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sequently used for the tree by Miller and K. Koch ; but Linnaeus
published a G. incrmis in Syst. Nat. Ed. 10 (1759), as cited in
Richter's Codex, p. 1012, and repeated it in Sp. PI. Ed. 2, 1059
(1763). Although this G, iitermis of Linnaeus was, apparently,
a composite species made up of one from Java and the North
American G, triacanthos, the reference to the Javanese tree
by him stands first, and the species is said to come from Java.
Hence we are not justified in using the same binomial published
seven years later for a different plant.

SPIRiEA RUBRA (Hill).

Ulmaria rubra. Hill, Hort. Kew 214, t. 7 (1769).
Spircea lobata^ Gronov. in Jacq. Hort. Vind. i. 38, t. 88,
(1770).

Hiirs figure and description clearly indicate that he had this
plant in mind rather than Gillcnia stipiilata (Muhl.) Max. Act
Hort. Petr. vi. 228 {G. stipulacea, Nutt), as has been suggested.

Gaupt Cauadcnsc, Jacq. Hort. Vind. ii. 82, t 175 (1772).
G. Caroliiiiajium, Walt. Fl. Car. 150 (1788).
G. album, Gmel. Syst. ii. 861 (1791).

Jacquin*s plate leaves no doubt as to what he intended. There
is- a fragment of G. Carolinianum, Walt, in Walter's Herbarium
at the British Museum, which is apparently the same. G, Can-
adcnsc, Murray, Comm. Soc. Goett. v. 33, t. 4, f B. (177SJ, is
from figure and description clearly G. strictum. Ait. Hort Kew.
ii. 217 (1789), of which there is a type preserved in the general
herbarium at the British Museum.

Var. FLAVUM (Porter) ; G, album, var. flavum. Porter, Bull.
Torr. Club, xvii. 21(1 890).

Saxifraga Gcum, L. Sp. PI. i. 401 (1753).

There is a specimen of this species in Durand's Herbarium at
Paris, collected by the Rev. Mr. Steinhaur, in Newfoundland.
It is erroneously labeled by Durand S, spicata, Don. This ap-
pears to be the first indication of its occurrence in America.

Paruassia grandifolia, DC. Prodr. i. 320 (1824).

P, Caroliniana, Michx. var. /?., Hook. Jour. Bot. i. 194
(1834); T. and G. R N, A, i. 149.



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I believe that this southern plant is specifically different from
P. Caroliniana, Michx. As pointed out by Hooker, the stam-
inodia are very slender and exceed the anther-bearing stamens;
the flowers and leaves are usually larger ; Hooker further remarks
that these characters are retained in cultivation. I have never seen
elongated staminodia in our common northern plant, and am very
familiar with it in the wild state. The identity of DeCandolle*s
and Hooker's plants appears to be satisfactorily established.
We have it from North Carolina, (Rugel, Dr. Gray) Florida,
(Chapman). DeCandoUe's plant came from the Cherokee country,
and Hooker's from Louisiana. There may be some doubt as
to whether this, or what we are calling Caroliniana, is really the
plant of Michaux, because the specimen of it is missing in his
herbarium at Paris.

Ammannia Koehnei, n. sp. Ammania hnmilis, /?. T. & G.
Fl. N. A. i. 480 (1840).

Erect, glabrous, 6'-2o' high, at length freely branching.
Leaves obovate, oblonceolate, or somewhat spatulate, obtuse or
obtusish at the apex, the upper ones clasping and more or less
auriculate at the base, the lower narrowed and sessile, or taper-
ing into a short petiole ; flowers 1-3 together in the axils, sessile;
petals purple ? fugacious ; stamens very short, not exserted ;
style very short ; capsule enclosed by the calyx.

In swamps, Hackensack marshes, New Jersey (Torrey;
Leggett) to Florida. Named in honor of the distinguished
monographer of the Lythrarieae, Dr: E. Koehne, of Berlin. The
species cannot be referred to A. latifolia, L., which has auricu-
late, linear-lanceolate leaves and no petals.

Epilobitim liiicarc, Muhl. Cat. 39 (181 3).

My remarks on this species in reviewing Professor Trelease's
recent Revision of the North American Epilobia (BULLETIN,
this volume, p. 226), where I suggested that the name E. oligait-
thiim, Michx. (1803) should have been taken for it, are quite
wide of the mark, for the original in Michaux's Herbarium is E,
palustre, L., as determined there by Haussknecht.

Epilobiiim glandulosum^ Lehm.

Professor Trelease included this species in his treatment of
the East American members of the genus in the sixth edition of
Gray's Manual, but in his Revision, published subsequently, he



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272

excludes it from the range of that work, and cites its distribution
as only westward. Haussknect evidently based his statement
that it occurred eastward on a specimen in Michaux*s Herba-
rium, from Tadousac, Canada, which is so labelled by him.

Tillcca aquatica, L. Sp PI. 128 (1753).

T. simplex, Nutt. Journ. Acad. Phil. i. 114 (18 1 7).
Bnlliardia aqiiatica, D.C. Prodr. iii. 382 (1828).

I have carefully compared authentic specimens of the East
American plant with the Linnaean species at London and Paris,
and am convinced that the suggestion made in Torrey and Gray's
Flora N. A. that they are identical is the actual fact M.
Franchet kindly compared them with me at Paris, and had no
hesitation in pronouncing them identical. He also informed me
that the European plant occurs on mud, as does the American.

Vleckia, Raf. Med. Rep. (H) v. 352 (1808).

Lophanthus, Benth. Bot. Reg. xv. under t. 1282 (1829),
not Adanson, nor Forster.

Rafinesque gives Hyssopus mpetioidcs as the equivalent of
Vleckia ncpctoidcs, which plant was long subsequently referred
by Bentham to Lophanthns. But in addition to the fact that a
genus for these plants had been thus established, the name Lo-
phanthns had been used by Adanson in Fam. PI. li. 194 (1763)
for a species of Ncpcta, and by Forster (Char. Gen. PL Insul.
Maris Austral. 27, t 14 (1776), for plants now referred to Wal-
thcria. Hence Lophanthtts is, from my point of view, doubly
inapplicable to the genus of Labiatae.

Rafinesque has named all the American species under his
genus in New Flora N. A. and Fl. Telluriana.

UvULARIA, L. Gen. PI. Ed. i. p. 93, No. 263 (1737).

Oakcsia, S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. xiv. 221 (1S79).

The characters assigned to the genus proposed by Dr. Wat-
son appear to me to be insufficient to separate it from Uvularia.
They are all differences of degree rather than kind, and a care-
ful study of all the known species in the field has afforded me
no other points of difference on which a genus could be main-
tained. But whether they be considered as congeneric or dis-
tinct, the name applied by him is not available for these plants,
because it was previously given by Tuckerman to Coirma Cot-
radii, Torr. (Hook. London Journ. Bot. i. 445 (1842).



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CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE HERBARIUM OF
COLUMBIA COLLEGE -No. 21.



Notes on the North American Species
of Eriocauleae.



BY THOS. MORONG.



(ttoi>riiii»*<l from Bulletin of the Tohkey Botanical club. Vol. XVIll, No. i*-!. I^«^- It^^*)



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Notes on the North American Species of Eriocauiese.

By Thomas Morong.

This order is sparsely represented in North America, consist-
ing in fact only of a few outlying members of a tropical family.
A single species only is found as far north as Canada, the greater
number occurring in the warm sections of the United States.
The genus Lachnocaulon, however, is endemic in our country,
and therefore has a special interest for us. The great bulk of the
family is confined to South America, where three-quarters of the
three hundred and twenty-five species embraced in it occur. Our
own species have been imperfectly investigated and poorly de-
fined, and for this reason the present paper has been prepared in
the hope that something may be contributed towards a better
understanding of their characters and geographical distribution.

In general aspect these plants may be easily recognized, being
very peculiar. The flowers are androgynous or dioecious and
contained in more or less hemispherical heads which are enclosed
by involucral scales as in the Compositae. In the place of
growth they favor swampy grounds or shallow water, but a
few grow in low sandy barrens or fields. In mode of growth
they are caespitose, and new tufts of leaves are added year
by year to the stock so that in time quite a little colony is col-
lected about the same caudex, from which scapes, sometimes
very numerous, are annually sent up. The scapes are nearly
always twisted in the growth, and always marked longitudinally
by angles, which are frequently interrupted by intermediate
ridges or striae. As these intermediate ridges are often partial,
the number of angles assigned to a scape will vary with the point



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352

at which the number is reckoned. This will account for the dis-
crepancy which occurs in the statements of different observers. The
large roots are spongy or often conspicuously nodose for their
whole length. With three of the genera we have no concern, as
two of them, Philodice and Tonina, both together numbering five
species, are restricted to tropical South America, and the other,
Mesanthemuffiy numbering three species, is endemic in tropical
Africa.

The North American genera may be briefly distinguished as
follows :

Segments of the perianth four or six.
Stamens separate. Anthers two-celled. Stamens as many as

the perianth segments. i . Eriocaulon.

Stamens one-half as many as the perianth segments.

2. Dupatya.
Perianth of three segments. Stamens three, monadelphous below.

Anthers one- celled. 3. Lachnocaulon,

Eriocaulon is the most extensively diffused genus, being found
in tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world. As
classified by Kornicke in his monograph the species are divided
into fourteen sections. All the species occurring within the bor-
ders of the United States, so far as known, are acaulescent or
nearly so, the heads single on erect peduncles or scapes, the peri-
anth with one exception four-parted and the stamens four ; the
Mexican species are the same except in having six-parted flowers
and six stamens. The perianth segments, at least the upper ones,
are usually spotted with a minute black gland near the centre or
the apex. The heads are generally quite villose and grayish in
appearance, the parts of the perianth being strongly bearded. The
flowers are each subtended by a bract quite similar in markings
and general appearance to the perianth segments. Seeds oval,
brown when mature and, under the lens, covered with blunt or
spiny protuberances.

As the perianth segments are in two series and often separated
at a considerable distance, there is much variation in the language
applied to them by botanists. Kornicke calls the floral envelopes
a double perigonium, the exterior calyculate and interior sub-
corolline. Kunth spej^ks of then> as a double g*^lyx, while others



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853

still regard them as calyx and corolla. The segments of the two
series are alternate with each other, sometimes one or both pedi-
cellate or tubular below, sometimes free and separate, often par-
tially or wholly connate.

The floral appendages of these plants constitute a morphologi-
cal feature of great interest. In Eriocaulon the appendage of the
staminate flower appears like a style included in and coalescent
with the tube of the inner segments, projecting between the
bases of the stamens in three small black points which look much
like the segmental glands. I do not find this in the pistillate
flower. In Dupatya and Lachnocaulon the appendages are more
marked. In the staminate flower they stand up in two or three
distinct lobes which are often papillose. In the pistillate flower
they are attached to the style in or below the sinuses of the
stigmas, apparently enclosing and cohering with the style. Nearly
all the botanists who have noticed these appendages regard those
of the staminate flowers as rudimentary pistils. Kunth consid-
ers them so in both kinds of flowers, but most botanists are con-
tent to call those of the fertile flowers merely appendages.

Of the following species seven occur in the United States and
five in Mexico, of which two are more particularly described as
they approach our boundary near enough to render it probable
that sooner or later they will be detected on this side of the bor-
der.

I. Eriocaulon articulatum (Huds.).

Nasmythia articulatay Huds. Fl. Ang. Ed. 2, i, 415 (1778).

E, pellucidiim, Mx. Fl. ii, 166 (1803).

E. septangulare,W\i\\. Ar. Br. PI. ii. 257. (18 18); Torr.
Bot. N. Y. ii. 335 (1843), and other American authors.

Stem a mere crown. Leaves pellucid, three to eight nerved,
fenestrate, acuminate, ^ to 3 inches long, usually equal to the
sheaths. Scapes weak, commonly twisted, about seven-angled,
smooth, mostly from 4 to 8 inches in height, but sometimes
scarely one inch, and when submersed often elongating till they
are from 4 to 10 feet long, usually solitary but occasionally
clustered. Involucral scales smooth or the innermost bearded at
the apex, oblong, obtuse, entire, scarious, of a livid or fuscous
tint, usually shorter than the flowers. Heads androgynous, the



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marginal flowers usually staminate. Bracts cuneate or obovate,
abruptly pointed, fuscous above and white bearded, receptacle
smooth, flowers about i ^ lines high, the outer sterile perianth
tubular below and its lobes at some distance from the inner, all
bearded at the apex. The gland is borne sometimes on the
bract and both pairs of segments, and sometimes only on the
upper pair. One of the upper pair is generally larger than the
other. Fertile flowers scarcely more than half the size of the
sterile, the pairs of perianth segments without a tube, and much
nearer together than the sterile, all densely bearded.

Still, shallow water, ponds and streams, Newfoundland to
Ontario, New England and Minnesota, south to Florida and Texas.
Occurs in Great Britain. July to October.

2. Eriocaulon COMPRESSUM, Lam.
E,compressum, Lam. Encyc. iii. 276 (1789); Kornicke, Linnaea,

xxvii. 592 (1854).

E, gnaphalodes, Mx. Fl. ii. 165 (1803), and American authors
generally.

Leaves coarsely or finely six to twenty fenestrate- nerved,
usually shorter than the sheaths, tapering to a long, sharp point,
rigid, or when submerged thin and pellucid, scapes 6 to 35 inches
high, smooth, more or less compressed when dry, ten to twelve
angled. Involucral scales rounded, obtuse, scarious, shining,
smooth, imbricated in three or four rows, heads frequently dioe-
cious, 3 to 6 lines in diameter. Receptacle smooth. Flowers i^
to 2 lines high. • In other respects like the preceding species.

In anthesis the styles and stigmas are much exserted, stand-
ing above the heads like projecting threads. The sheaths are
obliquely fissured, obtuse at the point, veined like the leaves.

In still, shallow water, ponds and streams. New Jersey to
Texas. Cuba. May to October.

3. Eriocaulon decangulare, L.

E, decangulare, L. Sp. PI. Z^ (1753).

Caudex short and thick, from one to two inches long.
Leaves finely many- nerved, or often apparently nerveless,
ensiform, tapering to a blunt point, usually much longer than the
sheaths, 6 to 20 inches long and 2 to 8 lines broad. Scapes



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stout, rigid, smooth, ten to fourteen-angled, i to 3 feet high.
Heads 4 to 8 lines in diameter. Involucral scales ovate, often
eroded, dentate at the apex and hairy below. Receptacle hairy^
the hairs under the microscope many-celled, appearing acute at
the apex or very rarely club-shaped. Flowers about 2 lines
high, densely woolly at the base, the bract larger than the
flowers acute, white-bearded. Perianth segments spatulate,
white-bearded.

Swamps, New Jersey and Pennsylvania to Florida and Texas.
Cuba. June to October.

4. Eriocaulon Ravenelii, Chapm.

E, Ravenelii, Chapm. Fl. 503 (i860).

Very smooth throughout. Leaves linear, very acute, flat,
thick or thin and pellucid, finely five to ten-nerved, somewhat
longer than the sheaths. Scapes slender, 4 to 5 inches high,
clustered, five to six-sulcate. Sheaths obliquely fissured, acute,
nerved like the leaves. Heads i to 2 lines in diameter.
Involucral scales scarious, light straw-colored, oblong, very ob-
tuse. Bracts a little narrower than the scales, often obtusely
pointed and denticulate, fuliginous. Flowers scarcely more
than yi line high, fuscous, smooth. Segments of the outer fer-
tile perianth separate, very slender, mucronately pointed ; of
the inner somewhat broader, minutely toothed. Ovary sessile ;
style parted into two stigmas. Chapman states that the style is
occasionally simple and the seeds minutely pubescent The spec-
imens which I have examined failed to show either.

Wet grounds, S. C.

5. Eriocaulon Texense, Kom.

E, Texense, Korn. Linnaea, xxvii. 595 (1854).

Scapes smooth, 8 to 10 inches high, six to seven-sulcate, slender,
in the specimens examined solitary. Leaves acuminate, many-
nerved, fenestrate, flat, smooth, i to 2 inches long, a little shorter
than the sheaths. Roots fibrous, the larger ones nodose. Heads
hemispherical, i to 2 lines in diameter. Involucral scales
obovate or nearly orbicular, smooth, entire, straw-colored. Re-
ceptacle pilose with silky hairs. Bracts as long as the flowers,
cuneate or obovate, the upper part livid, the lower whitish,



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366

rounded'or more commonly pointed at the apex, hairy on the
back and fimbriate at the apex with a coarse white beard. Flow-
ers about I line long. Outer perianth segments in the staminate
flower free, abruptly acute, slightly longer and larger than the
inner, spatulate, fuscous above and bearded. Pistillate flowers
bearded similarly to the staminate, the lobes occasionally three ;
ovary shortly, stipitate, dicoccous ; stigmas two. The heads
appear densely villous. This species is easily distinguished from
E. articulatum and E, compressum by its villose receptacle, and
from E. decangulare by its smaller stature, its more slender scape,
shorter and acute bracts, smaller heads and flowers.
Texas, Drummond, 2nd coll., n. 409.

6. Eriocaulon Kornickianum, Van Heurck & Mull. Arg.

E, Kornickianum, Van Heurck et Miill. Arg. Obs. PI. Nov.
Herb. Van Heurck, 10 1 (1870).

I have not seen a specimen of this Texan plant, but the
authors of the species describe it as having pellucid leaves which
are five to seven- nerved, plane, smooth, 8 to 1 1 lines long and
a little over i line wide at the base. Scapes numerous, 4 to 5
inches high, setaceous, smooth, compressed, two to three-angled,
with lax sheaths which are as long as the leaves. Heads ovoid-
globose, about I ^ inch long, a little longer than broad. Involu-
cral scales fuliginous, broadly obovate, irregularly denticulate and
white-woolly above, at length slightly recurved. Receptacle
smooth. Bracts not quite i line high, surpassing the flowers.
Sterile flowers about ^ line high ; outer perianth segments
smooth and black-glandular at the apex ; inner obovate and pilose
at the apex. Stamens four. Inner perianth segments of the fertile
flower white- woolly on the margins. Style two-parted, plainly
destitute of appendages. Seeds ellipsoidal, rough papillose.

East Texas. Coll. Charles Wright, in Herb. DC. et Van
Heurck.
7. Eriocaulon microcephalum, H. B. K.

E, microcephalum y H. B. K. Nov. Gen. i. 253 (18 15); Kunth
Enum. 3, 548 (1841).

Small caespitose plants. Leaves 4 to 8 lines long, acute,
five to eight fenestrate-nerved, smooth above, often woolly at



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the base. Scapes clustered, numerous, 4 to 6 lines high,
smooth, four-angled, the angles often separated by finer inter-
mediate striae. Sheaths shorter than the leaves, rather obtuse at
the point. Heads globular, about i line in diameter. Involu-
cral scales broadly obovate, entire or denticulate, very light
straw-colored, smooth or sometimes scantily fimbriate at the
apex. Receptacle smooth. Bracts obovate, acute or obtuse,
longer than the flowers, bearded at the apex. Flowers trimerous,
a little more than i line high. Staminate flowers pedicellate ;
exterior perianth segments sometimes two only, obtuse, the pos-
terior ones connate in a keeled hood and white pilose at the top ;
interior segments white, tubular below, three-lobed above, the
lobes fimbriate, rounded, denticulate or entire at the apex. Sta-
mens six. Fertile flowers sessile, exterior perianth segments
often two only ; fuscous above and pilose, the interior more deli-
cate and longer, white, spatulate, obtuse, pilose internally and on
the margin. Ovary sessile, three-celled. Style three-parted;
stigmas three.

This species has found its way from Jalisco, Mexico, where
it is common, to Fort Tejon, California, at which place it was
collected by Xantus in the expedition of 1857-8, although it is
not enumerated in Dr. Gray's list of Xantus' plants. I find spec-
imens of it without a name in the Torrey Herbarium.
8. Eriocaulon Benthami, Kunth.

E, Benthami, Kunth. Enum. 3, 545 (1841), originally pub-
lished by Bentham in his PI. Hart., p. 28, as ** Eriocauli,
sp. nov ? "

Leaves i to 3 inches long, smooth, about the same length as
the sheaths or longer ; eight to twelve- nerved, obtuse and cal-
lous at the apex. Scapes 4 to 1 5 inches high, smooth, six or
seven-sulcate. Roots thick, nodose. Heads very white-woolly,
globose, 2 to 3 lines in diameter. Involucral scales smooth,
obtuse, somewhat longer than the bracts, straw-colored. Recep-
tacle pilose. Bracts spatulate, fuscous, abruptly acute, woolly on
the back and coarsely white-bearded on the apical margins.
Flowers \% line high; perianth six-parted, the three exterior
segments free, white below, fuscous above and bearded at the
apex. In the staminate flower the interior perianth is stipitate



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858

and the two anterior segments are connected with the posterior
one ; in the pistillate flower they are free. All the segments are
bearded at the apex. Stamens six. Ovary stipitate, three-
celled ; style three-parted. The species is well distinguished from
E, decangularc, to which it is similar in habit, by its six-parted
flowers. Hartweg collected this plant at Lagos, Mexico.

Wet grounds, Province of Jalisco, Mexico, Palmer, 1886,
No. 44, and Pringle, 1888, No. 1,734. June-November.

9. Eriocaulon Pringlei, S. Wats.
E, Pringlei, S. Watson, Proc. Am. Ac. xxiii. 283 (1888).

A delicate plant with slender five to six-sulcate scapes ^ to
5 inches high, all the parts very smooth. Leaves acuminate, flat,
about three-nerved, as long as or a little longer than the sheaths.
Roots finely fibrous, spongy. Heads i to 1 5^ lines in diame-
ter, fuscous. Involucral scales obovate, scarious, very dark,
eroded at the apex. Receptacle smooth. Bracts pointed.
Flowers scarcely ^ line high. Exterior perianth segments in
both kinds of flowers two ; the interior three. Sterile flower —
outer segments free, pointed, entire ; inner with a short tube or
stipitate, eroded or denticulate at the apex. Stamens six. Fer-
tile flower — outer segments the same ; inner very narrow, shortly
tubular at base. Ovary three or sometimes two-celled. Style
three or sometimes two-parted.

Wet places at the base of Sierra Madre, Chihuahua, Mexico.
Pringle, No. 2,018. October.

2. DUPATYA, Veil. Fl. Flum. 35, xMo. 42 (1825).

PcBpalanthus, Mart. Nov. Act. Nat. Cur. xvii. 1,13 (1833-5).

This genus closely resembles Eriocaulon in general appear-
ance and habit, but is distinguished by having the interior seg-
ments of the sterile flower campanulate-tubular, and the stamens
of the same number as the lobes. The flowers are with rare ex-
ceptions three-parted throughout, the three stigmas often bifid.
Seeds oval, more or less costate.

The genus is very extensively represented in South America,
being concentrated in Brazil. Kornicke in his monograph
enumerates 215 species. Only one is found in North America,



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359

I. DUPATYA FLAVIDULA (Mx.).

Eriocaulon flavidulufHy Mx. Fl. ii. i66 (1803).

Pcepalanthus flaviduluSy Kunth, Enum. iii. 532 (1841).

Dupatya flavidula, Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PL 745 (1891).

Leaves i to 2 inches long, three to five-nerved, linear-subu-
late, floccose at base and smooth or sparingly pubescent above.
Scapes numerous, five-sulcate, pubescent, 4 to 12 inches high.
Sheaths longer than the leaves, obliquely fissured, slightly inflated
at the summit, pubescent like the scape. Heads 2 to 3 lines in
diameter. Involucral scales straw colored, scarious, smooth, shin-
ing, oval or ovate, obtuse, somewhat hairy at base. Receptacle


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