N.Y.) Herbarium Columbia College (New York.

Contributions from the Herbarium of Columbia College, Volume 1 online

. (page 6 of 26)
Online LibraryN.Y.) Herbarium Columbia College (New YorkContributions from the Herbarium of Columbia College, Volume 1 → online text (page 6 of 26)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

shelled nuts.** I am very confident that its alliance is not with
H, ovata. The mistake may have arisen from the fact that in
the Herbarium of the Philadelphia Academy, a label of Nuttall's
has been misplaced and pasted alongside of a flowering twig of
H, ovata. But his original description, his authentic fruiting
specimens both at Philadelphia and Kew, and the figure of the
plant in his Sylva, prove that its affinities are not with the Shag-
barks, but rather as I have placed it.

X |Nut larger, thick-shelled ; leaflets 5 to 9.

(7.) H. GLABRA (Mill). (J uglans glabra, Mill., Gard. Diet.,

No. 5, (1759); Juglans porcina, Michx. f, Hist. Arbres Amer.,

i., 206, t. 9, (18 10); Carya glabra. Torn; Carya porcina, Nutt.)

The size of the nut is given in Gray's Manual, (p. 449), at from

I ^ to 2 inches long. While they do actually grow as large as

this in the Southern States, the more correct figures for those of

New York and the Middle States generally is not more than

half these dimen.sions.

J J JNut smooth, very thin-shelled, with a very bitter seed ; leaflets 7 to g,
ovate lanceolate, minutely glandular, pubescent beneath.

(8.). H. MINIMA (Marsh). Juglans alba minima^ Marsh.,
Arb. Amer., p. 68,(1785); Juglans antara, Michx., f. Hist.
Arbres Amer., i., 177, t. 4, (1810); Carya amara, Nutt.) The
name minima applied by Marshall evidently refers to the size of
the leaflets, which, as a general thing, are smaller at maturity
than those of any other Northern species.

+ t||Nut thin-shelled, angular; seed bitter; leaflets 7 to 13, lanceolate-
acuminate, somewhat falcate and inequilateral, slightly pubescent below.

(9.) H. AQUATICA, (Michx., f.) {Juglans aqualica,Michx,,{,,
Hist. Arbres Amer., i., 182, t. S ; Carya aquatica, Nutt.) The
northward range of this species may now be increased to Mob
Jack Bay, Virginia, (Leggett.)

ttNut ovoid, smooth, extremely thick-shelled.

(10.) H. MYRISTIC/EFORMIS, (Michx., f) Juglans myristi-

Digitized by



ccsformis, Michx.,i, Hist. Arbres Amer., i., 211, t. 10; Carya
myristiccBfonniSy Nutt)

With Carya Texana, C. DC, Ann. Sci. Nat. (IV), xviii., 33,
I am entirely unacquainted.

The Herbaria are not without indications of additional forms
to those I have been able to separate. Noteworthy among these
is a specimen collected by Mr. Curtiss at Lookout Mountain,
Tenn., and preserved in the National Herbarium. It is in fruit,
and belongs, I suspect, to the group with thin husks. The fruit
is oblong, an inch in length and strongly four-winged by the pro-
jecting edges of the involucre valves. The leaflets are uniformly
seven, ovate- lanceolate, acuminate, and remarkably pale beneath,
in which character it differs from all the species I know. There
is a slight amount of pubescence on the rachis ajid midveins.

In the mountains of Sussex County, New Jersey, there oc-
curs a form of H. glabra, which has more or less pubescence on
the lower surfaces of the leaves, and particularly on the rachis
at the base of the leaflets.

Digitized by


Digitized by



Digitized by


Digitized by'

Digitized by


Digitized by





Vol. XVJ New York, December 4, 1888. [No. 12.

A Recent Discovery of Hybrid Oaks on Staten Island.
By Arthur Hollick.


One day during the past summer Mr. Wm. T. Davis, of
Tompkinsville, Staten Island, brought to me some leaves of an
oak tree which he had found growing in the neighborhood of
Tottenville, Staten Island, N. Y. To my surprise and delight I
recognized them as belonging to Quercus heterophyllay Michx. —
the celebrated " Bartram Oak." On September 2d we visited
the locality and found not only typical Q, heterophylla, but also
a number of other peculiar forms, evidently hybrids, and including
Q. Rudkiniy Britton. On September 22d the trees were again
visited ; a careful study was made of them and their surroundings
and a fine series of leaves and fruit collected. Probably no better
opportunities for observation or finer specimens for study and
comparison have ever been obtained, and the results have proved
to be highly interesting. Two recognized species are added to the
local flora of Staten Island and to the flora of New York State, and
the northern range oiQ, heterophylla is extended about thirty miles
from its nearest previously-reported station. Considerable new
light is also shed upon the question of the proper status of this
latter form, in the botanical world, whether as a species, a variety
or a hybrid, and, if the latter, what species are the probable parents.

The limits of this paper forbid an extensive review of the lit-
erature concerning these two interesting oaks, but for the benefit
of all who may wish to study the subject I would refer to the ac-
count of Q. Rudkini, by Dr. N. L. Britton, in Vol. IX. No. 2, of
the Bulletin, and for Q, heterophylla to Mr. I. C. Martindale's
** Notes on the Bartram Oak," read before the West New Jersey
Surveyors' Association, Jan. 6, i88o, and subsequently published
in pamphlet form by the author. As, however, everyone may

Digitized by



not have access to these documents, I have thought that the fol-
lowing brief account of this latter oak — its history and the con-
troversy regarding it — might not be out of place :

Some time during the early part of the last century a peculiar
oak tree attracted the attention of botanists and others. It was a
single individual, growing on the farm of Mr. John Bartram, on
the banks of the Schuylkill, just above Philadelphia. From its
location it received the name " Bartram Oak." It was also called
•* Burners Oak," though why this latter name I have never been
able to obtain the slightest clue. Just when the tree was first ob-
served there does not appear to be any record, but it must have
been prior to the year 1750, for on page 183 of Darlington's
** Memorials of Bartram and Marshall" there is printed a copy of
a letter which was written by Peter CoUinson to John Bartram,

from which I extract as follows :

Mch. 5th, 1750-1.
My Good Friend John:

Pray what is the reason I have no acorns from that particular species of oak
that Dr. Mitchell found in thy meadow? And I observe, in thy specimens, two
other narrow leaved oaks. As I have now ground enough I wish for a dozen
good acorns of each. * * * *

Thine. P. Collinson.

This is, I believe, the earliest reference in literature to this
oak. No scientific name was given to it nor. was it even men-
tioned in Humphrey Marshall's ** Arbustrum Americanum," pub-
lished in 1785. Andreas Michaux*s "Flora Boreali-Americana,"
published in 1803 and reprinted in 1820, does not enumerate it
among the oaks, although it is evident that he must have been
aware of its existence, as his son, F. Andre Michaux, says in his
** Histoire des Arbres Forestiers de V Amerique Septentrionale,"
published in French in 1810 and republished in English in 1819:
(See Vol I, p. 75,76; plate 18.) ** Bartram Oak. Quercus
heterophylla. Every botanist who has visited different regions of
the globe must have remarked certain species of vegetables which
are so little multiplied that they seem likely at no distant period
to disappear from the earth. To this class belongs the Bartram
Oak. Several English and American naturalists, who, like my
father and myself, have spent years in exploring the United States,
and who have obligingly communicated to us the result of their
observations, have, like us, found no traces of this species except

Digitized by



a single stock in a field belonging to Mr. Bartram on the banks
of the Schuylkill, 4 miles from Philadelphia. This is a flourishing
tree, 30 feet in height and 1 2 inches in diameter ; and seems
formed to attain a much greater development. • • ♦ ♦ i
was at first disposed to consider this tree as a variety of the laurel
oak, to which it bears the greatest affinity; but the leaves of that
species are never indented, and not a stock of it exists within a
hundred miles of Philadelphia."

This is no doubt the first published description and represen-
tation of this oak, and the very appropriate specific name given
to it at that time by Michaux has fortunately not been subjected
to any change by later botanists, so that there is no tangled skein
of synonomy to unravel, and the specific title, heterophylla^
" various leaved," will always serve it as its name, no matter
whether it be classed as a variety, a species, or a hybrid. From
the time of Michaux's description until about the year 1850 no
other trees seem to have been found, and the only ones known
were the original and a few seedlings from it. In fact, when
the original tree was cut down, about the year 1840, it was
thought that the species, if such it was, was exterminated. So
that for a period of a hundred years the only material for study was
from a single tree and its immediate progeny. This, however,
did not prevent the botanists of that time from recording opinions
in regard to it. Michaux, as before stated, gave to it a specific
rank. Purshsaid: "* * It is probably only a hybrid plant."
* * Nuttall asked : " May not this be an anomalous variety of
coccinea f Torrey states unequivocally : " A hybrid." Gray, in
his Manual pubhshedin 1848, says: ♦*• • • doubtless a hybrid
between Q. Phellos and Q. falcata, or some other species of that
section." In the second edition of the Manual, published in
1856, he changes his opinion, and says: <• • • • apparently
a hybrid between Q. Phellos and Q, tinctorial In the fifth
edition, pulilished in 1867, he quotes De Candolle as referring it
to a variety of Q, aquatica, and then says : ** It is as likely to be
a variety of Q, Phellos, with dilated and toothed or cut leaves."
About the year 1855, however, some trees were discovered at Mt.
Holly, N. J., (Fide specimen in Herb. Columbia College, marked
**Mt. Holly, N. J., Aug. 25, 1855, W. Proctor,") and others

Digitized by



were subsequently found at stations in New Jersey and Delaware
by Messrs. Smith, Leidy, Burk, Martindale, Meehan, Austin,
Canby, Commons and others, which have been the subjects of
numerous papers, notes and discussions. Even in the light of this
new material, however, I find that there is as much difference of
opinion as ever. Englemann first considered it as a good species
and subsequently decided that it was hybrid with probably Q,
Pkellos diVid Q, coccinea for parents. Leidy considered it a hybrid
between Q. Phellos and Q, palustris. S. B. Buckley says, in
describing the tree at Mt. Holly : " It is ♦ * • in a thicket
near several willow oaks (Quercus phellos), of which it is plainly
one." Cope and Smith rather lean to the opinion that it is a
variety of Q, Phellos, A number of other botanists might be
quoted as naming imbricaria, nigra and other species from which
it may have been derived, but in nearly every instance Q. Phellos
is mentioned as being connected with it in some way. Trees have
also been reported from the District of Columbia, Maryland,
North Carolina and Texas, but I have not seen specimens from
any of these localities and the published descriptions of them are
rather vague and indefinite. If all the localities where Q, hetero-
phylla has been found, between Newcastle County, Del., and Staten
Island, N. Y., were marked upon a map, they would be included
in a straight narrow strip of country about ten or twelve miles in
width ; and this limited belt would probably include nearly every
specimen of this tree now definitely known to be in existence.

The Staten Island station, is, like all the others, on the Creta-
ceous formation. The situation is a low piece of wet, sandy wood-
land, about a quarter of a mile from the beach. This piece of
woodland is several acres in extent and its most conspicuous trees
are Castanea, Pinus rigiduy Quercus alba, Q. rubra, Q. stellata,
Q. 7iigra, Q. coccifiea, Q. tinctoria, Q. palustris, and Q, Phellos, but
the hybrids are confined to a very limited area, not more than
half an acre in extent and entirely within the very restricted ter-
ritory where Q, Phellos occurs*. The immediate neighbors in
this group at the present time are Q. palustris, Q. nigra, Q. tine-
toria and Q, coccinea. A careful count was made of all trees

*ln this connection it is a matter of interest to know that Q. PIullos does not
grow in any other part of Staten Island.

Digitized by



which were considered hybrids, and an enumeration of twenty was
the result. Three of these were Q. Rudkini and the others either
typical Q. heierophylla or else members of the same series, show-
ing Q. Phellos to be undoubtedly at one extreme and some one
of the broad, lobed-leaved species at the other. Not more than
fifteen trees of Q. Phellos were noted. The trees of Q, Rudkini
are mostly low, with dark green coriaceous foliage, showing their
relationship to Q, nigra. These, however, need not concern us,
as I consider their proper status and relationship to be definitely
settled, so that in what follows I shall confine myself to a discus-
sion of the forms which include Q, heterophylla. These are evi-
dently designed to be large, the tallest one being about 50 feet
in height and 3 feet 8 inches in circumference, and having the
appearance of a young and vigorous growing tree. The leaf
and fruit of this tree are shown at fig. 1 , plate LXXXV. As a
rule the largest trees are those having the leaves most cut or lobed
and the largest acorns, while the smaller trees approach nearer to
the Phellos type. The leaves upon each tree, however, vary a
great deal, although there is generally enough of some one pre-
vailing form to give to each a decided individuality, and if they
could he arranged side by side according to leaf form a graduated
series would be the result, showing an almost imperceptible change
from member to member.

The petioles are of medium length, varying from Y^ in. in the
large, deeply lobed leaves, to Y^ in. in the entire leaved forms.
The margins are either entire, wavy, lobed on one or both sides,
or sinuate toothed with the teeth bristle pointed. In some there
are bristles on the margin where a tooth or lobe is merely indi-
cated by a slight inequality. As a rule they are rather thin,
green both sides, somewhat tomentose along the midrib or at the
junction of the midrib and main veins. In others the texture is
somewhat coriaceous — approaching forms of Q, Rudkini. Fig. 3,
Plate I XXXIV. represents an anomalous form, with thin, spar-
ingly lobed leaves, covered over the entire under surface with a
close light brown tomentum. The acorn is globose, flattened and
with a deeper cup than the others. The general habit of the tree
is slender and willow like, and it hardly appears tg be a member
of the series.

Digitized by



The venation is also a character which shows the transition
between the simply pinnate veining of Phellos and the more
complex branching of the broad, lobed forms. The acorns vary-
in shape from ovoid to almost globose, and, in size, from those of
Phellos to others almost an inch in length by ^ in. in diameter
at the largest part. The cups are invariably saucer shaped, with
closely appressed scales.

I made a special journey late in the season, to ascertain, if
possible, whether anything could be learned from the autumnal
coloring of the leaves, but I found them to be a uniform light
yellow, turning brown.

From these observed facts I have finally come to the con-
clusion that we must consider. Q. heterophylla to be a hybrid, and
further, that one of the parents is Q. Phellos, They are invariably
associated together, or at least the former has never been found
except in the immediate vicinity of the latter; and, added to
this, we know that Q. Phellos does produce a hybrid with Q.
nigra and that this hybrid occurs associated with Q. luierophylla.
It would not, in fact, be a matter of surprise to me if we should
eventually find that other hybrid forms have resulted from the
influence of Q. Phellos over other species of the black oak
group. As to the other probable parent of Q. heterophylla
there is yet room for careful research, although I think that
the discovery of these trees on Staten Island has considerably
simplified the matter. The species mentioned by those who have
written upon the subject are aquatica, imbricaria, falcata, coccineay
tinctoria and palustris. The first three may be thrown out of
the calculation at once on account of their geographical range —
not a single specimen of either having ever been found or reported
within miles of our station. Coccinea and tinctoria, while show-
ing a leaf form that is satisfactory, have acorns with deep
cups, entirely distinct from those of heterophylla. Palusiris
has a cup of the required form, but the acorn is far too small, and
the lobes of the leaves have a distinctive divergent characteristic
which those of heterophylla have not. The only other probable
species, and it is the only one which does not seem to have been
considered by our botanists, is rubra. Why this species has not
received the attention it deserves in this connection I am at a loss

Digitized by



to understand, as both the leaf and acorn are eminently fitted to
terminate one extreme of the series of which Phellos is the other,
as I have endeavored to show in the accompanying plates. The
only cause for hesitation which I have in accepting this as a satis-
factory conclusion is that I failed to find trees of rubra growing in
the immediate vicinity, although there are a number of them only
a few hundred yards away. We should however remember that
this species may have been present, associated with Phellos, years
since, at the time when the existing large specimens of heterophylla
were produced, probably 50 or 75 years ago. It may be that
hybridization has not taken place in many years and that the
young trees are merely seedlings from a few originals. This idea
is strengthened in my mind from the fact that the largest and
oldest trees come nearest to the type of rubra, while the smallest
or youngest trees show a preponderance of the Phellos type — ap-
parently showing a tendency to revert back to it. Dr. N. L.
Britton has also pointed out to me a significant fact in this con-
nection, viz. : that throughout the region where heterophylla has
been found Phellos, rubra, and other members of the black oak
group occur, but that to the eastward, in the Pine Barren region,
heterophylla or rubra are not reported, although Phellos is abun-
dant and palustris and other black oaks are present. In fact
Jieterophylla only seems to occur where Phellos and rubra occupy
a territory in common.

Algse from Atlantic City, N.J.

Collected by S. R. Morse.

The following species were collected at various times during
the years 1884 to 1888 inclusive, and the specimens sent to me
for examination ; also in May, 1885, Mr. Morse and myself spent
a few days together collecting. While this is certainly not a
complete list of the algae of Atlantic City, it contains quite a large
number for a locality having no rocky shore whatever, but an
open sandy beach in front, and muddy creeks and marshes in the

Gloeocapsa crepidinum, Thuret. Common on woodwork.
Entophysalis granulosa, Kutz. On shells, etc. Not previously

reported on the American coast.

Digitized by



Polycystis pallida (Kiitz.), Farlow. Mixed with other Crypto-

^^^*hrocystis roseo-persicina^ Cohn. Abundant on the marshes.

zrozyga CarmichcBlii, Harv. Common on muddy flats, and

1 shallow pools in the marshes.

ilifia tenuissima^ Kiitz. In small quantity, mixed with Os-

illarias, etc.

Uaria subuliformis^ Harv. Mixed with other Cryptophyceae.

\btorulosa (Breb.), Farlow. With the preceding species.

ocoleus chthonoplastes^ Thuret. On the marshes, mixed with

ther algae.

'bya majuscula, Harv. Not uncommon, floating.

^tuarii, Liebm. Common on marshes, etc.

fierrima, Thuret. In small quantity, among other algae.

*krix confervicola, Ag. On various algae.

nisiacea (Schous.), Born., et Thur. On various algae, fre-

uently mixed with the preceding.

opulorum, Ag. On woodwork, etc.

dvinata, Ag. Common on piles of wharves and bridges.

laria hospita^ Thuret. On an oyster shell.

is plana. Thuret. On shells.

^stroma crepidinum, Farlow. On woodwork in a tidal creek.
Lactuca (L.), Le Jolis. Common, including var. rigida, Le

dUs, and var. latissima, Le Jolis.

iteromorpha, Le Jolis. Very common, including var. lance-

lata^ Le Jolis, var. intestinalis, Le Jolis, var. compressa, Le


athrata, Ag. Common, including var. ramulosa, and var.

^ecia, Le Jolis.

^opkirkii (McCalla), Harv. Not very common.

arginata, Le Jolis. Not very common.

rcursa, Ag. Rather common in tide-pools, mixed with

ther algae, from which it is hardly distinguishable except by

licroscopic examination.

ireola, Ag. Not uncommon on woodwork.

xrix Jlacca (Dillw.), Thuret.

ogona, Thuret. These two species not uncommon on wood-
work and other algae. A very slender form grows on Bos-

Digitized by



trychia rivularisy possibly distinct from either of the foregoing.

ChcBtomorpha Picquotiana (Mont.), Kiitz.

C Linum, Kiitz. It is impossible to draw the line between these
two species in the Atlantic City specimens. Typical forms
of each may be found, and so can every shade between them.

Rhizocloniiim riparium. Roth. Common.

Cladophora albida (Huds.), Kiitz. Beside the type, a plant occurs,
which seems to be the C. refracta of Harvey, (Phyc. Brit,) and
is probably a form of C, albida, in which Hauck (Deutsch-
land's Meeresalgen) includes C, refracta of Harv. and Kutz.
The plant of the New England coast which I take to be the
C. refracta of Farlow*s Man., is quite distinct. Hauck places
the latter as forma refrcLcta in C, hamosa, Kiitz.

C, glaucescenSy Harv. Not uncommon.

C. Hutchinsice, Kiitz. Not uncommon. Luxuriant specimens
from Longport, collected by Mrs. Lawton.

Cladophora flexuosay Harv, A doubtful species, but some speci-
mens found at Atlantic City seem to belong here.

C. gracilis (Griff.), Kutz. Common and variable.

C, expansa, Kiitz. Common, especially in marsh tide-pools.

Bryopsis plumosa (Kiitz.), Ag. Not uncommon.

Pkyllitis fascia, Kiitz. Common.

Scytosiphon lomentariiiSy Ag. Common.

Punctaria latifolia, Grev.

P, latifolia, Grev., van Zoster ce, Le Jolis.

P, plantaginea (Roth.), Grev. All three forms rather common.

Dictyosiphon foeniculaceus, Grev. Common, including forms
which appear to be var. flaccidus, Aresch.

Myriotrichia clavceformis, Harv.

M, clavceformis, Harv., var. fHiformis, Farlow. On Scytosiphon
and Phyllitis.

Ectocarpus terminalis, Kiitz. On Zostera,

E, tomentosus (Huds.), L)jng. Rather common.

E, granulosus, Ag. Not uncommon.

E. confervoides (Roth.), Le Jolis. Very common.

E. confervoides, var. siliculosus, Kjellman. Almost as common
as the type.

Digitized by



E. littoralis.X.yngh, Very common and variable. Among other
forms the var. brae hiatus, Ag. {E. ramellosus, Kiitz.)

Myrionema vulgare, Thur. Common.

Elachistea fucicola. Fries. Common on Fucus,

Leathesia difformis (L.), Aresch. Not very common ; generally of
small size, growing on Zostera.

Chordaria flagelliformis, Ag. Have only seen a few plants.

Mesogloia divaricata, Kiitz. Not uncommon.

Ralfsia verrucosa^ Aresch. A small form, growing on wood-work.

R, clavata (Carm.), Crouan. With the preceding.

Laminaria saccharina (L.), Lamour. Not rare, but not so com-
mon nor so luxuriant as further north. Washed ashore from
below low water mark.

Ascopkyllum nodosum (L.), Le Jolis. Common.

Fucus vesiculosuSy L. Common.

F, furcatuSy Ag. A single plant, washed ashore, apparently hav-

ing grown on a mussel bed below low water mark. Not
exactly like the form as found on the New England coast;
having some resemblance to /^ evanescens, Ag.

Sargassum vulgare, Ag. Have only seen a few plants ; appar-
ently not very common.

Vaucheria Thuretii^ Woronin.

V. litorea, Nordstedt. Have seen only sterile plants of these two
species, so that the determination is not certain.

Trentepohlia virgatula (Harv.), Farlow. On Zostera and algae.

Porphyra laciniata, Ag.

P. leucosticta, Thuret. Both species common and often con-

Bangia fusco'purpurea, Lyngb. Rather common.

Ery thro trie hia eeramieola (Lyngb.), Aresch. On various algae.

Online LibraryN.Y.) Herbarium Columbia College (New YorkContributions from the Herbarium of Columbia College, Volume 1 → online text (page 6 of 26)