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this man. The Indians thanked him for his words and



62 Ohio Arch, and Hist. Society Publications.

invited him to live with them, baptize their children
and perform marriage ceremonies after the Christian
manner.

In striking contrast to this seeming interest in re-
ligion on the part of the savages, on the next day a white
woman prisoner who after a long period of captivity
had attempted to escape was brought back and then
taken out of town and let loose ; as she again attempted
to run away, persons appointed overtook her and cruelly
took away her life. Yet Gist and the other whites
present were powerless to give her any aid.

After distributing presents, attended with some cere-
mony to make the gifts more impressive. Gist took leave
of the town on the 15th day of January, 1751, accom-
panied by Croghan, Montour and several others. His
route lay southwest from the Muskingum town, passing
near the present site of Newark and by some salt springs
near Licking Creek. Thence his course was by the
present city of Lancaster. Near the present site of
Circleville, he came to a small town inhabited by Dela-
ware Indians. Gist was highly pleased with the beauty
of the Scioto Plains. He observed a fine, rich level land,
with large meadows and spacious plains covered with
wild rye. He noted the large walnut, hickory, poplar,
cherry, and sugar trees. Outside the valley of Virginia
he had not seen such land.

Owing to the high stage of the water in the Scioto,
Gist was unable to cross and so continued his journey on
the east side. He passed more salt springs which In-
dians and traders visited to manufacture salt from the
brackish waters. He passed a number of small towns of
Delaware Indians. At one of these towns a council was
held at which Gist states the purpose of his visit. He
told them that he was sent by his father, the Governor
of Pennsylvania, and then gave them some caution con-
cerning the French. The Indians replied with repeated
assertions of devotion to the English. "We assure you,"
they said, "we will not hear the voice of any other nation



Early Journeys to Ohio. 63

for we are to be directed by you, our brethren, the Eng-
lish, and no one else." They promised to be at the pro-
posed meeting at Logstown to which Gist invited them.
At this time the Delaware tribe could gather about five
hundred warriors and they seemed firmly devoted to the
English.

On the 29th day of January Gist and his party ar-
rived at the mouth of the Scioto. Situated on the right
bank of the river was Hannoahstown occupied by
Shawnees. It consisted of about one hundred houses.
Across the Ohio River was another town of the same
tribe with about forty houses. This was perhaps the
only Indian town within the present limits of Kentucky.
On the approach of the party on the left bank of the
Scioto river, they fired their guns to notify the Indians
of their presence. This purpose was soon efifective and
men from the town came and ferried the visitors over to
the other side.

On the next day there was held a council at which
time Croghan delivered sundry speeches from the Gov-
ernor of Pennsylvania. He stated that word had come
that the French had offered a large sum of money for
the scalps of Croghan and Montour. These traders
were well known to the French through Indian reports,
and they were feared because of their ability in securing
the friendship and trade of the western Indians. The
French were very busy at this time locating trading posts
south of Lake Erie in order to prevent all encroachments
of the English on this territory.

At this same council Montour declared that the king
of England had sent a large present of goods which were
held by the Governor of Virginia and which will be sent
to Logstown at the meeting to be held in the Spring
where the Shawnees, if represented, will share in the
king's gift.

Gist and his companions remained at Shannoahs
town twelve days. During this time Gist heard of a new
trading post, just erected. It was said to be distant



64 Ohio Arch, and Hist Society Publications.

about one hundred and fifty mnes toward the northwest.
The Indians located at this place were Miamis. They
represented a large number of that family and as their
position and character made them important it was
thought worth while by Gist to make them a visit. It
was a journey which he had not contemplated in his
original plan. liis instructions from the Governor of
Virginia was to find out the numbers and strength of
those Indians north of the Ohio who had lately broken
friendship with the French. As the Miamis were
specially included in this class it was thought important
not to neglect them at this time. Otherwise he would
have crossed the Ohio at once and gone down on the left
bank of that river to the falls. This journey to Picka-
willany is the most interesting part of his narrative.

On the eleventh day of February, 1751, Gist set out
accompanied by Croghan, Montour, Kallander and a
servant to carry provisions. A negro boy of seventeen
who had accompanied him from Wills Creek he left at
Hannoahstown to take care of the horses during the
party's absence. Their trip was northwest across the
divide between the Scioto and the Little Miami valleys.
Reaching the Little Miami they crossed it probably in the
vicinity of where Xenia is now located, and then con-
tinued toward the Great Miami, keeping on the east side
of it until they came opposite Miamitown now known as
Fort Pickawillany, two and one-half miles north of
Piqua.

In his narrative Gist describes to some extent the
land and other objects he saw while passing through.
He says his journey was over fine and level land, well
watered with many small streams ; covered for the most
part with forests of large walnut, ash, sugar, cherry and
other trees; including also meadows of wild rye, blue
grass and clover ; and abounding in wild game consist-
ing of turkeys, deer, elks and buffaloes of which as
many as forty were seen feeding in one meadow.

At the time of his arrival opposite Pickawillany the



Early Journeys to Ohio. 65

Miami River was so swollen that the party was com-
pelled to make a raft on which they might cross. They
were well received by the Indians and the traders. The
Miamis had lately cast aside the French and turned
toward the English. When this occurred they removed
from the Wabash to the Miami to be near their friends
the English. A formal conference was held, presents
were made by both parties and pledges of intercourse
and fidelity. In bestowing the gifts to the Indians
Montour, who made the presentation speech, said, "We
now present you with the two strings of wampum to
remove all trouble from your hearts and clear your eyes,
that you may see the sun clear, for we have a great deal
to say to you." He then advised them to send for other
tribes and especially those who could speak the Mohican
or Mingoe tongue. Delegates from various towns did
come generally for purposes of trade and to hear the
news. A trading post was a place not only for exchange
of material things but also for collecting rumors, sus-
picions, and reports, and the Indians could be entertained
by these as well as the white man.

On Sunday Morning Feb. 24th, four French traders
came in bringing presents consisting of two small kegs
of brandy, a roll of tobacco and two strings of wampum.
The chief of the Twigtwees replied, making it clear that
the French had by their conduct forfeited the further
favor of the tribes, and that they now had transferred
their affections to the English. Daily meetings were
held in the council house; speeches made, and presents
exchanged. It was a time of intense anxiety to Gist.
Whichever party, the English or the French, could array
the entire Miami tribe in its behalf would have a great
advantage not only in trade, but in the final possession
of the country. The events taking place in this far away
trading post may seem to us an insignificant side show
but to the actors it was of vast importance which party
should win in the contest. At one of the meetings held

Vol. XXX — 5.



66 Ohio Arch, and Hist. Society Publications.

on the 1st of March the speaker of the Twigtwees ex-
pressed the gratification of his people that the EngUsh
had taken notice of them. He added, "You told us our
friendship should last as long as the greatest mountain.
We have considered well, and all our chiefs and warriors
have come to a resolution never to give heed to what the
French say to us, but always to hear and believe what
you our brothers say to us."

The visit of Gist and his party seemed at the time
to have been successful. The promises were all the
English could wish. But the Indians were not always
true to their agreements. Three years later these very
Miami tribes were arrayed on the side of the French,
ready to do battle against these to whom their friendship
was so earnestly pledged. After a month's stay at Picka-
willany Gist took his departure, satisfied that he had won
the Miamis for the English. Articles of Peace and Al-
liance had been drawn up and signed and sealed by both
parties. The period of anxiety was now over and the
end crowned with the joy of seeming victory.

In his narrative Gist now turns to describe the Miami
country which he has been permitted to see. He finds
along the Great Miami river rich land, well timbered,
and fine meadows. The grass grows to a great height
in the clear fields of which there are many, and the bot-
toms were full of white clover, wild rye, and blue grass.

After leaving Pickawillany the party proceeded
thirty-five miles and reached Mad creek. We can see
in this name the present Mad River. Probably the path
pursued by them was along the Indian trail that led to
Piqua town west of Springfield, and then on to Chilli-
cothe and Hannoah's town on the Ohio.

Somewhere, likely in Clark county, Croghan, Mon-
tour and Kallander separated from Gist. They took a
course that would bring them to the Hockhocking,
while Gist now almost alone directed his steps across
the meadows of the Little Miami and over the highlands
between that river and the Scioto. He again observed



Early Journeys, to Ohio. 67

the meadows and timber which attracted him before.
Out of fear of French and Indians who might be look-
ing for him, he kept out of the usual path which made
his journey longer and more wearisome.

After seven days he reached Hannoah's town where
he was received with great joy. More than one hundred
and fifty guns were fired and an entertainment was held
in his honor.

On the .twelfth of March Gist with his colored boy
was ferried across the Ohio whence they took their long
journey down to the Falls of the Ohio. His observations
in what is now Kentucky are outside the purpose of this
paper and are therefore passed by.

The trip of Gist was remarkable in various ways. It
was made in the winter. The country was without
roads, only paths existed and these were, fraught with
danger. There were no lodging places; only such ac-
commodations were at hand as the traveler could make
for himself. He was exposed to all kinds of weather.
The whole purpose of his trip was in the interest of a
rich corporation of land holders who wished to add to
their already large holdings. To win the Indians away
from the French and attach them to the English was
rather an after thought on the part of Gist than a set
purpose of the Ohio Company. But it was valuable to
the English as it gave some facts about a hitherto un-
known region.

That the English should establish a trading post in
the very heart of the Indian country was a matter of
much concern to the French. They could not permit it
and hold the respect of their former friends and ad-
mirers. Pickawillany must fall. A band of French and
Indians from Fort Detroit undertook the task of ac-
complishing it. On the 27th of June, 1752 they sud-
denly appeared and found the whites and Indians utterly
unprepared to defend themselves. The fort was seized,
much property was destroyed. A number of the Twig-
twees were killed and the conquerors meted out special



68 Ohio Arch, and Hist. Society Publications.

vengeance on the king of the tribe because he transferred
his friendship from the French to the EngHsh, by kilhng
him and eating his flesh. Some of the white men
escaped, some were made prisoners, and some were
wantonly killed. One can scarcely realize even in
imagination that such atrocities were committed in our
own territory at no distant day.

On the day that Fort Pickawillany was seized an-
other messenger set out from Logstown to visit the In-
dians of the west and invite them to the meeting. He
carried with him many presents for the savages into
whose towns he might come. He had been commis-
sioned by Governor Dinwiddie of Virginia to make the
visit the purpose of which was to cement the friendship
between the Miamis and the English. While on his
journey among the Indian towns along the Muskingum
and its tributaries he was informed of the recent as-
sault on the Miamis at Pickawillany. This news led
him to take precautionary steps. He realized that it was
not safe to go at once to that place, fearing that the un-
friendly Indians as well as the French might still be
lurking about. He therefore visited the Shawnees along
the Scioto and induced them to cooperate with him in
his journey. They promised to do as he wished, but be-
cause of the presence of rum the greater part of the men
of the town were too much under its influence to accom-
pany him. As he turned from the Scioto towns north-
westward his path led him through the western part of
Clark county. Though he reached the fort and re-
mained there for a week or more, Captain Trent was
unable to have a conference with the Miamis. The
hostilities that had just taken place and the consequent
excitement arising from the sudden attack, the carry-
ing away of much valuable property and the slaughter
of many men made it impossible to secure an audience
with them. This failure to get a hearing made the trip
of Trent useless.

On the 21st of July, Captain Trent's return began.



Early Journeys to Ohio. 69

An investigation was first made to discover if any of the
French party were still in the region but fortunately no
trace could be found. The return trip was attended with
exceedingly hot weather. It was also very dry. Many
of the streams and springs w^re dried up which caused
much suffering to Trent and his party. Extremes in
weather conditions prevailed then as now.

The visits to the western territory by these early
traders and agents were in large part for the purpose
of securing the favor of the savages who then occupied
the land. Their trade was of such value that no efforts
were too laborious or dangerous to win and retain their
friendship. Each party, French and English, had
strong qualities that captivated the men of the forest.
It was a trial of skill, diplomacy, and duplicity often,
which were called into practice to gain and hold their
friendship. Both parties were adepts at the business.

A personal word about two of these actors may not
be out of place. George Croghan who for a long time
was in active service for the English came to this coun-
try from Ireland when he was about twenty years of
age. He soon learned the language of the Indians which
made him serviceable as an interpreter. He was fond
of adventure, fearless of danger, and ready at all times
to perform a mission for the benefit of state or in-
dividuals. He made many journeys west of the
mountains, some of them leading him far within the
present limits of Ohio and one down the Ohio to Fort
Massac to make a treaty with the Indians of Illinois,
from which point he made his way through forests and
prairie to Fort Detroit. He was a cousin of Major
Croghan of Locust Grove, Kentucky, the father of
Captain Croghan who so gallantly defended Fort
Stephenson in 1813.

Christopher Gist was born in the State of Mary-
land. His father was a surveyor and for a time the
son pursued the same business. Later Christopher Gist
settled on the Yadkin in North Carolina where his fam-



70 Ohio Arch, and Hist. Society Publications.

ily remained while he made his trip to the Ohio Country.
After his return he took up lands in western Pennsyl-
vania. He was active in the French and Indian War
and during its continuance he made a journey to the
Cherokees of Georgia to enlist them in the war on be-
half of the English. He died from smallpox in 1759.
His sons were officers in the Revolution. One after-
wards went to Kentucky where he had a large body of
land given to him for his services. It is a matter of some
interest that two of his descendants became candidates
for the Vice-Presidency, F. P. Blair in 1868 and B.
Gratz Brown in 1872.

The number of Englishmen who made trips to Ohio
before the French and Indian war cannot be known.
They have left no record of their business visits. Indian
tradition speaks of them as early as 1725, yet most of
the trade with the Indians before 1745 was done east of
the mountains. But when the rivalry between the
French and English began to be acute, the agents of the
latter sought trade in the very heart of the western for-
ests and shrank at no danger in the pursuit of his plans
and purposes. In this he is supported by such persons
as Sir Wm. Johnson and Reuben Weiser. The Ohio
Land Company stood ready to aid in the project. Gist,
Croghan, Montour and others are enlisted in the scheme
and all do valiant service. Then persistence and bold-
ness brought on the war. Geo. Washington was an
actor in the struggle and his perilous journey of 1754
is an evidence of it.

While there was yet land enough on the eastern side
of the mountains to satisfy every economic need, there
was a longing for the half mythical regions of the west.
And especially so when rivals were striving for its occu-
pation. We know little of the anxieties, experiences and
hardships assumed by the men of that distant day to
obtain and hold a land that is now ours to share and en-
joy.



THE INDIAN'S HEAD



HENRY BANNON

The white man, when he first crossed the Allegheny
Mountains and entered the Ohio Valley, found many
crude drawings of the figures of men and beasts on the
rocks, along the Guyandotte and Ohio rivers. Of course
it is not positively known whether these pictures were
the work of Indians or of some tribes that preceded the
Indians. On the Kentucky shore, about opposite the
foot of Bond Street, Portsmouth, Ohio, there still stands
one of these inscribed rocks, known as the "Indian's
head." A hundred years ago, this rock, and the Indian
head cut in it, could be seen when the river was low.
But, owing to changes in the channel of the river, the
rock is now visible only when the river is exceedingly
low. And the face, carved on the rock, is beneath the
water, even at its lowest stages. On September 9, 1894,
the Ohio River was so low that about two feet of the
rock was above the surface of the water ; and the Indian
head was about ten inches below the surface of the
water. The head could be easily traced with the hand;
and, in the morning, when the rising sun shone fairly on
the water, above the sculpture, the Indian head was
plainly visible, beneath the waters. Doubt has been ex-
pressed as to this figure's being the work of ancient
tribes. There is a tradition that stone was quarried
from the hill above it, during pioneer days, and that a
quarryman carved the Indian face. Squier and Davis
in "Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley"
(1847) thus described it:

"It consists of a colossal human head cut in outline, upon the
vertical face of a large rock extending into the river. It is al-
ways under water, except when the river is at its very lowest
stages, and is not exposed oftener than once in four or five years.

(71>



72



Ohio Arch, and Hist. Society Publications.



It is familiarly known as the 'Indian's, head,' and is regarded
as a sort of river gauge or meter. When the water line is at
the top of the head, the river is considered very low."

In those days there was the familiar frontier ten-
dency to magnify the proportions of natural objects
which tendency is now observed only by jfishermen.
Hence, Squier and Davis's description of the Indian
head as "colossal". Neither saw it so they adopted as




A Rare View of "Indian's Head.'



a fact the impression of some one possessing a rather
elastic imagination.

The rock, upon which the "Indian's head" is cut, was
exposed during a period of low water in October, 1920.
A short time prior to that low water stage some wickets
of a dam in the Ohio river, a few miles w^est of Ports-
mouth, were broken by a steamer; otherwise water
would have remained over the rock, because the dam
when in repair creates a deep pool extending some dis-
tance beyond the location of the rock. As no picture or
accurate description of the Indian's head was in ex-



The Indian's Head.



n



istence, my brother, Arthur H. Bannon, determined to
secure a photograph of it, if possible. On October 22,
1920, the top of the sculpture was about six inches be-
neath the surface of the river so a plan to bring it into
view for a photograph had to be devised. This was ac-
complished by running a motor boat past the rock at
very fast speed. As the boat drew the water away from
the rock, a photograph was obtained of the sculpture.




Indian's Head Rock.



The difficulties in the way of a clear photograph were
many, for the photographer was obliged to stand in the
water and take the picture instantaneously, when the
wave was at its lowest ebb, and while water was still
running down the side of the rock. The work had to be
done in the morning, while the sun was back of the
camera, and at an hour when the atmosphere was still
a little hazy and the light not good. The wickets had
just been repaired and the river was slowly rising, so it



74 Ohio Arch, and Hist. Society Publications.

was then or never. Had there been sufficient time to do
so, a cofferdam would have been built around the rock
that it might be thoroughly examined. After several at-
tempts to take a photograph of the sculpture, one was
successful and we now have an exact reproduction of
the image that has for many years been a mystery. The
initials E. D, C, never noticed before, were discovered
at the right and near the bottom of the sculpture, as one
faces it, and a date, the month of which (September)
only could be made out. The initials were neatly carved,
evidently by one quite adept in stone carving. Such was
the only time, within the memory of any living man,
that the Indian's head has been seen, except when cov-
ered with water. In all probability neither the Indian's
head, nor the rock upon which it is cut, will ever be seen
again, as it is hardly within the realms of chance that the
dam will be broken at such an opportune time.

Unquestionably the Indians head was not the work
of a quarryman. It bears strong resemblance to other
Indian carvings and impresses the mind with the fact
that it is thoroughly Indian in its execution. The out-
line is cut in the southeast corner of the rock and faces
east.

There is another rock, about one hundred yards
upstream from the Indian rock, upon which some one in
recent years carved an Indian profile with feathered
head-dress, but this one is not the genuine Indian head,
though frequently taken for it.



OHIO STATE ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND HISTORICAL

SOCIETY



REVIEWS, NOTES AND COMMENTS



JAMES R. MORRIS

James R. Morris was born at Rogersville, Green County,
Pennsylvania, January lo, 1820. He died at Woodsfield, Ohio,
December 24, 1899.

His father, Joseph Morris, was elected to Congress in 1843
and re-elected two years later.

Joseph Morris moved with his family to Waynesburgh,
Pennsylvania, in 1828, in the following year to Antioch, Ohio,
and two years later to Woodsfield, Ohio.

James R. Morris received his education in the common
schools and the printing office. He studied law in Woodsfield
and was admitted to the bar October 25, 1843. In this year
his father, who was county treasurer, was elected to Congress
and the son was appointed to fill the unexpired term. In 1844
he founded the Spirit of Democracy, which is still published.
In 1857 he was nominated for the office of state treasurer but
was defeated with the state ticket of his party.

In i860 Judge Morris was elected to Congress as a Demo-
crat and re-elected in 1862. He supported the war measures
of President Lincoln, whom he greatly admired. In 1872 he



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