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55 84



The range of the thermometer in New York for 1854 is 88^,
in Eomsas it is 111^, a difference of 23^. The maximum at
New York being 93°, at Kansas 103® — the minimum at New
York 5® above, at Kansas 8** below zero.

This year, all the seasons, as well as the yearly means, are
warmer in Kansas than in New York. The Spring is 8*48** —
the Summer 5*29''— the Autumn 3*33°— the Winter 3-40®— and
the Year 5*13^

20'Y8 inches more rain fell in New York than in Kansas.

July was the warmest month in both ; January was the cold-
est month in Kansas, and December in New York.

By this comparison it is seen that Kansas is warmer than
New York, The mean temperature for the ten years was 1'23
degrees warmer. In the year 1844 the mean temperature in
Elansas was 52 -57, in New York 5403 — in 1854, in Kansas it
was 55-84, in New York 50-71. The maximum is higher and
the minimum lower there also. In 1844 the max. was l"*, and

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ofNew York and Kcmsas. 25

the min. 3® less in Kansas than in New York — ^in 1845 the max.
was the same in both, but the min. was 20*^ lower, being 14**
below zero. In 1846 the max. was 1°, in 1849 4°, in 1851 5^
lower— in 1852 the same, while in 1847 it was 2^, in 1850 6%
in 1853 5^, and in 1854 10^ higher. In 1844 the min. was 3^,
in 1845 8^, in 1846 11% in 1847 22% in 1849 24% in 1850 20%
in 1851 10% in 1852 12% in 1853 11^ and in 1854 19^ lower
than in New York.

The prevailing winds in Kansas are S. and S. "W., at New
York N. W. During the ten years the winds in Kansas blew
on 628 days from S. and S. W., and on 618 days from N. W. at
New York. Easterly winds bring the most rain in both.

The quantity of water from rain and snow is also less in Kan-
sas. There fell in ten years at New York a mean of 4516
inches, in Kansas 32*13 inches, a difference of 13*03 inches.
In 1847 the difference was 43*79 inches, while in 1844 there
was 11*74 inches, and in 1849 11*11 inches more. The greatest
quantity in any one month was 15*8 inches in Kansas (June
1845), and 3*7 inches at New York. In Dec. 1845 there was
none in Kansas, and 2*51 in New York. In April 1854 there
was 3*35 inches in Kansas, and 8*8 inches in New York. The
whole amount for ten years was, in Kansas 321*32 inches, in
New York 451*65 inches, a difference in the whole quantity of
130*33 inches less in Kansas.

The conclusion is, therefore, that the atmospheric changes are
greater, if not so sudden, in Kansas than in New York, and con-
sequently more prejudicial to health. Its distance inland may,
by causing the moisture of the atmosphere from the ocean to
be precipitated before reaching there, render the air more pure
as well as dry.

KoTK. — At Fort JoDefl» California, Lat 41* 86', Long. 122*" 52' W., at an elera-
tkm of 2750 feet^ the temperature was for 1854 — Spring, 48 58; Summer, 66*16 ;
Autumn, 5120; Winter. 82*65; Year, 49*65; Max, lOO''; Min., 5'. AtSanFran-
ciBCO, California, Lat 87' 48', Long. 122' 26' W., at an elevation of 150 feet-
Spring; 53 89; Summer, 56*40; Autumn, 57*58; Winter, 50*76; Year, 54*66;
Max., 78"; Mid., 27** — a very agreeable climate, with only 17 inches of rain for
the year, and at Fort Jones only 29 inches.

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26 Bema/rks on Certain Species of

Vn. — Remarks on certain species of North American

Bt Thomas Bland.
(Ck>ntliiiied from toI. tL p. 8^.)
Read 20ih December, 1868.

Helix aurieulata, Say.


Polygyra auriculata Say Nich. Enc. Am. ed. 1816

" " « Jl. Acad. N. S., PMla., I. p. 277. 1818

Helix « Fer. Prod., No. 98. 1822

" " Binney Bost Jl. III., p. 384 (ex parte)

PI. xix., fig. 1. 1840

" " De Kay N. Y. Moll, p. 47, pi. 3, fig. 28. 1 848

" " Pfr. Mon. Hel. I. No. 1084, excl. var. 1848

" " C%mn.ed.II.Uelixp.37l,t.65,fig.3,4.

" " Desk, in Fer. Hist. p. 76 (excl. var.)

pi. 50, ^g. 4.
" " Binney Terr. Moll. II. p. 186 (ex parte),

pi. xl., fig. 1 (left hand). 1851

" " Reeve Conch. Icon. No. 700. excl. fig. 1852

Polygyra, " W, O, Binney^ reprint of Say, p. 10. 1856

Helix, " " Notes on Amer. Land

Shells in Proc. Acad., Phila., p. 191. 1857
" " 20U. 1858

The following is a copy of Say's description : —

Polygyra auriculata. — Shell beneath, convex ; whorls five, a little
ronnded, crossed by numeroos raised equidistant lines, forming grooves
between them ; spire very little raised ; lateral line (extending from
the outer whorl to the apex), not convex, but somewhat concave ; mouth
very unequal ; lips prominent ^bove, appressed to the preceding whorl

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North American Hdiddce. 27

beneath ; piUar lip suddenly reflected, and pressed into the mouth at an
acute angle, beneath very acutely concave ; outer lip a little more pro-
minent in the middle, and within the edge protruded into the mouth ;
^roat extremely narrow ; suture near the mouth suddenly reflected from
the preceding whorl, and carinate ; umbilicus dilated, very small within,
and exhibiting a groove on the outer whorl.

Breadth of the female nearly half an inch, of the male about three-
tenths. Inhabits Florida. Cabinet of the Academy. This curious
species we found near St Augustine, East Florida, in a moist situation.
They were observed in considerable numbers; the color is reddish
brown, indistinctly banded with whitish lines, sometimes with darker
ones ; mouth white.

The specimens preserved in the Cabinet of the Academy
at Philadelphia, said to have been Say's, but labelled in the
handwriting of Mr. Philipps, agree with those collected by
Mr. O. M. Dorman, and to which I refer in these notes.

The group to which this species belongs has been very much
misunderstood. In 1816 Say described H, av/riculata and S.
cecara^ — he sent specimens to Ferussac, who enumerated them
in his Prodromus, and published figures in advance of the text
of the Hist, des Moll., which Deshayes contributed many years

Dr. Binney erroneously considered H, a/va/ra to be the imma-
ture form oi anrioulataj and indeed referred all the forms known
to him to the latter species. In 1852 Shuttleworth described
Helix umiUfera^ and Eeeve published the same, with a figure,
as H. florulifera. Of this I received specimens from Shuttle-
worth in 1853, — it appeared to be unknown to American con-
chologists. Subsequently I had a shell from Dr. Budd, without
name or locality, but unquestionably the H. avara Say, though
by no means agreeing with any species so labelled in the cabi-
nets to which I had access, including that of Dr. Binney, in
the possesion of Mr. W. G. Binney.

During 1868 I received, through the kindness of Mr. O. M.
Dorman, a number of S. aur^ictdata, collected by himself at

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28 Remarks on Gertam Species of

St. Augnstine, and several of the rare H. avara from the
vicinity of the river St. John, East Florida. After careful
examination of the whole subject, I am of opinion that E.
awricvlata Say, and avara Say, are entirely distinct, — that the
forms referred to by Dr. Binney as avara^ and byhim,Pfeiffer,
and Deshayes, as varieties of auriculata^ are likewise distinct,
and that the comparatively small shell commonly labelled
S, auricvlata in our cabinets, but generally without authentic
habitat, is a variety of H. uvulifera Shuttl.

Pfeiffer in Mon. I. refers to Ferussac's figure 3 (pi. 50), as
var. minor of H. auriculaia, but with doubt in Mon. ILL to
the same, in the synonymy of J?", uvulifera Shuttl.

Eeeve's fig. 700 ^1. 119), referred to by Pfeiffer as aurictdataj
appears to be of the same form.

Deshayes gives an elaborate description in French of this
species ; alluding to the variety, he says : " La vari6t6 est plus
petite, plus mince, plus transparente ; mais ces caracteres
dependent probablement de Tfige. II en est sans doute de
m€me relativement aux diff6rences dans les formes et les pro-
portions de I'ouverture." He derived and adopted, I presume,
that opinion from the Boston Journal.

To aid in identifying this and the allied species, I give the

Ro. I. annexed figure I. of the aperture of S. auricu-

Iq/ta Say, double the natural size, taken from a

living specimen collected by Mr. O. M. Dorman

at St. Augustine.

n. awriculata may be distinguished by its
larger size, the greater development of the seve-
n oiwrioMMa Say. ^^ parts of its curious aperture, and especially
by the sudden outward deflexure of the central part of the
labrum, which has a deep scrobiculation behind it, correspond-
ing with the upper tooth within the aperture. The portion of
the labium extending from the inferior angle of the parietal
intruded tooth is erect, and more elevated than in any. other of
the species.

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North American SdicidcB. 39

The following are the measurements of the largest and
smallest specimens, selected from about thirty of those col-
lected by Mr. Dorman : —

Diam. maj. 16, min. 13, Alt. 7i mill.
" " 12, " 104," 6 "

I have no authentic information of the occurrence of this
species in any other locality than at St. Augustine, and its
immediate neighbourhood, and no other form was there found
by Mr. Dorman.

It is difficult to understand Say's observation as to the dif-
ferent size of the male and female, referring, as he evidently
does, to the shell, and not to the animal. His measurements
correspond with those of the smaller diameters of my speci-
mens. No example with the indistinct bands mentioned by
Say has come under my notice.

No fulcrum or tubercle exists in any member of this group.
The groove in the last whorl, exhibited in the umbilical region,
has a corresponding somewhat convex surface in the interior.

I would explain that the forms figured as auriculata by
Binney in Terr. Moll., pi. xl., fig. 1 (right hand), by Ferussac,
pL 50, fig. 3, and by Reeve in Conch. Icon., pi. cxix.. No. 700,
appear to represent the same species,— one which I consider
distinct, and propose to describe as H. auriformia.

Binney's fig. 2 in both his works, and Eeeve's pi. cxxi.. No.
720, may be of a different shell, but cannot in fact be very
readily made out, — the figs.l, 2 in Chemn., pi. 65, are quite unin-
telligible ; certainly none of them are of JZ avara Say. To
another distinct species from Georgia, confounded with H.
avara^ I give the specific name Postelliana.

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80 HemarJci on Certain Species of

Helix arara, Say.


Polygyra avara Say Nich. Enc. Am. ed. 1816

" Jl. Acad. N. S. Phil. I. p. 277. 1818

Helix " /Vr. Prod., No. 97. 1822

" " Ffr, var. p. minor, Mon. Hel I., No. 1087

(ex parte). 1848

" " Desk, in Fer. Hist., p. 78, pi. 50, fig. 2. *

" " Chemn, cd. H., Helix, p. 370 (ex parte), excl.

" " Reeve Conch. Icon, (ex parte), No. 720, excl. fig. 1852

Polygyra " W, G. Binney reprint of Say, p. 11. 1866
" " " Notes on Amer. Land Shells

in Proc. Acad. Phila., p. 200. 1868

Say'8 description is as follows : —

P. AVARA. — " Shell covered with nnroorous short, robust hairs ; spire
convex ; whorls four, regularly rounded, with hardly elevated lines
forming grooves, which are much more conspicuous near the mouth ;
mouth subreniform, two projecting, obtuse teeth on the outer lip withiD,
separated by a deep sinus ; outer lip elevated, equal, describing two-
thirds of a circle ; pillar lip elevated, broadly but not profoundly emar-
ginate, concave beneath, and connected to the inner side by an elongated,
lamelliform tooth, which is placed obliquely on the penultimate whorl
near the middle of the mouth ; lips almost equally prominent, continued ;
umbilicus moderate, not exhibiting the volutions, no groove on the ulti-
mate whorl within it. Breadth quarter of an inch. Inhabits Florida.
Cabinet of the Academy. Animal longer than the breadth of the shell,
acute behind, above granulated and blackish, beneath, and each side,

** This we found in the orange groves of Mr. Fatio, on the River St
John, East Florida ; it is usually covered with a black, earthy coat,

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North American Hdiddas. 81

which is probably retained and collected by the hairs. When uneti-
cumbered by this vesture, the shell is of a horn color. It is by no
means so common as the preceding species (P. auricnlata) ."

No specimen of this comparatively rare shell is now to be
fonnd in the cabinet of the Academy at Philadelphia.

In the above synonymy I exclude all mention of the writings
of Dr. Binney , in the confident belief that he entirely misinter-
preted this species. In the Boston Journal he refers to PI. xix.
fig. 1, as the mature H, aicriculatOj and to fig. 2 " as the young
shell described by Say as P. avara.^^ His remarks are repeated
in the Terr. Moll., with an additional observation as to the size
of the shells. From the latter work I quote the following :: —

" At different periods of growth the aperture differs very much in
appearance, and has led naturalists into error. When the lip is just
banning to be formed, and as yet projects but little, there are two
projecting teeth on its inner edge, with a deep sulcus between them ; as
these continue to grow, they assume more and more the appearance of
lamellar folds, the lower one of which, when viewed on a line perpen-
dicular to the base of the shell, hides the other. The columellar fold,
at the same early period, appears more like an independent tooth, to
each extremity of which the lip is connected. It is this variety which
Mr. Say described as a distinct species, under the name of Polygyra
avara. This opinion I derive, not so much from his descriptions as
from the examination of original specimens collected and labelled by
him, now in my possession. I have specimens of the mature shell
smaller than any specimen of JJ. avara that I have seen, and have other
specimens of ff, avara^ so called, as large as the most mature ff. auri-
culala. Plate XL. fig. 1, represents the mature shell, fig. 2, the youn^
shell, described by Say as F, avara''*

The whole tenor of the above remarks is certainly erroneous.
With respect to the shells " collected and labelled " by Say, it
is possible that he, at a period subsequent to the publication
of his diagnosis, may have distributed as H. avara specimens

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82 Bema/rks on Certain Species of

similar to those figured by Dr. Binney, considering them to be
variety of that species; but the figures by no means agree
with, and indeed I doubt whether he ever saw the rare form
described by Say. There is no example of it in the cabinet of
Dr. Binney, now in the possession of Mr. W. G. Binney.
Through his kindness I have specimens from that cabinet of
the H» avara Binney, which are not only mature shells, but
entirely distinct from Say's species.

Dr. Binney's statement that he had the mature H. auricvr
lata smaller than any JB. avara he had seen, and the latter as
large as the former in its mature state, is totally unintelligible.
I can only interpret it by assuming that he did not know
S. avara Say, and confounded a small variety of J?*, uvtdifera
Shuttl., and the two forms, both in fact mature shells, figured
in the Terr. Moll, PL XL. figs. 1 (right hand) and 2, witli
jET. auricvlata.

To European authors H. a/oara seems to have been almost
entirely unknown, — the figures in Reeve and in Chemnitz do
not represent it ; indeed the only figure which does so approxi-
mately is that of Ferussac.

I find from the first letter written to Ferussac by Say, a copy
of which, witliout date, is now before me, in his own hand-
writing,* that he sent to Fenissac specimens of P. auricvlata
and P. aA)ara. In the reply, dated Paris, 16th July, 1820, are
the following notes : —

" 14. P. aurictdata, precieuse espece que je n'avais pas,

" 15. P. avara^ celle-ci est presque aussi curieuse, nouvelle
pour moi."

Deshayes (Fer. Hist. I. p. 78) writes as to S'. avara^ referring
to Ferussac's figure, PI. 50, fig. 2 ; — " Avant d'avoir vu cette

* I Am indebted to Mn. Say for an opportunity of examining much of the
oorrespondenee of Mr. Say with Baron Fenusao and otherS) and would acknow-
ledge gratefully the interest which she manifests in my endeavors to identify the
ipecies described by Mr. Bay.

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JSorih Americcm SelicidcB. 38

eep^ce dans la Oollectioii de M. de Ferussac, nous I'avions prise
pour one vari6t6 de VS. aimoulata. Apr^ I'avoir compar6e
^ cette defniere^^noas lui avons reconnu des caract^res constants,
ce qui nous a determine 4 la conserver comme espece distincte."

The annexed figure 11. of H. wca/ra Say, double the natural
size, is from a specimen collected on the St. John's Fio. n.
River, Florida, by Mr. Q. M. Dorman. The 8tn€&
are incorrectly represented, — ^they should have been
diown only at the termination of the last whorl, over
a small space immediately behind the peristome. -Kaoora Bey.

n, avara Say may be readily distinguished by its smaller
size, more delicate texture, and less globose form, — ^it has from
4 to 4J whorls, and is the only species of the group which is
hirsute. The superior tooth on the labrum is armed with a
hook as in the other species, but is narrower, less deeply seated,
and more erect ; the inferior one is rather a distinct tooth than
a lamellar fold. The parietal process differs entirely from that
of H. auriculatay as plainly shown in my figure. J7*. avara is .
without the groove on the last whorl which prevails in auridc-
latOj and the forms repres^ted by Dr. Binney as varieties of it.

Th^-size appears to be constant, — the following are the
measurements of the specimen figured : —

Diam. maj. 7, min, 6, Alt. 3 mill.

Mr. W. a Binney (Proc. Phila. Acad., 1857, p. 191), when
commenting on the figures of S. auriovlata in the Terr. Moll.,
says : " I do not consider fig. 2, ff. ava/ra Say, as a variety of
this, but a distinct species. . There are some varieties of awri-
eulata which may be confounded with it, but it is certainly a
good species." I entirely agree in the opinion that fig. 2 repre-
sents a good species, but by no means that it is the H. avara Say.
Mr. Binney mentions having received fine fresh hirsute speci-
mens from Mr. Postell, — in this there must be some mistake.
The H. woara W. G. Binney from St. Simon's Island and other
parts of Georgia, is not hirsute, as Mr. Postell himself assures
me, and M, cmwa Say has not been found there.

JANUABT, 18D8. 3 Ahh . Lxa Nat. Hm. Vou VIL

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34 Hemwrks on Certain, Species of

Helix uTuliftra Shattlewortlt.

Helix uvulifera Shuttleworth Bern. Mittheil^ p. 199, August. 1852
*• " ** Diag. n. MolU No. 2, p. 19.

" florulif era Reeve Conch. Icon., No. 699, p. 119. 1852

*• uvulifera Chemn, Ed. IT. Helix, No. 979, t. 148, fig.

19,20, fide Pfr.
** ** W.G. Binney Notes on Amer. Land Shells,

Proc. Phila. Acad., p. 205*. 1868

Shuttleworth thns describee this species : —

** Helix uvulifera. — ^T. rimato-perforata, superne planinscula, subtns
inflata, striata,' cinereo-albida, solidula, nitidula ; anir. 5, lente accres-
centes, angosti, ultimas ad aperturam subito defiexns, subtus devius,
scTobiculato-constrictus ; apertura valde obliqua, aurifonnis, ringens,
valde coarctata ; perist. acntum, reflexo-patnlum, marginibus plica lingui-
formi oblonga medio excavata profunde intrante junctis, dextro lamella
profiinde immersa in apicula filiformi reflexa desinente, basali tuberculo
dentiformi obliquo et sinuoso instructo.

''Diam. maj. 12, min. 11, Alt. 7 mill.

<* Hob. — ^In insulis parvis ' Long Keys', sinu dicto ' Sarazota,' Florida
Austr. (Rugel). ^

" Oh8. — Specimina numerosissima examinavi. Proxime H. auricu-
3at8B affinis, sed textura, colore, ac apertura minus coarctata, peristo-
cnateque minus producto satis distincta. H. Ariadnse Pfr. in Chemn.,
ed. 2, tab. 65, f. 29-31, etiam affinis, at differt figura testa tantum
limata sine vestigio perforationis. Nomen specificum ab apicula lamella
marginis dextri peristomatis, Uvulse Humanse hand dissimili, assumptum.
Sed character hie in omnibus speciebus affinibus plus minusve obvius est"

The annexed figure HI. of the aperture of H. v/ovUfera
Fio. IIL Shuttl., twice the natural size, is from a specimen
^^^ received direct from the author of the species.

^^m^ H. uvulifera may be distinguished from H. a/wri-
^^^9 cuiata by the character of tlie labrum, which is
^^^^ equally produced from the superior angle of the
s:iK»»)</;ra8hnta parietal process, to the base of the inferior tooth

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Ncrih America/n, JBeUddcB. 35

or fold, where it is reflected, sometimes appressed to the last
whorL The lower angle of the parietal process is connected
with the inner termination of the labrnm by a flat, more or less
developed callus. The umbilical region is less open, and there
is no groove within it on the last whorl.

This species is variable in size, texture, and sculpture. Mr.
Shuttleworth's specimen is opaque, of the color indicated in his
description, — ^irregularly, and, compared with H. aurictdataj
slightly striated.

I have one example of large size, from the cabinet of the late
Mr. Samuel Lounsbury, which is white, translucent, and almost
smooth, — ^the habitat unknown.

Of the more common form, usually labelled J?*. awricuUUa in
American cabinets, I received very many specimens from Mr.
Anthony and other correspondents, but without any note of
the locality in which they were collected. For one from Corpus
Christi, Texas, I am indebted to Mr. W. G. Binney. This
variety is of a yellowish horn color, shining, strongly striated
above and at the base, and generally smaller than the shell
described by Shuttleworth.

I add the measurements of the specimens referred to : —

Diam. maj. 114, min. 10, Alt. 6 mill, whorls 6, Shuttleworth.
" " 14 " 12 " 7 " " 6, Lounsbury.
" 9 " 8 '* 5i « " 5§,W.G. Binney.


Helix Postelliana Bland.

T. rimato-perforat&, sapeme convexiusculd., costulato-striat^ sabtas
iDflato-conTexll,]8eyiii8cal&; fa8CO-corDe&, tenni, iiitid^ sabpellucidft; spiri
yix elevate ; anfr. 5, lente accrescentibas, convexinsculis, ultimo ad aper-
toram deflexo, disjancto, scrobiculatoH^nstricto ; suturA, impressll ; aper-
ture alb&, obliquft, auriformi, coarctatii ; perist. acute, continue, marginibus
plic4 linguiformi, oblongsl, intrante, superne excavatii, junctis ; dextro
laftnelli uncatd profunde immers^, basali dente lamelliformi, erecto, vix
obliqao, intra aperturam producto et recurvato, instructo.

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36 Remarks on Certain Species of

Shell perforate, above slightly convex, with rib-like stricB
wider apart and more prominent behind the aperture ; beneath
inflated, convex, almost smooth, and with microscopic spiral
lines ; brown horn color, thin, shining, subpellncid ; whorls 6,
gradually increasing, rather convex, the last deflected and
turned outwards from the preceding one, scrobiculate, con-
stricted, grooved within the umbilical region; suture im-
pressed ; aperture white, oblique, ear-shaped, contracted ; pe-
ristome acute, continuous, the margins joined by a tongue-
shaped fold, excavated above, entering into the aperture, the
right margin having a deeply-seated lamella, which terminates
in a reflexed hook, the base with an erect lamelliform, scarcely
oblique tooth, produced into, and recurved within the aperture.

Diam. maj. 9^; min. 8^, mill. Alt. 5 mill.

Habitat. — ^Wayne Co., Ware Co. and St. Simon's Island, Qa.,
Postelll: Camden Co., Ga., Bishop Elliott 1: Glynn Co., Ga.
Wilson 1

Station. — ^Mr. Postell writes as to the Wayne Co. specimens,
of which he sent me about a dozen.

^' These shells are found upon the slopes of the hills, near the
base, where the earth is always moist, under fallen pines, and in
most cases between the bark and trunk of the trees. The ani-
mals feed, I think, on the decayed bark, and not on living vege-
table matter."

The single specimen in my cabinet from Ware Co. Ga., is
somewhat larger than the others — ^has 5i whorls, — the aperture
is brown in color, and the striss are more conspicuous at the

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