N.Y.) Herbarium Columbia College (New York.

Contributions from the Herbarium of Columbia College, Volume 1 online

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(134 in part) ; Lake Pend d'Oreille (37).

Orthotrichum affine, Schrad. On trees in woods (7, 11, 40 and
123 in part).

Orthotrichum alpestre, Hornsch. On trees (10).

Orthotrichum speciosum^ Nees. On trees (152).

O. eleganSy Schwaegr., seems worthy of distinction, as Drum-
mond's No. 155, and Mr. Leiberg's 9 and 152 in part are
bright and green, with stems ferruginously tomentose, leaves
more spreading, and other differences, for which see Venturi,
Muse. Gall. 169, t. 46.

Orthotrichum fallax, Schimp. (159).

Orthotrichum obtusifolium, Schrad. On poplar trees. North Fork
Basin (lOi). Specimens agree with Bryol. Europ. t. 208, and
Lesq. and James Man. 177, but not with Venturi, Muse. Gall.
193, t. LII., but rather With (9. Rogeri, Brid., Venturi, 1. c.
186. t. 51.

Hedwigia ciliata, Ehrh. ** Not common " (36).

Braunia Californica, Lesq. ** Rather local" (103).

Ajioectangium Lapponicum^ Hedw. {Amphoridium Lapponicum,
Schimp.) Precipices of the Chilco Range, south end of Lake
Pend d'Orielle (89).

Ancectangium Mougeotii (Bruch), Lindb. {A. Mougeotii, Schimp.)

{76).

Ptychomitrium Gardneri, Lesq. (11 in part).

Funaria hygrometrica (L.), Sibth. North Fork Basin, Lake

Cceur d'Alene (90) ; also a small set of plants too old for

certain determination, alpine regions (34).



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110

Bartramia pomiformis (L.), Hedw. van crispa, Schimp. (112).

Also dwarf form of the species, agreeing with Labrador spec-
imens collected by O. D. Allen (53 in part).
Philonotis fontana (L.), Brid. (35).
Pkilonotis calcarea, Schimp. ? ? " In a calcareous spring, very

rare" (49). Capsules too old for certain determination ; may

be P, fontana^ var.
Pohlia nutans (Schreb.), Lindb. {Webera nutans, Hedw.) (74

mixed with 140).
Pohlia cruda (L.), Lindb. {\V. cruda, Schimp.) North Fork

Basin (136).
Leptobryum pyriforme (L), Wils, (150).
Bryum argenteum, L., var. lanatum Br. & Sch. Alpine regions

(32 in part).
Bryum ccespiticium, L. Mixed with Pohlia nutans (140).
Astrophylluni medium (Br. & Sch ), Lindb. {Mnium medium, Br.

& Sch.) North Fork Basin. (92).
Astrophyllum cuspidatum (L.), Lindb. {M. affine, Bland). (93).

Also from North Fork Basin (94).
Astrophyllum spinulosum (Br. & Sch.) {M. spinulosum, Br.

&Sch.) (2).
Leucolepis acanthoneura (Schwaegr.), Lindb. {Mnium Menziesiiy

C. Muell). (98).
Mnium androgynum, L. {Aulacomnion androgynum, Schwaegr.)

(43 mixed with 96).
Tiinmia Austriaca, Hedw. On rocks and earth (99 and 113).

Catharinea Selwyni (Aust.) {Atrichum Selwyni, Aust. Bot.
Gazette, ii. 95.) (21).

Polytrichum alpinum, L. {Pogonaium alpinum, Roehl). (142).

Polytrichmn piliferum, Schreb. (no).

Polytrichtim juniperinum, Willd. (115).

Buxbaumia aphylla, L. Decaying logs, Traille River basin, (not
numbered).

FoHtinalis antipyretica, L. ** In mountain streams, fruiting abun-
dantly." (114).

Fontinalis Lesci^rii, Sulliv. Granite Ledges in Lake Pend
d'Oreille (137).



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Ill

Dichelytna uncinata, Mitt? Decaying logs, bushes and twigs,
North Fork Basin (8i). Sent to Kevv for comparison with
the type ; perichaetial leaves are twisted !

Neckera Menziesii, Drummond. Granite ledges, fruiting abun-
dantly with flagelliform branches (i2i). On trees and rocks
at and below water-line, sterile (82).

Neckera Douglasii, Hook. On trees, sterile (83).

Antitrichia Calif ontica, Sulliv. Granite ledges (18).

Climaciiim Americanum, Brid. Sterile (51).

Hypnum pseiidO'Sericeum, C. Muell. (29 in part).

Hypnunt crispifolium. Hook. Along rivulets. (69) ; on the
ground in woods (5).

Hypnum {Camp tot /tectum) lutescens, Huds. (56 and 29 in part).

Hypnum ceneum. Mitt. Typical (28).

Hypnum Nuitallii, Wils. (27 and 58).

Hypnum megaptilum, Sulliv. On the ground in damp woods,
finer and more branching specimens than the type. (41).

Hypnum Stokesii, Turn. (65 and 69 in part).

Hypnum (Thamnium) Leibergii, n. sp. North Fork Basin,
Lake Coeur d*Alene, on quartzite ledges (78).

Dioecious ; perichaetial leaves ecostate with recurved apices,
entire, or slightly serrulate ; leaves costate to just below the apex,
entire, or slightly serrulate below, coarsely serrate above ; ped-
icel I cm. long, falling off with the capsules when old ; inner
peristome with three appendiculate regular cilia as long as the
teeth, or occasionally irregularly united into one or two, and
scarcely appendiculate.

Between H, Alleghaniense, Muell. and H, neckeroides. Hook,
differing from the former in the dioecious inflorescence and from
the latter in the length of the cilia. Mr. Wright has kindly com-
pared specimens sent him with the type of H, neckeroides at Kew,
and confirms the above diagnosis.
Hypnum loreum, L. (84). Lake Coeur d'Alene.
Hypnum iriquetrumy L. (97).
Hypnum splendens, Hedw. (100).

Hypnum uncinatum, Hedw. V2s. plumosumy Schimp. (131).
Hypnum robustum. Hook. Canons and valleys in the Traille

River Basin (not numbered).



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112

Hypnum subitnponens, Lesq. (129).

Hypnum aduncum, Hedw. yar. giganteum, Br. & Sch. (88).

Description of Plate XCI.
Figs. 1-5, drawn from J. B. Leiberg*s specimens.
Figs, a and b, drawn from Dr. Braithwaite's specimen.
Figs, a and 4, hyaline toothed apices of the leaves.
Figs, b and 5, elongated basal cells.
Fig. 3, Old, ridged capsule.



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CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE HERBARIUM OF
COLUMBIA COLLEGE.-No. ii.



Preliminary Note on the North Amer-
ican Species of the Genus
Tissa, Adans.



By n. l. britton



<Kopriiite«l from the Bulletin ok theTorrey Botanical club. Vol XVI, No. 5, >lRy^ ^^^-^



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Preliminary Note on the North American Species of the Genus

Tissa, Adans.

By N. L. Britton.
Botanists have had great difficulty in limiting the species of
Sand Spurrey. There is, indeed, perhaps no other genus of flow-
ering plants concerning whose specific composition more widely
diverse views have been propounded. Thus we find Mr. Bentham
in 1862 (Genera Plantarum, i. 152) regarding the species as "3
vel 4," while N. C. Kindberg's elaborate Monograph of the follow-
ing year (Nova Acta Reg. Soc. Sci. Upsal. (III.) vii. fasc. i.) con-
tains descriptions and figures of not less than 25. Durand's re-
cent ** Index Generum Phanerogamorum " repeats the Bentha-
mian view, which Baillon also apparently defends (Histoire des
Plantes, ix. 116) saying "species ad 3." This last is the latest
•expression we have had on the subject, published indeed, during
the past year, and we may now look with much interest for the
dictum of the distinguished authors of ** Die Naturliche Pflanzen-
familien " which has not as yet treated of the Carophylleae.

So far as North American botanists have been concerned with
their native plants, there has not been much difference of opinion
expressed — however much may have otherwise existed — for the
species have never yet been systematically brought together.
The Eastern Manuals have recognized three species ; the Botany
of California describes two (one of them also eastern), four new
species have recently been named, another (if my supposition is
correct) frequent in the alkaline area of the Andes, extends to
Southern California, and still another, abundant in the Mediter-
ranean region, is found in our Western and Southern States. I
have not ventured to unite any of these species, nor to describe
any more, although there are plenty of indications from the her-
baria that other forms, species or varieties will sooner or later
cl3iim recognition. I have thus recognized ten species, all but one



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126

of which occur within the United States. The apparently great
divergence from the views of the eminent English and French
authors above mentioned is readily explicable by stating that the
material on which the additional five or six species I have been
able to recognize is based, is quite new, and none of them have
been studied by either Bentham or Baillon. It is to Professor
Greene that I am indebted for much of the material which has
thrown most light on the Pacific Coast forms, and he informs me
that he has evidence of the existence of other forms, specimens
of which in satisfactory amount and condition for critical study
are not yet available. So far as the twenty-five species recog-
nized by Kindberg are concerned, I am entirely satisfied that
they are mainly artificial, and actually represent not many more
than the three or four of Bentham or Baillon.

It is hardly necessary that I should discuss the generic name of
these plants ; Professor Greene has very recently alluded to it in
" Pittonia," and M. Baillon has adopted it in his ** Histoire."
Suffice it to say that there is no valid choice in the matter, for
1763, the date of Adanson's ** Families des Plantes," is fifty-four
years before the publication of Lepigonum, and a little more
than that earlier than Spergularia. There is no doubt whatever as
to what Adanson meant, and hence it becomes a matter of mere
priority of publication, for which fifty-four years will be consid-
ered ample, I believe, by even the most conservative. Adanson
considered that the species known at his time formed two genera,
and called the other one Buda^ under which species have been
named by DuMortier in his ** Florula Belgica;" this view has not
been accepted by any recent botanist, and as Tissa occurs first in
Adanson's work, it has priority of place and must stand as the
generic appellation of these interesting plants.

Through the courtesy of Mr. Redfield and Dr. Watson I have
been able to make quite careful examinations of the materials in
the Cambridge and Philadelphia herbaria.

(A) ANNUALS; ROOTS FIBROUS.
* Species of the sea-beaches or salt-marshes or of the borders of salt lakes ;
leaves very fleshy ; stamens (always ? 10 ;) petals pink, (varying to white ?).

I. TisSA MARINA (L.) {Arenaria rubra, L., var. marina, L.,
Sp. PI. 606 (1753); including Lepigonum marinum, Kindb.



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127

Monog. 1 8. at least in so far as the North American plants are
concerned, Lepigonum medium^ Fries and L, /eiospermumfKindb.
I c. 23).

Stout, erect or ascending, smooth or glandular-pubescent ;
capsule 5-8 mm. long at maturity ; pedicels short (seldom more
than twice this length) ; seeds smooth, margined or marginless,
or roughened with projecting points or processes, several kinds
sometimes found within the same capsule ; leaves often much
clustered in the axils.

Had, Along the whole coast on both sides of the continent,
apparently less abundant on the Gulf of Mexico; also about
saline lakes and on alkaline soil in the interior.

2. TISSA SALINA (Presl.) {Spergularia salina, Presl. Fl.
Cech. 93 {\Z\g) fide Kindberg.

Slender and spreading, low, abundantly branching, generally
diffuse, and apparently always so in its fully developed state,
entirely smooth ; pedicels long, slender, more than twice the
length of the capsule, which is 4-6 mm. long at maturity and
twice the length of the calyx ; leaves generally simply opposite ;
seeds papillose or smooth.

Hab, In the sand or mud of sea-beaches, more rarely (if at
all) on the meadows, coast of New England and Canada. Not seen
from further south than Eastport (Farlow) or South Gouldsboro
(Redfield).

This is an extremely well marked species, as I understand it,
and I have little doubt that it is the same thing that occurs on
the shores of northern Europe, although comparison with more
European specimens is very desirable. This restricts its range
much within the limits assigned by Kindberg, who by going
mainly upon the seeds has included in this, as in other species, a
large number of diverse elements. Certainly in these two species
the seed characters are of but little value.

* * Species of non-saline dislribution.
t Petals pink.

3. TiSSA RUBRA (L.) {Arenarta rubra, L. 1. c. ; Spergtilaria
rubra, Presl ; Lepigonum rubrum, Fries).

Depressed, spreading or ascending, very leafy to the flowers ;
stipules ovate-lanceolate, acuminate ; plants smooth or but
slightly pubescent.



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128

Hab, In dry, especially sandy soil along both the Atlantic
and Pacific coasts, not seen west of the Alleghanies nor east
of California, and generally appearing as if introduced. Indeed I
have not met with evidence that it is really indigenous in East
America, and from its being so common a weed in Europe, our
plant may very likely be of exotic origin,

4. TiSSA DIANDRA (Guss.) {Arenarta diandra, Guss. Fl.
Sic. Prodr. i, 515 (1827); Arenarta salsuginea, Bunge in Ledeb.
Fl. Alt. ii. 163 (1829); Lepigonum salsugineunt, Kindb. I. c 42
and Syn. 7).

Spreading or bushy branched from the base ; stipules ovate,
acute ; peduncles leafless or nearly so ; plant glandular pubescent.

Hab, Galveston, Texas (Lindheimer) ; Rio Brazos, Texas
(Drummond, 97 in Herb. Gray.) ; Sierra Valley, Cal. (Lemmon,
1874, doubtfully referred to this species); sandy bank of the
Columbia River, W. Klickatat Co., Washington (Suksdorf, 176) ;
also collected by Mr. Henderson in the same region in 1885. Our
plant agrees very nearly with authentic specimens from Arabia.
Its specific separation from T. rubra is open to question.

t t Petals none.

5. TiSSA GRACILIS (S. Wats.) {Lepigonum gracile, S. Wats.
Proc. Amer. Acad. xvii. 367 (1882).

Capsules 2-4 mm. long, slightly exceeding the calyx ; seeds
tuberculate; plants small and delicate, 4-8 cm. high.

Hab. Los Angeles, Cal. (Parry, No. 15, 1881); Otay, San
Diego Co. (Orcutt, 1201); wet sands near Dallas, Texas (Rever-
chon in Curtiss, No. 333» distributed as 5. Mexicana, Hemsl.)

6. TiSSA TENUIS, Greene in litt. (^Lepigonum tenue^ Greene,
Pittonia, i. 63 (1887).

Capsules 6-8 mm. long, twice the length of the calyx ; seeds
smooth, plants much larger, and more branched than in the last.

This fine species may, perhaps, better be grouped with Nos.
I and 2, as its habitat appears to be near the sea, if not, indeed
within its influence.

Hab, Alameda, Cal. (Greene) ; Santa Barbara (Rothrock,
154); Santa Monica (J. C. Nevin).



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129

(B) PERENNIALS; STEMS C/ESPITOSE FROM A THICK,

WOODY ROOT.

* Maritime or alkaline flat species of the Pacific Coast.

7. TiSSA MACROTHECA (Hornem.) Arenaria macrotheca,
Hornem. in Cham. & Schlecht., Linnaea, i. 53 (1826) ; Lepigonum
macrothecum, Fisch. & Meyer, Cat. Sem. Hort Petrop. 1835).

Leaves broadly linear, 2-3 mm. wide, 2-5 cm. long; stems
stout, ascending; plants dark green, entirely smooth or densely
glandular pubescent. .

Hub. Oak Bay, Vancouver Island (Macoun) and southward
to Southern California both maritime and inland, as on " alkaline
lands San Bernardino Valley, perennial, fleshy rooted, almost
tuberous,'* (Parish, 133 1).

Van SCARIOSA, n. var. Low, (2-10 cm.), glandular; leaves
broader, lanceolate-linear, crowded ; stipules very large and con-
spicuous, ovate-acuminate, nearly as long as the leaves.

Hab. Near San Francisco (Torrey, No. 41) ; coast of Monte-
rey (Hooker and Gray, 1877) ; and Cypress Point, near Monterey,
on maritime rocks (Gray, 1885).

8. TiSSA PALLIDA, Greene, in litt. Leaves broadly linear,
j4 cm. long, smooth ; pedicels, calyx and upper portion of the
stem densely glandular pubescent, lower leaves and joints of the
stem smooth ; plants stout, very light colored, whence the name.

Hab, Clayey bluffs overhanging the sea, prostrate, forming
dense tufts, near San Francisco, June, 1887 (Greene) ; Monterey ?
(Meehan in Herb. Phila.).

9. TiSSA VILLOSA (Pers.), Britt, Bull. Torn Club, xvi. 62.
Leaves filiform-linear, densely clustered in the lower axils, stems

erect or ascending, slender, glandular pubescent; plant dark green.
Hab. In alkaline soil. Southern California, San Diego, (Cleve-
land, 526); alkaline ground, San Jos^ (Mrs. A. E. Bush, 1879).
Also in western South America. The Californian plants differ
very slightly from Andean specimens in having smaller capsules,
but I have little hesitation in referring them to this species.

* * Species of the mountainous regions of North Mexico.

10. TiSSA Mexicana (Hemsl.) {Spergularia Mexicana^
Hemsl. Bot. Biol. Cen.-Amer.).

Leaves hardly succulent, flowers ** yellowish."
Hab. Near San Luis Potosi (Parry and Palmer).



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CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE HERBARIUM OF
COLUMBIA COLLEGE -No. 13.



New or Noteworthy North American
Phanerogams, II.



By N. L. Britton.



CReprinted from the TRAMSAcmoNs of the Nbw York Aoadcmt of Sciences, Vol. IX., No.

October, 1889.^



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NEW OR NOTEWORTHY



NORTH AMERICAN PHANEROGAMS, H.'



Caltha flabbllifolia, Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. ii. 390, t. 17

(1814) ; Torr, Compend. 224 (1826); Noll, Flora Penn. 8

(1851).
C. palnstrtSy L. var. flabellifoUa, T. & G., Fl. N. A. i. 27

(1838).
C palustris, L. var. Sibirica, Watson, Bibl. Index, i. 9 in part,

(1878), not of Begel.
€. deniata, Mnhl. Cat. 65 (1813) ?

This very good species, and exceedingly interesting one, has
«ti£Fered unmerited exclusion from our American handbooks,
probably caused by its limited geographical range and somewhat
inaccessible habitat on the higher mountains of Pennsylvania
And New Jersey, so that it has been observed in situ by very
few botanists ; all who have actually seen it growing have haa
but one opinion as to its specific validity. My acquaintance with
the plant was first made some five years since on the Shawan-
^nk Mountains in Sussex County, N. J., where I found it grow-
ing in a deep swamp near the elevation known as High Point,
and collected it in fruit only. In last June, however, through,
the guidance of Professor Porter, I was introduced to it in its
typical locality on thePocono plateau in Pennsylvania, in which
region it was first found by Pursh, and had an opportunity to
«tudy the plant in flower. Dr. Porter has long been of the
opinion that it is a valid species, and I am glad of an opportn*

' The first part of these notes appeared in the Bulletin of the Torrey
BotaniccU Club, xy. 97 et seq.



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6 TRANSACTIONS OP THE [oCT. 7,

nity to express my belief in the accuracy of his concluBioDs,
based on tne same characters as those assigned in the original
description.

In tiie Pocono localities the plant pew actually in the water^
in cold mountain spriugs and brooks, and densely shaded by
overhanging bushes. The very diflferent habit of the C palustris,
growing in open, sunny swamps, is a fact which does not appear
to have vet been recorded.

Mr. Maturin L. Delafield, Jr., has communicated tome speci-
mens of a Caltha from West Hampton, Suffolk County, N. Y.,
which I refer without hesitation to this mountain species. Mr.
Delafield has not detected the typical C. palustris in the region;
and knowing what we now do of the numerous elements in com-
mon possessed bv the floras of the Shawangunk and Pocono
Mountains with those of the coast plains, this is not as remark-
able as it might at first appear.'

If it should seem desirable in the future to reunite it with the
Old World plant which has been known as C. palustris, L.,
var. Sibirica, Begel (1861), it is to be rememl^ered that this
name is long antedated by O. radicanSf Porster, Trans. Linn.
Soc. viii. 324, t. 17 (1805). But it does not appear to me from
the materials now at hand that this will again be suggested.
Dr. Qunther Beck, in his review of the relatives of 0. palustris,
in Verhand. K. K. Zool.-Bot. Ver. Wien, xxivi. 350 (1886),
excludes C. flabellifolia. In Torrey and Gray's Flora the name
is stated to be synonymous with C. dentata, of Muhlenberg's
Oatalogue (1813), but the description there given is not suf-
ficiently explicit, and until the fact can l^ more conclu-
sively shown I do not consider it safe to take up Muhlenberg's
name.

Oastalia tetbagona (Georgi), Lawson, Trans. Boy. Soc*

Canada, vi. sec. iv. 112 (1888).
2fymph(Ba tetragona, Georgi, Keise im Buss. Beichs, i. 220

(1775).
Cmtalia pygmma, Salisb. Parad. Lond. t. 68 j[1806).
l^ym^hcBa pygmcsa, Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. 2, iii. 293 (1811).

This may be announced as a North American plant, having
been collected in ponds along the Severn Biver, Keewatin,
Canada, by Mr. Jas. M. Macoun, July 17th, 1886. This local-
ity lies between Hudson's Bay and Lake Winnipeg, in latitude
about 55^. It had previously been collected by Mr. E. Bell at
Misinaibi Biver, Ontario (July, 1879). Specimens from both
localities are preserved in the herbarium of the Geological and
2^atural History Survey of Canada. The plant may at once be

* Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, xi. 126-128; xiv. 187-189.



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£889.] KEW YOKK ACADEMY OF 6CIBKCES. 7

distingaished from the eastern C, odorata var. minora by its
oblong leaves, sometimes nearly twice as long as broad, with
narrow, acutish lobes, and the flowers still smaller with 7 to 8
rayed stigma. The identification of the American and Asiatic
plants has been made on specimens of C, pygmcsa from Ehasia
(Hooker and Thomson) and Japan (Albrecht, 1861). As to the
relationship of Dr. Morong's C, Leibergii to the present species,
I am not yet willing to express a positive opinion. Dr. Morong
remarks, in his original description of the plant (Bot. Gazette,
jciii. 124), 'Meaves with a broad, open sinus and obtuse lobes" ;
«but specimens recently received from Mr. Leiberg have the
sinns narrow, as in C. tetragona^ and the lobes quite as acute,
the laminsB being of precisely the same outline ; this leaves prac-
tically nothing but the obtuse petals to distinguish it from the
species here discussed. Indeed, some of the inner petals are
much the same form as those of C. ietragona.

Professor George Lawson has also examined the Canadian spe-
cimens here alluded to, and (loc. cit. 113) refers them to (7. odo-
rata var. minor, but I cannot agree with him in this. Curiously
enough, in his otherwise exceedingly complete synopsis of the
Nympbadacead he makes no mention of C. Leibergii.

The leaves of 0, tetragona are of much the same size and form
as those of Nymphcea microphylla.

Oardamine Douglassii (Torr.).

Arabis rhomboidea, Pers. {bulbosa, Muhl.), ysj. purpurea, Terr.

Amer. Jour. Sci. iv. 66 (1822),
Cardamine rotundifolia, var. /? Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. A. i. 83

(1838), and Arabis Douglassii, Torr., as synonym.
Cardamine rhomboidea, var. purpurea, Torr. Fl. N. Y. i. 56

(1843), with the same synonym.
XJardamine bulbosa, var. purpurea, B. S. P. Prel. Cat. Anth.

If. Y. 4(1888)^
■C. rotundifolia, Hook. Fl. Bor.-Amer. i. 44; Wats. Bibl. Index,

i. 54, not of Michaux.

After a careful study of this plant in the field and herbarium,
1 have come to agree with my friends, Judge Day and Professor
Macoun, that it is specifically distinct from the white-flowered
^species with which it has been associated. The specific name
adopted appears to be the earliest one available, although it has
never, so far as I can make out, been published except as a
synonym. Dr. Torrey must have fully intended to print it as
Arabis Douglassii, and was later under the impression that he
had actually done so, for he uses the synonym on page 83 of
the ''Flora of North America," referring to the place where he
jinblished it as A. rhomboidea, var. purpurea (at least to within



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S TB1N8A0TION8 OP THB [OCT. 7,

three pages of the actual citation). This mistake has been
oopied oy himself in the " New York Flora/' and by Dr. Watson
in the *^ Bibliographical Index/^ where matters are still farther
<K)mplicated by the erroneous reference of the plant to Michaux^s
rotundifolia, although this has been subsequently corrected by
Dr. Gray in Botanical Gazette, iv. 210,

Besides the beautiful purple flowers, which unfold ten days
earlier than those of C. oulbosa, in the locality near Newfound-
land, New Jersey, first noted, I think, by Professor Joseph
Schrenk, where I have studied the living plants, the species
differ in the root-leaves of Douglassii being uniformly more
nearly orbicular and the stem-leaves broader and generally more
deeply dentate. The texture of the leaves is thicker, and the



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