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M. L.




3 1833 02398 9806

Gc 977. 1 Oh2999zz v. 30

Ohio arch ological and
historical quan'ierly


Archaeological and Historical


Volume XXX.






Digitized by the Internet Archive

in 2010 with funding from

Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center





Assassination of Abraham Lincoln. By James R. Morris 1-5

The Battle of Picardy 6-12

Legislature of the Northwestern Territory 1795 13-53

Early Journeys to Ohio. By B. F. Prince 54-70

The Indian's Head. By Henry Bannon 71-74

Reviews, Notes and Comments 75-76

The Naga and the Lingam of India and the Serpent Mounds of

Ohio. By Alexander S. Wilson, M. D 77-00

Flint Ridge. By William C. Mills 91-161

George Frederick Wright (In Memoriam) 162-175

Reviews, Notes and Comments. By the Editor 176-178

Old Brown (Poem). By Wm. D. Howells 181

John Brown (Poem). By Coates Kinney 183

John Brown. By C. B. Galbreath 184-289

The Execution of John Brown. By Murat Halstead 290-299

John Brown at Harper's Ferry and Charlestown. By S. K.

Donovan 300-336

John Brown — Additional Notes. By C B. Galbreath 337-341

Reviews, Notes and Comments. By the Editor 342-354

Anti-Slavery Movement in Columbiana County. By C. B. Gal-
breath 355-396

Edwin Coppoc. By C B. Galbreath 397-449

Notes 450-451

The Coffin of Edwin Coppoc. By Thomas C. Mendenhall 452-458

Barclay Coppoc. By C. B. Galbreath 459-482

Unveiling of Tablet at Campus Martins 483-493

Reviews, Notes and Comments. By the Editor 494-501

Thirty-Sixth Annual Meeting of the Ohio State Archaeological

and Historical Society 502-542

Index to Volume XXX 543-566

Index to Minutes of the Legislature of the Territory of the

United States Northwest of the Ohio, 1795 567-570

Index to Minutes of the Thirty-Sixth Annual Meeting of the

Society 571



See Index under "Illustrations.'

Archaeological and Historical




[Some years ago Judge James R. Morris, at the request of
Honorable M. B, Archer, now serving his second term in the Ohio
State Senate, wrote on parchment his recollections of the as-
sassination of Abraham Lincoln. This manuscript, appropriately
framed. Senator Archer later presented to the Ohio State
Archaeological and Historical Society, in whose museum and
library building it is now on exhibition. It is believed that the
readers of the Quarterly will be interested in the account of
that tragic event from the pen of one who was an eye witness
and former congressman from Ohio. — Editor.]

WooDSFiELD, Ohio, July 26, 1897.

Hon. M. B. Archer — Dear Sir: — In compliance
with your request I herewith give you my personal recol-
lections of that astounding and ever memorable tragedy,
the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, — one of the
most remarkable men of this, or any other age, or coun-
try — a tragedy that shocked and amazed the civilized

I was not, on the 14th of April, 1865, a member of
Congress as you have thought. My second term, as a
member of that body, expired on the fourth day of the
preceding month. I had gone to Washington with a
friend. Captain W. M. Kerr, on some business of his
connected with his service in the army. On Friday,
April 14th, we had successfully concluded the business
of our trip and decided to visit Ford's theater.


2 Ohio Arch, and Hist. Society Publications.

We were not aware that the President was to be
present. As soon as I saw the President and Mrs.
Lincoln enter the box in the balcony tier, I called Captain
Kerr's attention to the fact. He had never seen the
President before and was, naturally, much gratified at

Abraham Lincoln.

this opportunity of seeing him. Another lady and
gentleman accompanied the President, who I afterward
learned were a daughter of Senator Harris, of New
York, and a Major Rathbone.

Laura Keene and her company were playing "Our
American Cousin," and the house was packed, as it was

Assassination of Abraham Lincoln. 3

her benefit night. The play had progressed for some
time, the curtain had just been rolled up for another act,
and almost immediately thereafter the audience were
startled by the report of a fire arm. I looked up to see
if I could discover from whence the sound came.

I saw the assassin, as he proved to be, in the Presi-
dent's box making for the front. When he had reached
it he placed his hand on the banister and cried out : "Sic
semper fyrannis," and, leaping over, alighted on the
stage, bringing down with him some of the drapery sur-
rounding the box. When he lit he sank nearly to his
knees, as one naturally would in lighting on a solid floor
from a height of eight or ten feet. He soon straightened
up and ran diagonally across the stage and disappeared
behind the wings or scenery and thus escaped.

Captain Kerr asked me: "Did you notice how
deathly pale he looked?" and I answered affirmatively.
When I first saw the assassin in the President's box
after hearing the report of the pistol, I realized what he
had done, especially so after hearing the words he
uttered. I cannot describe the scene that followed.
There was a dead silence for a few moments. The
President fell or leaned forward, and I think his head
rested on the bannister front. Mrs. Lincoln rose partly
to her feet — extending her arms forward and upward,
and uttering some mournful cries or words that I did
not understand.

I jumped up on my chair and cried: "Hang the

scoundrel!" (Using some expletives

not very creditable to myself.) I did not then think he
had had time to make his escape, but that he could or
would be arrested by some of the troupe. As I saw no
one on the stage when the assassin landed on it, it is not
probable that any member of the company really knew
what had happened until the assassin had left the
theater: and this I have since seen stated in the public
prints is really the fact, although one or two of them
saw him running across the stage and had heard the

4 Ohio Arch, and Hist. Society Publications.

shot, but did not know until too late, that the President
had been assassinated.

About this time Major Rathbone, (if I have the name
accurately), rose in the President's box and called out:
"Is there any surgeon in the house?" Then numbers

Congressman James B. Moreis.

were rushing for the stage — many getting upon it.
Right before me was a gentleman, whom I took to be an
army surgeon, and a lady. He started forward; the
lady clung to his arm, exclaiming, "Oh, what will be-
come of me!" I tried to pacify her, telling her to let
the doctor go — that there was no danger now. Then

Assassination of Abraham Lincoln. 5

the police came rushing in and commanded all to leave
the theater. I called to one of them to take charge of
the lady, which he did. Two persons w^ere hoisted over
the heads of those who were on the stage into the Presi-
dent's box — whether the gentleman who had been
seated in front of me was one of them I do not know.

The audience seemed to linger as if to learn if the
President had been fatally wounded, but the police in-
sisted on clearing the house. I went out with the crowd,
but remained on the sidewalk until the President was
carried dow^n and across the street to the house where he
died. I then made my way to the police office, and, being
acquainted with the chief, I told him where I had been.
He said: "Morris, it is reduced to a dot that the
assassin is Wilkes Booth, but say nothing about it until
you hear it from other sources." This was the first
intimation I had who* the assassin was. While in the
chief's office other detectives came hurriedly in and told
the chief that Secretary Seward had been assassinated.
I left the chief and made my way back to the square
where the tragedy occurred, but no one was permitted
to pass the place.

Early next morning I went to inquire if the President
still lived, and was told that he was still living but fail-
ing fast. On the early morning train my friend and I
started for home, and when we reached the Relay
House, nine miles from Baltimore, the train stopped and
we were not permitted to leave there until 4 o'clock in
the afternoon. The President had died after we left
Washington and before our arrival at the Relay House.
Very Respectfully Yours,

Jas. R. Morris.


Heroic Service of Three Ohio Soldiers

In an article of absorbing interest Frank H. Simonds
in the Reviezv of Reviews, for March, 1920, describes
the great German offensive which began March 21, 1918.
The Germans called this "the Kaiser's Battle," the Eng-
lish have named it the "Second Battle of the Somme,"
but it will probably be more generally and permanently
known as the "Battle of Picardy."

In the number of men engaged and the losses it was
the greatest battle in all recorded time. In fifteen days
Germany poured over 1,000,000 men into this crucible
of war. The English alone lost 175,000 men, "a num-
ber equal to the combined forces of Meade and Lee at
Gettysburg." In the issue at stake it was pivotal and
momentous. Upon the results hung the fate of Europe
and the world. The British, French and German gen-
erals who led in this mighty combat had recorded their
testimony and this enabled Simonds to write with added
authority of "those terrible and magnificent days,"
which may well be characterized as "the Armageddon
of history."

The German advance, which for days swept every-
thing before it, was halted in front of Amiens, where
"the last convulsions" of the gigantic struggle ended.
The Germans failed to reach the channel ports or Paris
— their two prime objectives. The climax of their
striving and sacrifice was in vain.

After describing the prodigies of heroism and en-
durance exhibited by the British and the French,
Simonds pays tribute to the little band of American engi-
neers who were caught in this red whirlwind of war :

"Memorable amidst the crowd of unforgettable incidents
is the exploit of Sanderman Carey, in command of a force


The Battle of Picardy. 7

gathered from all ranks and conditions * * * and including
a detachment belonging to that regiment of American Engineers
who volunteered when Marwitz broke the British line at Cambrai
in the previous year. With this 'scratch' force Carey barred the
road to Amiens when it lay open to the German advance. He
not only held the gate, but by a despairing counter attack actually
threw the enemy back."

Only 2200 American soldiers were caught in the
great German drive. They were the Twelfth Regiment
of Engineers and a detachment of two companies of the
Sixth Engineers. The Twelfth were at Cambrai in 1917
but it is to the detachment of the Sixth that Simonds
refers especially in the above, though all were engaged
at about the same place in the "Somme defensive."

Our readers will be interested to know that among
these engineers were Sergeant E. Gray Swingle of
Newark and Private Frank J. Goldcamp of Ironton who
were among the very first of the expeditionary troops
from Ohio to give their lives for the Allied cause. With
them in their last hours was Wagoner Carl G. Duncan,
at present a student in college at Cedarville, Ohio, who
lives to tell the story of their service. He has consented
to do this at the special request of the Editor of J;he
Quarterly and his straight-forward, modest statement
is now a part of the archives of our Society with thou-
sands of other letters and manuscripts relating to the
World War. We present the following:


On the night of March 27, 1918, the Sixth Regiment,
U. S. Engineers took over a section of the front line
trenches near Hamel and Warfusee-Abancourt in the
Somme district. Nearly all of the Headquarters Com-
pany and also nearly all of Company B. and Company
D. took over these trenches. The rest of the regiment
was still in the Marne district. It was about midnight
when we reached the line.


Ohio Arch, and Hist. Society Publications.

Patrols were sent out to locate the enemy. Sergeant
E. Gray Swingle of Newark, Ohio, led a patrol out about
two or three o'clock, ran onto a German patrol and was
shot down in the skirmish. I heard later that Corporal
Sweebe who lived near Toledo, Ohio, and a Private Den-
nis were in Swingle's patrol. I was never able to learn

who the others were. His
patrol fled and came back
to our lines without him.
I was told that as Swingle
was leading his patrol
along he heard something
over to the right.

He challenged, ''Who
is there?"

Receiving no reply he
turned to his men and
said, "There's something
over there and we must
know what it is."

His men cautioned
him but he said, "You fel-
lows can stay here if you
wish but I am going to
find out what it is."

He started but was
immediately shot down.
His patrol came back and
reported that Swingle
was missing. They
seemed to have the idea that he was captured.

The next morning as soon as the fog had cleared
away Captain Harris of Company B. "spotted" Swingle
lying out In a wheat field in No Man's Land. He was
five or six hundred yards out from our lines and ap-
parently near the German lines. He was headed toward
us and trying to crawl back but could not make any

Sergeant E. Gray Swingle.

The Battle of Picardy.

progress. He had been shot thru both thighs. They
were both broken. Captain Harris and our First
Sergeant Brundage of Elmira, New York, waved to
him. Swingle signaled back.

A few minutes later Sergeant Brundage came to a
group of about twenty of us who were digging rifle pits
near by. He told us that they had located Swingle out
about fifty yards from the
German lines and they
wanted two big huskies
to bring him in. I be-
lieve every man in the en-
tire group volunteered.
I know Goldcamp volun-
teered first.

Sergeant Brundage
said, "Duncan, you and
Goldcamp go."

We started at once.
We were in our shirt
sleeves, took no weapons
of any kind as we in-
tended to drag Swingle
in with us. There was
no mention of a stretcher,
at least I did not hear it.

Three men with rifles
had gone out ahead of
Goldcamp and me. Pri-
vate Frank J. Goldcamp was from Ironton, Ohio. H
the Germans should try to capture us, the riflemen were
to keep them away.

Swingle was lying on top of a slight elevation of
ground. As we began to go up this slope we saw Ger-
mans over on the right digging trenches. Our riflemen
stopped. Goldcamp and I began to crawl the last hun-
dred yards or so. When we reached Swingle we were

Frank J. Goldcamp.

10 Ohio Arch, and Hist. Society Publications.

in plain view of the Germans nearly directly off to the
right, about four or five hundred yards away.

As we came close to Swingle he said, "Why didn't
you bring a stretcher? How do you expect to take me

Goldcamp said, "We'll get you in. Sergeant, if you
can stand it."

Swingle gritted his teeth and said, "I'll stand it, you
boys should never have come out after me."

Goldcamp spoke, encouraging him.

By that time we had started back with him. Gold-
camp had Swingle by the left arm, I had the right, so
was on the left of Goldcamp. As we slid backwards we
pulled Swingle with us. His legs dangled along behind
like ropes. Blood streaked the green wheat as we pulled
him along. His face was ghastly white. He suffered
terrible pains, but he never whimpered or gave up once.

We had taken him about ten or fifteen yards, when
"zip, zip", the bullets began to come and then Swingle
gave a lurch and said:

"Oh, they have us now. You boys should never have
come out for me."

Goldcamp tried to comfort him, when "zip" — an-
other bullet pierced Goldcamp's chest and hit me in the
right side. Goldcamp gave a sort of choking cough
"0-0-0 God" as he turned over one complete turn and

The bullet knocked me stiff for a few second^^ and
as I came to my senses the bullets were zipping over me.
I began to roll back towards our lines. The bullets kept
coming so I quickly decided to play "possum." I stopped
dead still. The firing ceased. Swingle was lying about
ten feet away, off to my left and in front of me, Gold-
camp was in front of him.

Swingle asked if I were hurt badly. I told him I
was hit on the right side but was not badly hurt. He
called to Goldcamp several times but received no

The Battle of Picardy.


The first bullet had hit Swingle and weakened him
a great deal. He suffered terribly but he held up. He
seemed to feel so badly about Goldcamp and me. He
said, "You boys should never have come out after me."
The men with the rifles who were down below us
called up and asked what had happened. I told them
that Goldcamp was dead, Swingle was badly wounded
and that I was slightly hurt. The riflemen said they

would go back in and
come out after us that

When Swingle heard
what they said, he
moaned, "H they don't
come before dark I will
be frozen to death."

I lay there for nearly
two hours before I real-
ized that I would sufl:"er
the same fate. I decided
that I would rather be
shot dead than freeze to
death. Then there was
a chance that I might get
safely back and have a
stretcher sent for
Swingle. I staggered to
my feet and started but
fainted when about two-
thirds of the way in. My
brother who was in my squad and another lad came out
and took me on in. Just then a Scotch Lieutenant was
going out to examine us. He crawled on out and found
that Swingle and Goldcamp had made the supreme

It will be noted that Wagoner Duncan is very modest
in regard to his own service. The impression left is

Wagoner Carl G. Duncan.

12 Ohio Arch, and Hist. Society Publications.

that he was only slightly wounded. The facts are that
the bullet which crashed into his side broke two ribs
and lodged in the fleshy part of his back from which it
was removed. Serious complications afterward set in
and he was in the hospital from the time he received
the wound till January the following year when he re-
turned to the United States and was later discharged.
Swingle and Goldcamp were awarded the Distinguished
Service Cross and to Wagoner Carl G. Duncan was
given *'the Military Medal for gallantry while on patrol
March 28, 1918."

In conversation Wagoner Duncan said that the
Americans had too few engaged in this great battle
to make their influence perceptibly felt. It is scarcely
necessary to add, however, that those who were in the
battle, like their fellow engineers at Cambrai the year
before, showed by devotion to duty and their w^'lling-
ness to lay down life itself in an effort to rescue a com-
rade the spirit that pervaded our expeditionary forces
— the spirit that later triumphed at Chateau Thierry,
St. Mihiel and the Argonne.


The legislative authority in the territory of the
United States northwest of the Ohio was vested in the
governor and judges of that territory by the Ordinance
of 1787. The minutes of the meeting of the Legis-
lature held in Cincinnati in the summer of 1795 have
been preserved in the Centinel of the Nortlnve stern Ter-
ritory where they were published in that year. Only
one copy of the file of this paper containing these
minutes is known to be in existence. It has therefore
been thought that they might appropriately be re-
produced in this publication.

On July 25, 1793 Governor Arthur St. Clair issued
the following


Arthur St. Clair.

"Whereas, The circum-
stances of the Territory — re-
quire a meeting of the Legis-
lature at as early a period as
conveniently may be, I have
thought proper to issue this,
my proclamation, requiring
the Legislature of said Terri-
tory to meet at the town of
Cincinnati, in the county of
Hamilton, on the first day of
September next ensuing, of
which the members respec-
tively are hereby directed to
take notice, and govern them-
selves accordingly.

"Giyen under the hand
and seal of the governor at
Marietta, the 25th day of
July, 1793.,"


14 Ohio Arch, and Hist. Society Publications.

The "circumstances" requiring this meeting will be
found fully set forth in the introductory address of Gov-
ernor St. Clair at the opening of the legislative session.

The meeting, however, was deferred from time to
time. A reference to it is found in a letter from St.
Clair to Judge Turner, dated Marietta, December 14,
1794. At the conclusion of this communication he says:

"A session of the Legislature is called for by the people,
and is indeed very necessary. Judge Symmes is not in the Ter-
ritory, and you are at so great a distance that I thought it next
to impossible you could attend this winter. It is my intention
to call it as early in the spring as possible — about the ist of
March, I think, when I hope you may be able to attend."

Just when the latter call was issued is not so ap-
parent. TJie Centinel of the Northwestern Territory
in its issue of March 28, 1795, carries a communica-
tion signed by one "Vitruvius", which runs in part as
follows :

"Do you see that the governor of this territory has issued
his proclamation for the purpose of convening the legislature?
Let us then inquire what sort of a legislature it is, which is
commanded to convene. I will assert that they are not a legisla-
ture ; for they have no opportunity to make laws, but you will
see that they will assume the power. If they do, is it not reason-
able to suppose that they will make such laws as will suit their
own convenience, — as they seem to be 'Lords of the soil'.

"In short, Mr. Maxwell, it seems to me, that if we do
not take care, we shall be imposed upon, by our farcical aristoc-
racy, as well as by our miserly whiskey drinkers."

On the 25th of April this pioneer newspaper an-
nounces :

"We are happy in having it in our power to inform the
public, that the Legislature of this Territory is to convene on
Tuesday the 26th inst. at this place."

There were further delays, however, and we find
later in the news columns the announcement "with

Legislature of the Northzvestcrn Territory, lyg^


pleasure" of the arrival of "His Excellency Arthur St.
Clair, Esquire, Governor of the Territory of the United
States, northwest of the Ohio." It appears that he
reached Cincinnati May 11th. On May 27th Governor
St. Clair in a letter to Judge Addison states that he ex-
pects Judge Symmes to meet him in Cincinnati "in a day
or two." It therefore appears that Judge Symmes ar-
rived after the date of this letter. At all events the legis-
lature convened in formal session on the 29th day of
May, 1795.

When this session was in progress, June 17, 1795,
Judge Symmes in a letter to Captain Dayton explained
the difficulties encountered by these pioneer statesmen
in convening at Cincinnati and the urgency that brought
them together:

"I had not been long
at home from Jersey be-
fore I was called up the
Ohio again to attend Gov-
ernor St. Clair at Marietta
in the capacity of a legis-
lator. On the 20th of Feb-
ruary, therefore, 1 set out
on my passage up the river,
and was buffeted by high
waters, drifting ice, heavy
storms of wind and rain,
frost and snow for twenty-
three days and nights,
without sleeping once in all
that time in any house af-
ter leaving Columbia. I
waited in vain twelve days
at Marietta for the coming
of the Governor, and he
not appearing, I returned

"The Governor has since arrived at this place. About the
same time, Judge Turner came up the river from Illinois, when
we were able to form a house and proceed to the consideration of
our laws. Their binding force was so enervated by the measures
taken against them last session of Congress, that many citizens

John Cleves Symmes.

16 Ohio Arch, and Hist. Society Publications.

of lawless principles now revile them, and treat them as a nullity.
How far the safety and happiness of the United States were
involved in the downfall of our little code of jurisprudence af-
fecting few more citizens and scarcely more energetic than the
by-laws of some country corporation — especially as they had
undoubtedly been twice read and ordered by Government to be
printed — I will not pretend to conjecture. I only say, sir, that
I am sorry they were found so exceptionable in the eyes of

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