Clarke,
Journ. Linn. Soc, xx , p. 295.

56. C. Engelmannii, Steud. Massachusetts (Morong) to
Wisconsin and southward, but not often collected.

57. C. oxycarioides, Britton,in Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, xi., p.
86. Valley of the lower Rio Grande (Buckley.)

(E) Sub-genus Mariscus, Vahl.
• Umbel simple or capitate.

t Spikelets few (2 to 6), flowered.

58. C. ovularis, Torrey. Southern New York to Illinois
and southward ; westward to Arkansas and Texas.

Var. robustus, Boeckl. Heads larger, 6 to 8 lines in diameter,
on longer rays ; spikelets 3 to 6-flowered. {C. Wolfii, Wood, in
Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, vi., p. 72.) Illinois (Bebb ; J. Wolf);

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Arkansas (Harvey) ; Indian Territory (G. D. Butler) ; Louisiana

Var. sphcericus, Boeckl. Heads smaller than in the type,
very dense ; spikelets more subulate, reddish brown. Arkansas
(Dr. Pitcher) ; Indian Territory (Dr. Palmer, No. 348) ; Texas
(Wright) and Herb. Berland. Tex. Mex., Nos. 314, 1568 and


59. C. ToRREYI. {Mariscus cylindricus. Ell. ; C. ovularis,
var. cylindricus, Torrey ; C, cylindricus, Britton, 1. c. vii., p. 48,
Plate III., not of Chapman.) Long Island (Leggett) to Florida
(Curtiss, N. A. Plants, No. 3051), and westward to Texas
(Palmer, Flor, S. W. Texas, No. 2017.)

60. C> retrorsus, Chapm. in Bot. Gazette, iii., p. 17 ; C, ret-
roversus, Chapm., Suppl., p. 659; M. alternifolius, Vahl.)
Robert's Key, Caximbas Bay, southern Florida (Chapman);
also in Mauritius.

61. C, retrofraciuSy Gray. Southern New Jersey to Flor-
ida (Curtiss, No. 3053), and Texas (E. Hall, Plantae Texanae,
No. 691.)

62. C. jlavomariscus, Griseb., Flor. Brit. W. I., p. 567.
{Mariscus flavus, Vahl ; C flavus^ Boeckl.) Valley of the
lower Rio Grande (Buckley) ; Monterey, Cal. (?), vide Watson,
Bot. Cal., ii., p. 216; in ballast at Philadelphia and Camden
(Parker, Burk); also in Mexico, the West Indies and South

Var. PEDUNCULARIS, n. var. Rays of the umbel elongated,
with setaceous involucels. Chihuahua (Dr. E. Palmer, No. 49,
1885; Mandon, Plantae Andium Bolivensium, No. 1398.)

63. C. cylindricus, Chapm , not of Britton. Coheres Key,
Marco Pass, South Florida (Chapman.)

64. C, unijlorus, Torn and Hook. Te.xas (Drummond,
Wright, E. Hall, No. 686, Reverchon. Nealley.)

Var. putnilus, Britton. Indian Territory (Dr. Palmer, No.
350); valley of the lower Rio Grande (Buckley.)

65. C. Wrightii, n» sp. Culm slender, triangular, 12 to 15
inches high; leaves of the culm few, narrowly linear; root leaves
not seen ; involucre of one elongated leaf, and 2 to 4 shorter
ones ; umbel simple, of i to 3 short rays ; inflorescence of i to

Digitized by



3 dense ovate heads, about half an inch long ; spikelets lanceo-
late, 4 to S-flowered; glumes lanceolate, acute; achenium ovoid,

New Mexico (C. Wright, No. 1947) ; Mexico (F. Miiller,
without a number).

ft Spikelets several (4 to 12) flowered.

66. C. filiculmis^ Vahl. Northumberland Co., Canada
(Macoun), to Wisconsin and southward to Florida (Curtiss, No.
3036) and Texas. Varies into very slender forms with small,
single heads.

6t, C, Gray it, Torrey. {C. setifolius, Torrey MS., and
Clarke, 1. c, xxi., p. 198.) Sandy plains along the Atlantic
coast, Massachusetts to Florida. C. ovularis, var. tenellus, Tor-
rey, Ann. Lye, iii., p. 279, is a young form of this.

68. C. Baldwinii, Torrey. North Carolina and Florida,
(Curtiss, No. 3025) westward to Texas (E. Hall, No. 687 ; E.
Palmer (Flor. S. W. Texas, No. 1332); also in ballast at Camden

69. C. Lancastriensis, Porter. Trenton, N. J. ; Safe Har-
bor, Penn., (Porter) to Alabama.

70. C. fuiigineuSy Chapm. Key West (Chapman ; Garber.)

• • Umbel compound.

71. C. Calif oniiciis, Watson. {C. speciosus, Torrey, Bot.
Mex. Bound. Survey.) California (Fitch, in Torrey Herb.)

72. C. Pringleij Britton. Catalina Mountains, southern
Arizona (Pringle.)

73- C. ligularis, L. (Not of Chapm., S. Flora, p. 507.) South-
ern Florida (Palmer, 1874, No. 532; Curtiss, N. A. Plants, No.
3046) ; also in Mexico, the West Indies, South America and
tropical Africa and Australia.

Digitized by


' ovoid


Digitized by


Digitized by



Cerastiiim arveiise, L., and its North
American Varieties.

BY Arthur Hollick and n . L. britton.

(Reprinted from Bulletin op the Tokrey Botanmcal Club, Vol. XIV., No. 3.

W". a. FARLOW.

Digitized by


Digitized by


Cerastium arvense, L., and its North American Varieties.
By Arthur Hollick and N. L. Britton.


While botanizing on Staten Island, New York, during the
past ten or twelve years, our attention was frequently attracted
by a Cerastium^ which grows abundantly at many places on the
serpentine hills, and in no other parts of the Island. This plant
agrees in general with the description of C. oblongi folium,
Torrey, in the Flora of the State of New York, and yet it exhib-
its such a variety of forms that we were led to collect a large
number of specimens and memoranda for comparison. The
further the subject was investigated the more interesting it
became to us, and finally resulted in the study of not only this
plant, but of allied forms from other places. Our studies have
resulted in the conclusion that the Staten Island plants are more
properly to be regarded as a variety of C. arvensCy L., and that
many other American forms of Cerastium are to be referred to
varieties of this species, as modified by climate, soil, etc.

In addition to specimens in our own collections and those in
the herbarium of Columbia College, others from the following
herbaria have been kindly placed at our disposal: Harvard
University, United States Department of Agriculture, Academy
of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, and Torrey Botanical Club.
In addition to these, we have received specimens and notes from
Prof. T. C. Porter, Mr. C. E. Smith, Mr. W. M. Canby, Mr. J. M.
Macoun, Dr. J. C. Arthur, Prof S. M. Tracy, and others.

The following is our proposed arrangement of the North
American forms of the species :

Cerastium ARVENSE, L. Leaves linear or narrowly lanceo-
late ; those of the stem distant ; stem and leaves hairy or nearly

Digitized by



smooth; bracts small; capsule equaling or somewhat exceeding
the calyx. (Plate LXiv., f. i.)

Spec. Plant., Ed. i., 438; Ed. ii., 628; Ed. Hi., 628; Fenzl., in Lcdeb. Fl. Ross.,
i., p. 412; DC., Prodr., i., 419; Syn. Flor. Gall., 39$; Hudson, Fl. Angl., 201 ;
Engl. Bot., PI. 93; Benth., Handbook Brit. Fl., i., 126; Koch, Syn. Flor. Germ.,
135; Reichb., Icon. Fl. Germ., vi., PI. 234, f. 4980; Ettingshausen & Pokomy, Phys.
PI. Austr. ix., PI. 889; Hartm., Haudb. Skand. Flor., 132; Boiss., Flor. Orient., i.,
728; Regel, Fl. Ost. Sib., i., 427 and 444; Gay, Fl. Chil., i., 276; Rohrb., Linnaea,
xxxvii., 303.

Hook., Fl. Bor. Am., i., 104; Muhl., Cat., 46; Bigel., Fl. Bost., 196; Torrey &
Gray, Fl. N. A., i., 188; Eaton & Wright, 188; Torrey, Fl. N. Y., i., 99; Bot.
Wilke's Exp., 246; Engelm., Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc., xiii, i86; Beck, Bot., 54;
Gray, Pac. R. Rep., xii., 41; Amer. Joum. Sci. (II.), xxxiii., 405; Proc. Phil.
Acad., 1863, 59; Manual, 94; Wood, Classbook, Ed, 1855, 188; Bot. & Flor., 55;
Cooper, Pac. R. R. Rep., xii., 57; Chapman, 50; Darby, 247; Meehan, Flowers and
Ferns, ii., pp. 189-192, excl. figure.

Porter, Hayden's Rep., 1870, 473; 1871, 479; Porter & Coulter, Fl. Col., 13;
Watson, King's Rep., v., 38 and 417; Bot. Cal., i., 67; Rothrock, Geog. Surv. W.
looth Mend., vi., 71; Willis, Cat. N. J., 12; Britlon, Prcl. Cat. N. J. Fl., 16; Coul-
ter, Bot. Rocky Mount. Reg., 33; Macoun, Cat. Plants Can., i., 77.

C. incanum^ Ledb., Mem. Acad. St. Petersb., v., 540 (fide Regel).

? C. hybridum^ Muhl., Ind. Fl. Lane, in Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. (I.) iii., 170.

C, Pennsyhfamcum, Homem., Hort. Hafn., 435; D C, Prodr. i., 420; Spreng.,
Syst. Veg., ii., 418; Don. Gard. Diet., i., 446.

6*. eiongatuMy Nutt., Joum. Acad. Sci., Phil., vii., 16. ?

C. tenuifolium^ Pursh., Fl. Amer. Sept., 321.

Habitat, Throughout northern North America, extending
southward along the AUeghanies and the Rocky Mountains;
also in the Andean region of South America and in Patagonia.
Throughout northern and central Europe and northern Asia.

Var. LATIFOLIUM, Fenzl. Leaves lanceolate to oblong-
lanceolate, shorter and broader than in the type ; those of the
stem closer ; stems low, 3 to 8 inches high, pubescent. (Plate
LXV., f S.)

Var. latifoiium^ Fenzl., and var. a/pico/umf Fenzl. , in Ledb. Ror. Ross., i., 412;
Regel, Flor. Ost. Sib., i., 445.

C. stricium, L., Spec. Plant., 3d Ed., 529; D C, Prodr., i., 419.

C. ciliatum^ Reich., Icon. Flor. Germ., vi., PI. 235, f. 4981.

C, pubescensy Goldie, Edin. Phil. Journ., 1822; Richards, Frank. Joum., ed. 2,
p. 18; DC, Prodr., i., 420.; Don. Gard. Diet., i., 447.

C. Pennsylvanicunty Hook. ^Jide spec, in Herb. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phil.

? C. arvense^ Richards, Franklin Journey, 10.

Habitat. Arctic and alpine regions of Europe, Asia and North
America. Labrador (Steinhaur, Kreuth, in Herb. Gray) ; Utah
(L. F. Ward, No. 539, 1875) ; Pike's Peak, Colo. (Parry) Franklin

Digitized by



Expedition (Hooker 1. c); and credited by Regel to "Ross

Colonie," N. W. America (1. c.) ; Cent. Utah (Parry, Nos. 5 and

6, 187s); Mts. of Colo., 1872 (Torrey) ; Clear Creek Station,

Col. (Newberry).

Var. ANGUSTI FOLIUM, Fenzl. Leaves elongated, linear or

narrowly linear-lanceolate ; stems pubescent, hoary or glandular.

(Plate LXV., f. 7.)

In Ledeb. Fl. Ross., i., 413; Regel, Flor. Ost. Sib., i., 445.
C. arvensey Hook., Load. Journ. Bot., vi., 75.

C. elongaium^ Pursh, Fl. Amer., Sept., i., 321; DC. Prodr., i., 417; Spreng.,
Syst. Veg., ii., 417; Hook., Flor. Bor. Amer., i., 103.

Habitat. Northern Asia and northwest America. Oregon
(Geyer, 284).

Var. MAXIMUM, n. var. Plants strong and stout, 12 to 20
inches high ; leaves broadly linear to lanceolate, 2 to 4 lines
wide, I to 2 inches long, acutish; capsule i^ times the
length of the calyx ; lower bracts generally foliaceous. (Plate
LXiv., f. 2.)

Habitat. Noyo, Mendocino Co., California (Bolander, Nos.
4723 and 6520); western California (G. R. Vasey), near San
Francisco (Mrs. M. K. Curran).

Var. OBLONGIFOLIUM, n. var. Leaves narrowly or broadly
oblong, or lanceolate-oblong, mostly obtuse; capsules i^ to
2\ times the length of the calyx ; stems generally taller and
stronger than in the type; pubescent. (Plates LXIII., and LXV.,
f. 6.)

Cerastiumy n. sp., Torrey, Amer. Journ. Sci., iv., 63.

C. oblongifoliumy Torrey, Fl. U. S., i., 460; Fl. N. Y., i., 99; Darlingt., Florala
Ccstr., 54, and Fl. Ceslr., 3d Ed.. 33, in part; Torrey and Gray, Fl. N. A., i., 188,
in part; Gray, Man., 94; Wood, Class-book, 188, in part; Bot. & Flor., 55; Beck,
Bot., 54?; Tatnall, Cat. Phen. & Fil. Plants, Newcastle Co., Del., 17; Newberry,
Cat. Plants, Ohio, p. 14; Porter, in Mombert's Auth. Hist. Lane. Co., Pa., 583; Wal-
ling and Gray's New Topog. Atlas, Penn., 25; Macoun, Cat. Plants Canada, i., 77;
Anderson, in Rep. State Mineralogist, Nevada, 118; Meehan, Flowers and Ferns,
ii., pp. 189 192; Coulter, Cat. Plants, Indiana, 4; HoUick and Britton, Fl. Rich-
mond Co., N. Y., 8; Patterson, Cat. Plants, III., 7; Arthur, Contr. Fl. Iowa, 9;
Upham, Cat. Fl. Minn., 32; Ward, Bull. U. S. Nat. Museum No. 22. 68; Tracy, Cat.
Plants, Missouri, 15.

C. dichotomunty Muhl., Cat., 46. ?

? C. bradeatum^ Raf., Proc. Decouv., 36; Poir., Suppl. v., 601; DC, Prodr., i.,
420; Don. Card. Diet., i., 447; Torrey and Gray, Fl. N. A., i., 189.

Habitat. Eastern United States from Virginia to New York ;

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near Alexandria, Va. (A. H. Curtiss) ; Washington, D. C. (Vasey,
Ward); Montgomery Co., Md. (J. D. Smith); Newcastle Co.,
Del. (Canby, Commons) ; Lancaster Co., Penn. (Porter) ; eleven
miles west of Philadelphia (C. E. Smith) ; and abundant on the
hills of Staten Island, N. Y. ; also extending westward to the
Sierra Nevada; Sandusky, Ohio (Douglass); Ogle Co., 111.
(Bebb) ; Dixons, 111. (Vasey) ; Decorah, Iowa (Holway) ;
Amherstburgh, Ontario (Macoun) ; Belleville, Ontario (Mrs Roy);
Santa Magdalena Mts., N. M. (G. R. Vasey) ; near Bozeman,
Montana (Scribner).

In the eastern United States, from southern New York to
Maryland, this variety is apparently confined to magnesian rocks.
On Staten Island it is certainly restricted to the serpentine
area ; with regard to the Pennsylvania localities, Mr. C. E. Smith
writes : " So far as I know or have ever heard, it is unknown in
our district (Philadelphia), except in one spot about, eleven miles
west of the city, where the road to West Chester crosses the
serpentine rocks, where it is plenty;" and we have examined a
specimen of Dr. Darlington's collecting, marked '* Serpentine
hill, Westchester, Pa.," while in his *' Flora Cestrica," he remarks,
** Banks of serpentine rock, frequent ;" as to the Delaware sta-
tions, Mr. W. M. Canby says, ** I do not know of its growing
elsewhere in this State, nor anywhere in this region (Newcastle
Co.), except on the serpentine, where it is very plentiful," and
Mr. A. Commons collected it *' on serpentine rock, Centre-
ville, Del." It also appears to grow in other places on magnesian
limestone, though we have not been able to verify this to any
extent ; specimens have been seen by us marked ** Banks of
Susquehanna, Lancaster Co., Pa., T. C. Porter;" and Professor
Porter has sent us specimens from the vicinity of Easton, Penn.,
at both of which localities magnesian limestone occurs ; and the
original of Dr. Torrey's C. oblongifolium came from a region of
magnesian limestone near Sandusky, Ohio. Further south and
west than these points we have thus far been unable to follow
this interesting association.

In this connection we have thought it a matter of some inter-
est to present the following analysis of the ash of this plant, from
specimens collected on Todt Hill, Staten Island, kindly made

Digitized by



for us by Mr. Ernest J. Lederle, of the School of Mines:

Silica ( Si Oa) 39.85

Alumina and Oxide of Iron (Alg Og and Fcg Og) 18.58

Lime(CaO) 9.35

Magnesia (Mg O - - - - - 19.79

From this it is seen that the magnesia constitutes about one-
fifth of the entire ash of the plant, and is present in larger
quantity than any other constituent* except the silica.

It should be remarked that the specimens seen from about
Washington, D. C, and from Montgomery county, Md., are
larger than those from the serpentine areas. The same may
also be said of the specimens from Amherstburgh, Ontario, said
by Mr. Macoun to grow in " damp woods,'* and also of those
from the West. In some respects these approach the forms
referred by us to var. maximum.

In Meehan's ** Native Flowers and Ferns of the United
States,*' Vol. ii., plate 48, is an illustration of one of these large
forms, made from a specimen collected in Bergen Park, Colo., at
an altitude of 7,000 feet. If this drawing is correct, it very
nearly represents our var. maximum, but we have not seen any
specimens of this from the Rocky Mountain regions.

Between Dr. Torrey's original description in the American
Journal of Science and Arts, in 1822, and his later description in
the Flora of the State of New York, published in 1843, there is
the following discrepancy : In the former the leaves are described
as acute, and the capsules as shorter than the calyx, while in the
latter the leaves are described as mostly obtuse, and the capsules
as about twice as long as the calyx. This is, perhaps, to be
accounted for by the original imperfect material. The latter
description agrees with the characters of our var. oblongifolium.

Var. VILLOSUM, n. var. Stem leaves lanceolate to ovate-
lanceolate ; capsules 2 to 2\ times the length of the calyx ; the
whole plant densely villous-pubescent. (Plate LXV., f 8.)

C. villosum, Muhl., Cat., 46; Darlingt., Flor. Ccstr*, 2d Ed., 279.
C. hirsutum, ? Darlingt., Flomla Cestr., 54. ?

C. oblongifolium, Darlingt., Flor. Cestr., 3d Ed., 33, in part; Torr. & Gray, Fl.
N. A., i., 188, in part.

Habitat. On serpentine rocks, Lancaster Co., Penn. (Porter) ;

Digitized by



Chester Co., Penn. (Kilvington, in Herb. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phil.)
This variety is to be regarded as the extreme broad-leaved
and hairy form of the species. Its range appears to be restricted^
to the serpentine barrens of Pennsylvania, where it apparently
passes gradually into the var. oblongifolium.

Var. FUEGIANUM, Hook., f Low ; smooth ; leaves short, small,
coriaceous and imbricated, lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate in out-
line ; pedicels solitary, or in few-flowered cymes ; capsules some-
what exceeding the calyx. (Plate LXIV., f 3.)

C arvense, var. , Coulter, in Hayden Rep., 1872, 762, nsune only.

Collected by Professor J. M. Coulter, Aug. nth, 1872, at
Lower Fire Hole Basin, Yellowstone Park.

This interesting form is identical with the var. Fuegianum^
Hook, f, in Bot. U. S. Expl. Exp., i., 129 (our Plate LXIV.,
f 4), from Fuegia, with specimens of which we have compared

As analagous to this remarkable distribution we have that of
Carex Magellanica^ Lam., whose range in North America is
from the arctic regions to northern Pennsylvania and Utah.


Plate LXIIL — Cerastium arvense, L., var. oblongifolium^ drawn

from a living plant collected on Todt Hill, Staten Island,

New York, May 26th, 1886.
Plate LXIV., fig. I. — C. arvense, L. Drawn from a specimen

collected by Prof. T. C. Porter, on the shore of the Delaware

River below Phillipsburg, N. J.

Fig. 2. — C, arvense, L., var. maximum. Drawn from a
specimen collected by Mrs. M. K. Curran, near San
Francisco, Cal.

Fig. 3. — C, arvense, L., var. Fuegianum. Drawn from speci-
men collected by Prof. J. M. Coulter, at the Lower Fire
Hole Basin, Yellowstone National Park.

Fig. 4. — C arvense, L., var. Fuegianum, Hook., f. from
Orange Harbor, Fuegia.
Plate LXV., Fig. 5. — C, arvense, L., var. latifolium, Fenzl. Drawn

from specimen collected in the mountains of Colorado, 1872,

by Dr. Torrey.

Digitized by


Digitized by


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Bulletin of the Tbrrey Botanical Club. Plate LXV.

Varieties of Cerastiunfi arvense, L

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Fig. 6. — C. arvensCy L., van oblongifolium^ from Staten

Fig. 7. — C, arvense, L., var. angustifolium^ Fenzl. Drawn

from specimen in Dr. Gray's herbarium, collected in

Oregon by Geyer.
Fig. 8. — C arvense^ L., var. villosum. From specimen

collected by Prof. T. C. Porter, in Lancaster county,

All the figures on Plates LXIV. and LXV. were drawn from
herbarium specimens.

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Digitized by



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Plant Notes from Termiscouata
County, Canada.


(Reprinteit from the Bvllitim of thi Tokbit Botanical Cldb, November, 1867.)



Digitized by


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Plant Notes from Termiscouata County, Canada.
By J. I. Northrop.

The parish of Notre Dame du Lac lies on the western shore
of Lake Termiscouata, Termiscouata Co., Canada, about forty-
eight miles from Riviere du Loup and thirty-one miles from
Edmundston, N. B.

The surrounding country is for the most part rolling hills
covered with the usual second growth of spruce, fir, larch and
birch. There are also groves of sugar maple and yellow birch,
and on the lowland near the lake the balsam poplar, Populus
balsamifera, grows luxuriantly. Populus tremuloides, Acer ru-
brum^ A. spicatutn, Prunus Pennsylvanicum and Rhus typhina are
common trees of the region.

The lake is about thirty miles long, and varies from three-
quarters of a mile to two miles in width. The shore is in most
places of slate, forming rocky points running into the lake, some-
times so abruptly as to make passing exceedingly difficult. In
the crevices of the slate grow Lobelia Kalmii, Campanula rotund-
ifolia and Parnassia Caroliniana. Near the bank we find
Potentilla fruticosa^ Spircea salicifolia and Myrica gaU.

Farther up Alnus viridis, Cornus stolonifera and Viburnum
Opulus form thickets guarded by the ever present Joe Pieweed,
Eupatorium purpureum. Here and there along the bank the
berries of Pyrus sambucifolia add their bright color to the scene.

Along the roadside, where not shaded by trees, Artemisia
vulgaris grows in undisturbed luxuriance, in company with the
wild raspberry, Rubus strigosus, and Sambucus racemosa.

In the fields one misses the ubiquitous Chrysanthemum Leu-
canthemum, but its place is well filled by Anaphalis margaritacea
and the Canada thistle. In many places the banks of the road-
side are covered with the bunch berry, Cornus Canadensis^ which
the French Canadians aptly called ** La rouge." Driving back
from the lake, five or six ranges of hills are crossed in as many
miles. In the valleys are lakes bordered with cedar swamps of
Thuja occidentalis. The lakes are shallow and have a muddy
bottom. Cassandra calyculata, Kalmia angustifolia, Ledum lati-
folium, are common on the borders.

The road from Notre Dame du Lac to Riviere du Loup run?

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partly through scattered farms and partly dirough woodland.
The land where cleared and neglected is covered widi a dense
growth of Pteris aquilina and Epilobium spicatum.

From Riviire du Loup I drove to Cacouna, a distance of four
miles down the St Lawrence. The beach at Cacouna is rocky in
some places, and at odiers sandy. On the sand CukiU Ameri-
cana^ Lathyrus maritimus^ Mertensia maritima and Arenaria
peploides, were collected. On the rocky points Plantago maritima
was found abundant

The plants of the following list were mosdy collected during
the month of August, at Notre Dame du Lac, A few are from
Grand Falls, N. B., where a stay of a few days was made.

Dr. N. L. Britton has kindly annotated the list, and many
thanks are due him for his assistance and for suggestions in re-
gard to nomenclature.



Thalictrum polygamum^ Muhl. Notre Dame du Lac.

Online LibraryN.Y.) Herbarium Columbia College (New YorkContributions from the Herbarium of Columbia College, Volume 1 → online text (page 2 of 26)