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been put in print, and will be before the Trustees once more for
their consideration, with such suggestions as the Council may
have to make concerning it.

RELATION TO PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION.

This problem is so vital a one for the independent college,
that I have asked the diflferent members of the committee on this
subject to make a careful report of the different aspects of the
question. Professor Hall writes upon the relation to law schools ;
Professor Bogart upon the relation to higher commercial train-
ing ; Professor Leonard upon the relation to the medical schools ;
and Professor St. John upon the relation to technical schools.

Relation to Law Schools.

"The situation in legal study seems to be that the leading Law
Schools of the country have made arrangements by which the combined
Arts and Law courses may be taken in six years; and at the end of that
period the student will possess both the A. B. degree and the diploma
from the Law School The Harvard Law School is a marked exception
to this tendency, as it requires an A. B. degree as a condition of admission
to its classes, and hence Harvard students must at present spend seven
years in order to complete both courses. In the six-year combined course,
we have found no instance in which a year of study in the Arts has been
counted as a year in the Law School, even if that year should be devoted
to lines of study especially recommended ior Law students; as, for ex-
ample, in Economics, History, Political Science, or Constitutional Law.
In other words the graduate from this combined course has had three
years of Law study and only three years of study in the Arts. He has
not had, in any case, four years of study in the Arts and two years in Law,
with one of his years in the Arts course so carefully selected that it has
been accepted as an equivalent for a year of Law study.

Such a combined course, it is plain, can only be offered in a University
which includes a Law Department as well as an Arts Department ; and the
College, with the Arts course only, can not compete with the University
in such a shortening of the period of professional study in the Law.

A year ago your Committee had not regarded this matter as an urgent
problem; but it is manifest that the attraction of the six-year Law course

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has already been more widely and deeply felt among our students than we
had realized. At the close of the past year Oberlin lost two of the
young men in its incoming Senior class, because they could enter Univer-
sities where they could complete their Law courses in three years and at
the same time receive their A. B. degrees ; and we must anticipate that this
tendency will increase. In these circumstances it seems to your Committee
that the only way in which Oberlin can meet this new form of competition
for our young men who are looking forward to the profession of the Law
is by the appointment of a Professor of Law, who shall give his time to
the teaching of such subjects as are covered by the first year of study in our
best Law schools. There is no reason to doubt that students who have
pursued such studies in Oberlin College will be admitted to the second year
in any of the Law schools of the country except Harvard. Of course, it
would not be necessary for any student to take all the legal studies in his
Senior year, and several of them might wisely be taken in the Junior year,
and some even in the Sophomore year. Such an appointment at Oberlin
would be rather a reversion to an earlier system than a novel experiment;
as a Professor of Law was a member of the Oberlin Faculty for several
years in the early days of Oberlin.

• A temporary alternative was offered to your Committee by the propo-
sal of one reputable Law School that three courses now given in Oberlin
College would be accepted as one fourth of a year's study in the Law
school; that one of their lecturers would come to Oberlin and conduct
a two-hour course through the year, for which a second fourth of a year
would be credited; and that the remaining half of the year's work might
be made up by taking extra hours of work through the other two years
of the Law course; and in this way an Oberlin student might practically
follow a combined six-year course, not unlike that offered in the Universi-
ties. The generous offer was made that the proposed Law teacher might
be engaged at a merely nominal sum; viz., the paying of his traveling
expenses. This offer, the Committee on Professional Study did not think
it wise to accept. The credit proposed for our College work seemed too
trifling to deserve much attention ; the work done by the proposed loan of a
lecturer seemed of comparatively little value; while such an offer would have
been very welcome in case of a sudden emergency caused by death or in-
capacity, it did not seem dignified or self-respecting for Oberlin to make use
of such an offer as a permanent policy, since it was so easily open to mis-
construction and misrepresentation."

Relation to Higher Commercial Education.
"The past few years have witnessed the establishment of courses in
higher coamierdal education in a dozen of our larger universities, the

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J



avowed purpose of which is to give their graduates a more special training
for business careers than they could obtain from the ordinary college
course. The increasing complexity of modern business makes necessary
a specialized education for those who are to make a success of it. The fact
that colleges have not in the past given such training has made some ques-
tion whether the successful business man did not secure his education better
by practical experience than by college training. While it is true that
actual contact with business affairs is a necessary condition for a success-
ful business career, yet the educated business man can secure best in the
college a knowledge of the general principles and broader inter-relations
of our industrial life. Such training, it is believed, will fit him better
for assuming a responsible position in the business world, while it will at
the same time in no wise detract from the liberal character of his educa-
tion. A comparatively slight modification of the present course of study at
Oberlin would enable us to offer the students the most important courses
presented in the programs of some of the institutions providing for higher
commercial education. In suggesting this there is no thought of attempt-
ing, to give a complete three or four years' technical course in business
training. The purpose is rather to enlarge and remodel somewhat the
Department of Economics and Sociology in such a way as to give the
student the essentials of a broad commercial education and prepare him for
postgraduate work in a technical school of commerce, or for better under-
standing the problems of our complex industrial life without further study.
It is not necessary to label this group of studies a "Business Course ;" it is
sufficient if the demand for such work be met and the opportunity be given
to our students in Oberlin of securing a more liberal and comprehensive
knowledge of the economic world. It would put us in line with some of
the most progressive institutions in the middle west, and permit the en-
largement of our curriculum in the direction in which it most needs it
This could be secured by the appointment of one additional instructor in
the College.

It was the good fortune of your professor of economics, as delegate
from Oberlin College, to attend a conference of college, business, and pro-
fessional men at Ann Arbor last spring for the purpose of considering the
advisability of incorporating higher commercial education in our college
curricula. The verdict was general and was particularly emphasized by
the business men present that the liberal character of a college education
must in no way be sacrificed; that the best business training possible was
the training of the whole man. But it was also thought that the study
of modern industrial society might be made as truly liberal as other
courses of study, and at the same time give the student a better insight into

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the working of economic and social forces than is possible under a cur-
riculum organized without this group of studies.

The courses in higher commercial education, given in common by the
Universities of Chicago, Dartmouth, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, New
York, Ohio State, and Wisconsin, are as follows (the numbers show how
many of the eight institutions give these courses) : Economic History
of England (5) ; Economic History of the United States (3) ; Economic
Geography (5) ; Political Economy (7) ; History of Commerce (5) ;
Money and Banking (6) ; Business Organization (5) ; Materials of Com-
merce (3) ; Accounting (4) ; Commercial Law (4) ; Public Finance (6) ;
Transportation (5) ; Labor (3) ; Economic Theory (2) ; Corporation
Finance (3) ; Domestic and Foreign Trade (2) ; Insurance (2). Of these
the last three are postgraduate studies, and so may be dismissed. Of
the others the courses in italics are now given in Oberlin College. If an
additional instructor could be appointed who could relieve your present
professor of the sociology and of five hours a year in the introductory
economics, the following schedule of courses could be arranged:



Freshman.



Sophomore.



Junior.



Senior.



I St Scm.



Econ. Hist, of
Eng., a hrs.



Polit. Econ., 5
hrs.



3hs.



Trans-
portati'n
alter-
nating
with
Fin. His.
of U. S
Hist, of Com.,
2 hrs.



Econ.
Theory
alter-
nating
with
Labor. J
Econ. Sem., ahs



3hs.



and Sem.



Econ. Hist, of
U. S., 2 hrs.



Money and

Banking, 3 hrs.

Econ. Geog.,

2 hrs.



Public

Finance, 3 hrs.
Hist, of Com. ,
2 hrs.



Bus. Org., 3 hrs.
Econ. Sem., 2 hs.



Total



4 hrs.



10 hrs.



10 hrs.



10 hrs.



This makes provision for practically all the courses mentioned above
except those in Accounting and Commercial Law. The Economic Sem-
inar, which is open to eight of the most advanced students, could be used,
if desirable, for more advanced work along any of these lines. It will be
noticed that this plan provides for taking only eight to ten hours of the
time of the assistant ; the rest of his time could be given to the Department
of History, where the most pressing needs seem to be for the establish-
ment of a course in Modern European History and for the continuance of
the course now being given in Greek History, or to the expansion of

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the work in Political Science. Though I hesitate to urge it at this time,
there is even now need of still another instructor, who could prive some
general courses for which credit might be obtained in law schools by
intending law students, but for which there is even greater need as a part
of a liberal college course. Such would be courses in Constitutional Law,
International Law, Commercial Law, Comparative Politics, Theory of the
State, Municipal Government, Political Institutions, etc. On the other
hand, technical law courses such as contracts, sales, agency, torts, etc,
might well be left for the professional law school. The more pressing
need at present, however, seems to be along the lines followed by so
many of our neighboring institutions in developing higher commercial
education."

Relation to Medical Schools.

"In your letter of the 15th you ask for a somewhat careful statement
concerning the situation as to the relation of the College to medical
schools; the difficulties in the way of the adjustment, and exactly what
we need to do to make such adjustment, and whether any further action
or expense in this direction would be of value. A study of the require-
ments for Admission, Advanced Standing and Graduation, and of the
work done during the First Year, at certain representative medical schools,
will make clear the present condition of affairs. The institutions I have
selected — ^and they are the ones most frequently attended by our graduates —
are the following: Harvard, Columbia, University of Pennsylvania, Johns
Hopkins University, Uniyersity of Michigan, University of Chicago, and
Western Reserve University. The statements are taken in each case from
the last catalogue issued by the Medical Department of the university in
question.

I. Harvard University,

Candidates for admission must present a degree in Arts, Literature,
Philosophy, or Science, from a recognized college or scientific school, with
the exception of such persons, of suitable age and attainments, as may be
admitted by a special vote of the Administrative Board in each case. All
candidates must have had a course in Theoretical and Descriptive (In-
organic) Chemistry and Qualitative Analysis (in preparation for course*
in Chemistry in the Medical College).

Applicants for admission to the Medical School who have studied
for three years in recognized colleges, or technical or scientific schools,
in which courses in Human Anatomy, Physiology, Histology and Physio-
logical (Chemistry are a part of the instruction, may be admitted to
advanced standing, provided they pass an examination in these sub-
jects, and possess the other requirements for admission.

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The course duriiwr the First Year inchides Anatomy (d:u hours, with
dissection), Histology and Embryology (252 hours), Physiology (348
hours), Physiological and Pathological Chemistry (288 hours;.

Candidates for graduation must have studied in a recoenized Medical
School at least four full years, of which one year must be spent at this
school.

2. Columbia (College of Physicians and Surgeons),

Candidates for admission must present a medical student's certificate,
granted by the Regents and based upon the completion of at least one
fuU year's course of study in a college or scientific school registered as
maintaining a satisfactory standard. Examinations on an equivalent
amount of courses may be taken.

Students who have pursued elsewhere courses in Physics or General
Chemistry substantially equivalent to those given at this College, may be
excused from the work in these subjects, and admitted to more advanced
instruction as a substitute, on presentation of satisfactory certificates or
after examination. Advanced standing in other subjects than Physios and
Chemistry is granted only when these have been pursued in a recognized
medical school.

The work of the First Year includes Physics (lectures and laboratory
through one semester), General Chemistry (lectures, conference and labora-
tory through one semester), Anatomy (demonstrations and 216 hours of
dissection, throughout the year). Normal Histology, and Physiology (lec-
tures and demonstrations, throughout the year). The work in Anatomy
and Physiology is continued in the second year.

In order to practice in New York State the candidate for registration
must have studied four full years in a medical school maintaining a
satisfactory standard. Graduates from Columbia must conform to this
standard.

3. University of Pennsylvania,

Candidates for admission must be able to meet the entrance require-
ments at any recognized college.

Any graduate in Arts or Science of a college recognized by this
University who has completed any of the studies of the first year of the
Medical Course, and who has passed satisfactorily the examination given
by the professor in the respective branch in this medical school, may be
excused from that portion of the study given in the first year of the
course, provided that he utilize the time scheduled for that study in ad-
vanced work in Chemistry, Anatomy, or Bacteriology, according to his
preference; or in anticipating work of the second year in so far as the
official roster will permit.

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The work of the First Year includes Anatomy (lectures and dissec-
tion), Histology and Embryology (laboratory), Bacteriology (lectures and
laboratory). General Chemistry and Medical Chemistry (lectures and lab-
oratory), lectures on Medical Terminology, Ethics, etc

The candidates for graduation must have passed satisfactory examina-
tions in all of the required branches of the (four years') curriculum, must
have attended the practical instruction in all departments, and his last
year of instruction must have been at this school.

4. Johns Hopkins University.

Candidates for admission must be graduates of approved colleges
or scientific schools, and must furnish evidence that they have acquaintance
with Latin and a reading knowledge of French and German, and sucli
knowledge of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology as is imparted by the
regular minor courses (each consisting of four class-room exercises and
two afternoons of Laboratory work throughout the year) given in these
subjects in this University. Others who show by examination that they
possess the required general education and special training involved in
the above conditions may also be admitted.

Admission to advanced standimr is only by examination.

The work of the First Year includes Anatomy, Histology and Em-
bryology, Physiology, and Physiological (Chemistry.

The candidate for graduation must in every instance have fulfilled all
the requirements for admission to this Medical School and must have
completed, as a regularly matriculated or registered medical student, a
four years* course of medical study, equivalent in its standards to that
given here, of which the final year must be spent in this Medical School.

5. University of Michigan.

To meet the requirements for admission without condition, it is ex-
pected that the applicant will have had to take at least two years of col-
legiate instruction in addition to a high school course.

In order to be admitted to advanced standing a student must have
completed not only the didactic courses, but the laboratory courses also,
already taken by the class to which he seeks admission. When, in the
judgment of the professor in charge, such a course is equivalent to that
given in this Department, he may give the student credit for the work
done, and thus avoid repetition.

The work of the First Year includes Anatomy, Embryology and His-
tology, General Chemistry, and Physics.

Under no circumstances will a student be graduated without having
taken four full courses in a medical school, the last of whioh must have

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been in this school. Graduates of literary and scientific schools or colleges
are not exempted from the necessity of complying with this requirement.

Students in the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts who
intend also to study medicine may be able to shorten their total period of
study and residence at the University by from one year to one and a half
or two years, if they comply with the conditions in which registration in
both departments at the same time is permitted, and also pursue, as literary
students, courses that cover the subjects required in the first two years of
the medkal curriculum.

6. University of Chicago,

The requirements for admission consist of a four-year high school
course plus one and a third years of college work, which must have in-
cluded General Chemistry and Biology (after June i8, 1905, two years
of college work, which must have included General Chemistry, Elementary
Biology, Organic Chemistry, College Physics, and reading knowledge of
German and French).

Graduates of recognized colleges of Arts or Science which require
a regular attendance of four years as essential to graduation, may be
given credit for each major (60 hours of lecture or recitation, or 120 liours
in the laboratory) of work (or a full equivalent therefor) corresponding to
any of the work in medical courses. In accordance with state law such
students are allowed to complete their medical course and receive the
M. D. degree 33 months after matriculation. This involves a time credit
of one year, but does not excuse the student from any of the work of the
medical course.

The work of the First Year includes Chemistry (one major, in addition
to General Chemistry), Anatomy (with dissection). Embryology and His-
tology, Physiology, Physiological (Chemistry, Pharmacology, Bacteriology,
and Pathology.

The first two years* work in Medicine may be taken as the third and
fourth years of the Bachelor of Science Course (and a very considerable
part of the first two years* work in Medicine during the third and fourth
years of the Bachelor of Arts or the Bachelor of Philosophy Courses) upon
the fulfilment of certain requirements for the degree.

7. Western Reserve University,

Candidates for admission must have completed the junior year in a
recognized college.

Graduates in Arts or Sciences of recognized colleges who have during
their academic course devoted to the subjects the number of hours men-
tioned below, or their equivalents, and have passed satisfactory examina-

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tions thereon, may be admitted to the second year of the course. But the
amount of practical work in such courses must not he less than that re-
quired in corresponding subjects during the first year in this College.
The subjects are — General Biology 90 hours, Comparative Anatomy 75
hours, Embryology 75 hours, Histology 200 hours, Human Anatomy 120
hours, Physics 60 hours, Inorganic and Organic Chemistry 300 hours.

Students in the senior class of Adelbert College are permitted to take
elective courses in the first year of the Medical College. Such electives,
to the extent of nine hours a week, are counted toward the academic degree,
so that in this way students may save one year in the combined Iherary
and medical courses.

The v/ork of the First Year includes Anatomy with dissection. Chem-
istry, Histology, Comparative Anatomy, Embryology, and Bacteriology.

In accordance with the laws of certain states, not including Ohio,
all persons desiring to practice medicine in these states are required to have
attended, before taking the state examination, four full years at a regular
medical college, whether they are graduates of a literary college or not.

I may add here the vote passed last spring at a meeting of the Associ-
ation of American Medical Colleges. '*0n and after July i, 1905, each of
the four years of the medical course shall be separate and distinct from the
arts and scientific departments of the university or college, and no student
shall be permitted to be a matriculate in another department of a uni-
versity or college."

In view of these facts, the difficulties of adjustment and the possible
alternatives which confront the independent college are, it seems to me,
substantially as set forth in a letter received from Professor W. H. Howell,
Dean of the Medical Department of Johns Hopkins University. He says,
in part: "I regret to say that it is not possible for one of your students
to shorten his medical course here by one year in consequence of special
scientific courses before entering. The main difficulty is that some of the
state laws, e. g. those of New York, require evidence of four years' medical
study with registration for four years as a medical student. ♦ * * A
second difficulty lies in the fact that outside a well-organized medical school
really thorough courses in Human Anatomy, Physiology (including labora-
tory work). Physiological Chemistry, and Neurology cannot be obtained at
present * * ♦ What we look for in our college courses, in addition
to a liberal training, is a good foundation in Physics, Chemistry, and
Biology. If these are given I do not see how the other sciences mentioned
above and which constitute mainly our first year's work can be crowded
into the four years of college. As you well know, many colleges that have
medical departments have organized combined courses, in which the first

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year in the Medical Faculty counts as the last year of the College course
leading to the bachelor's degree. I presume that Oberlin might make
similar arrangements with some of the good medical schools, allowing the
student to enter the medical school at the end of his third year and
conferring the degree at the end of his first medical year. If I may be per-
mitted to say so, a better plan still would be the restriction of the college
course to three years, as is practically dont in the undergraduate depart^
ment of this University * *"

The present time is plainly one of transition and adjustment, in the
medical schools themselves and in their relation to the college. Under
such circumstances, and in view of the evident trend toward separation



Online LibraryOberlin CollegeAnnual reports of the president and the treasurer → online text (page 4 of 67)