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Oliver Baker.

Ludlow town and neighbourhood. A series of sketches of its scenery, antiquities, geology, etc., drawn & described in pen and ink online

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Towo and Neigbboyrbood



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THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY
OF CALIFORNIA

LOS ANGELES



LUDLOW

TOWN AND NEIGHBOURHOOD.



LUDLOW

Town and Neighbourhood.

A SERIES OF SKETCHES OF ITS SCENERY.

ANTIQUITIES, GEOLOGY, ETC., DRAWN & DESCRIBED

IN PEN AND INK.



BY

OLIVER BAKER,

FELLOW OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF PAINTER-ETCHERS (LONDON)
MEMBER OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF ARTISTS (BIRMINGHAM)



WITH ILLUSTRATIONS IN F AC-SI MILE
FROM SKETCHES HY THE AUTHOR.



Third Edition.



LONDON : SIMPKIN, MARSHALL & Co.

LUDLOW :

G. WOOLLEY, 42, BULL RING.
1906.

[ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.]




AUTHOR'S PREFACE TO 1888 EDITION.



SOME few years ago, whilst making additions to Wright's
" Ludlow Guide " for Mr. Woolley, I undertook at his
request to write and illustrate a more ambitious work,
which has eventually taken the shape of the present volume.
Its general plan was adopted, for the sake of brevity and
to avoid the tedious repetitions to which topographical
books are so liable. The purely historical portion has been
only slightly treated, for several reasons. The documents
which would have been essential to a serious historical
treatise are bulky and numerous ; it would have been easy
to fill the book, or a much larger one, with deeds, charters,
and churchwardens' accounts ; but apart from the diffi-
culties as to space, they would have been to some extent out
of place in a popular work. Many of these have been
already published, and I have met people who collected
them but never anyone who read them.

There was not much room, therefore, for original research
in the historical branch of the subject, except where it was
possible, by the examination of existing buildings, to throw
light on their past, as for instance in the case of Bromfield
Priory, in which important events at and subsequent to the
Reformation are traced from the existing remains, appar-
ently for the first time. This was a field which had remained
comparatively untouched. I regret that in the case of
the Guild College, I discovered the most interesting remains
too late to insert more than a very slight notice of them.
The large fourteenth-century window at the back of Church
Street (which has low transoms and wooden shutters,
showing it to be domestic work) would have been worth
describing in detail.



884.^78



In conclusion, I have to ask the indulgence of those who
may think the point of view I have taken that of the
sketcher and the archaeologist an unpractical one. It is
not so in reality. The fact is, that stronger language
than mine might be used in condemnation of the
heedless vandalism which in some cases is robbing us of
our lawful heritage. This is sometimes done by people who
have no excuse for not knowing better, under the plea of
"' restoration," which often amounts to actual rebuilding.

I have to acknowledge kind und valuable help from
many friends who showed an interest in the work I under-
took ; and especially to Miss E. Smith of Ludford, Mr.
Edwin Smith, and the late R. K. Penson, Esq., my thanks
are due ; also to the Rev. J. D. La Touche for looking
over the geological chapter.

O.B.

EDGBASTON, 1888.



PUBLISHER'S PREFACE TO 1906 EDITION.



The aim of this work is to present in a popular and
readable shape an accurate account of the Ludlow district,
and of the objects of historical interest with which it
abounds.

In entrusting it to Mr. Oliver Baker, I felt that his
artistic and archaeological qualifications, and his intimate
acquaintance with the locality, well fit him for the task of
dealing with a neighbourhood whose claim to attention
rests so completely on its scenery and antiquities.

The Pictorial Illustrations form an important feature,
Mr. Baker having made sixty-seven special sketches for
them, which have been reproduced in fac-simile by the
eminent process-engravers, the Typographic Etching Com-
pany, of London.

If it reveals " the rich mine of good things " that
" Ludlow and its Neighbourhood " is "to the Antiquary,
Artist, Amateur Photographer, Naturalist, Geologist, Lover
of Nature, and the jaded man of business," in far wider
circles than hitherto, my ambition and aim in publishing
this volume describing in " black-and-white " one of the
most interesting and picturesque towns and localities in
England, will find ample reward.

The 4to Subscription edition published in 1888, and the
8vo edition of 1889, have been out of print for some
time. To meet the demand for copies by the public,
I have reprinted the edition of 1889, with all the original
illustrations. I heartily thank the Press and the Public
for so kindly receiving the previous editions, and trust in
this more handy size it will still enjoy the appreciation of
the touring public.

CORVE ST., LUDLOW,
August, 1906.



CONTENTS.



PAGE.

CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTORY I

CHAPTER II.

THE CASTLE : ITS EXTERIOR AND HISTORY.

First Aspect Outer Walls Sally-port Beacon Tower Ex-
ternal Walks Gateway Its Origin Leland's Account of
the Fitzwarine Romance Its Castellans The Barons' War
Its Occupation by the Mortimers By Richard Plantage-
net Sacked by the Lancastrians Restored by Edward IV.
Prince Arthur Court of Marches The Lords President
"Comus " " Hudibras " Parliamentary Siege Decay 4

CHAPTER III.

INTERIOR OF THE CASTLE.

The Outer Ward Barracks Mortimer's Tower Bridge and
Inner Gate The Inner Ward Norman Keep Other Nor-
man Work Round Chapel Prince Arthur's Room Great
Hall State Apartments . . . . . 1 5

CHAPTER IV.

THE PARISH CHURCH.

Its Situation South Side First Impression Scene from
Churchyard Its History Interior Hexagonal Porch
Nave Arcades Aisles Rood Loft Collegiate Stalls
Miserere Carvings The Lady-Chapel Its Screen The
Font St. John's Chapel Its Screen and Fittings Ancient
Glass The Chancel Vestry Sedilia Reredos Treasure
Chamber Monuments . . . . . . .23

CHAPTER V.

THE TOWN.

Remains of the Monasteries The College The Grammar School
Barnaby House Dinham Chapel The Town Wall
Broad Gate Gaol Butter Cross Corporation Maces
Civic Buildings Domestic Architecture Almshouses
The Museum ... . . . . . . 48



11.

CHAPTER VI.

LUDFORD.

Ludford Bridge Village Church Monuments to the Foxes
and Charltons Ludford House St. Giles's Almshouse
Whitcliff . 63

CHAPTER VII.

SURROUNDING DISTRICT.

Introductory ......... 74

CHAPTER VIII.
WALK TO RICHARD'S CASTLE.

Huck's Barn Overton Sunny Gutter Moor Park Haye
Woods Batchcott The Castle Mound and Ruins Clark's
Account Church Boney Well Court House and Dove-
cote .......... ?6

CHAPTER IX.

WALK TO BROMFIELD, THROUGH OAKLY PARK.

Views of Castle Prior's Halton Oakly Park Bromfield

Bridge Priory Village Burway . . . . 83

CHAPTER X.

WALK TO ORELTON, THROUGH ASHFORD, WOOFFERTON, ETC.

Overton Lodge Ashford Hall Mill Ashford Carbonell Ash-
ford Bowdler Woofferton Comberton Orleton Court
Church 90

CHAPTER XL

WALK TO STEVENTON.

The River-side Fold Gate Steven ton 95

CHAPTER XII.

DRIVE THROUGH WIGMORE, LEINTWARDINE, DOWNTON, ETC.

Whitcliff Woods Mary Knowl Comus Valley (Sunny Gutter)
Pipe Aston Elton Leinthall Starkes Wigmore
Church Castle The Mortimers Abbey Leintwardine
Downton-on-the-Rock Limestone Gorge Downton
Castle Clungunford ....... 97



111.

CHAPTER XIII.

DRIVE THROUGH WIGMORE TO AYMESTREY, KINGSLAND, ETC.

Wigmore Hall Deerfold Forest Leinthall Earles Croft
Arnbrey Gatley Park Aymestrey Mortimer's Cross
Shobdon Court Priory Village Kingsland Eyton
Yarpole Luc ton Croft Castle -Church Bircher . .no

CHAPTER XIV.

DRIVE THROUGH STOKE ST. MILBOROUGH TO BROWN CLEE,
TITTERSTONE, ETC.

Rock Green Dodmore Middleton Crow Leasowe Ascent
of Titterstone The Moor Stoke St. Milborough Cold
Weston Brown Clee Bouldon Heath Chapel Peaton
Corfham Castle Button 121

CHAPTER XV.

DRIVE THROUGH CORVE DALE.

Corve Bridge Site of Norman Chapel Tumuli on Oldfield
Stan ton Lacy Saxon Work Churchyard Tombs Vil-
lage Manor-house The Lacys Culmington Elsich
Delbury Holgate, &c. Munslow Upper Millichope . 129

CHAPTER XVI.

DRIVE THROUGH ASHFORD, CAYNHAM, WHITTON, WHITTON COURT, ETC.

Ashford House Caynham Court Camp Church Whitton
Court Whitton Chapel Hope Bagot Bitterley Church
Henley Hall .138

CHAPTER XVII.

RAILWAY EXCURSION TO STOKESAY.

River Onny Onibury Craven Arms Newton Stokesay

Castle Its History Stokesay Church .... 144

CHAPTER XVIII.

RAILWAY EXCURSION TO TENBURY. AND WALKS TO BURFORD. ETC.

Woofferton Easton Court Little Hereford Nunupton Up-
ton Court Middleton-on-the-Hill Brimfield Tenbury
Church Tombs St. Michael's Burford Tombs Knigh-
ton-on-Teme . . . . . . . . 154

CHAPTER XIX.

GEOLOGY OF THE NEIGHBOURHOOD ..... 163



ILLUSTRATIONS.



PAGE

Doorway to Norman Chapel, Ludlow Castle .... I

The Butter Cross, from a side street, Ludlow .... 2

Ancient Corporate Seal, Ludlow ...... 3

Ludlow Castle, from the North ...... 4

Castle, from the River above Ludlow ..... 7

The Keep and Inner Moat, Ludlow Castle. (By the late Harry

Baker) 16

Gateway to Inner Ward, Ludlow Castle. . . . .17

Doorway to Keep, Ludlow Castle . . . . . 19

Ground Plan of Ludlow Castle . . . . . .21

Ludlow Castle, from the Meadows . . . . . .22

Parish Church and Old House in Churchyard . . . .24

Doorway to Old House in Churchyard . . . . .26

Rood Screen and Stalls, Ludlow Church . . . .30

Miserere Carving, Ludlow Church . . . . . .32

Screen of the Lady-Chapel, and South Transept, Ludlow Church 37
Sedilia and Piscina, Ludlow Church . . . . -39

Easter Sepulchre and Towneshend Tomb, Ludlow Church . 43
Plan of the Town, showing the Old Wall . . . . 4-

The Grammar School, from Mill Street, Ludlow . . -52

The Broad Gate, Ludlow 55

Ludlow " Corporation Insignia " . . . . . -57

The Feathers Hotel, Ludlow . . . .' . 58

Arms in Lane's Hospital, Ludlow . . . . . .62

Ludford Bridge, from the foot of Whitcliff . . . .63

Ludford Bridge from below ....... 64

The Teme from the Whitcliff Quarries . . . . .66

Porch of Oratory, Ludford House . . . . .70

The Old Bell Inn, Ludford 71

The Teme under Whitcliff 72

The Bull Inn Yard, Ludlow 73

Norman Font, Holgate ....... 74



V.

Richard's Castle Church ........ 78

Porch, Richard's Castle Church ...... 80

The Court House, and Dove-cote, Richard's Castle . . .81

Druid Oaks, Oakly Park 83

Bromfield Priory from the River . . . . . .85

Priory Gate House, Bromfield . . . . . .87

Gateway, Bromfield Priory, from the Road . . . .89

Vesica Window and Norman Lights, Ashford Carbonell Church 9 1
Churchyard Cross at Orleton ...... 92

Pulpit and Chancel Arch, Orleton. . . . . -93

Cottage at Leinthall Starkes. ...... 94

Old Fireplace, Steventon ....... 96

Norman Tympanum, Pipe Aston. (From Wright's " History

ofLudlow") ........ 98

Wigmore, from the Park ....... 99

Gatehouse to Wigmore Abbey . . . . . .102

The Teme at Downton . ....... 107

Croft Castle . . . . . . . . .119

Dodmore . . . . . . . . . .122

The Heath Chapel. (From Wright's " History of Ludlow ") 125
Interior of the Heath Chapel. ,, ..... 126

Saxon Doorway at Stan ton Lacy . . . . . .128

Tombs of the Lacys, Stanton Lacy . . . . .130

Culmington Church . . . . . . . .133

Elsich Manor House . . . . . . . -135

Old Sun-dial, Munslow . . . . . . .137

Triple Arch, Caynham Church . . . . . '139

Whitton Court ......... 140

Churchyard Cross, Bitterley. . . . . . .142

Norman Font, Bitterley . . . . . .143

Stokesay Castle and Church. . . . . . .145

Stokesay Castle from the Churchyard . . . . .146

Doorway of Great Hall, Stokseay ...... 148

Great Hall, Stokesay ... .... 150

Entrance Gate, Stokesay ....... 152

Heart Shrine, Tenbury . . . . . . .157

Tomb of Princess Elizabeth, Burford . . . . .160

Perpendicular Font, Burford ...... 162

Pentamerus Knightii . . . . . . .168




DOORWAY TO NORMAN CHAPEL, LUDLOW CASTLE.



LuDiowTowN AND NEIGHBOURHOOD



CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTORY.

IN a modern work on English antiquities, Ludlow is spoken
of as " the Queen of our inland watering-places." Though
not too strong as a term of praise, this statement is to a
great extent misleading, as in the ordinary acceptation of
the phrase Ludlow is not a watering-place at all. But to
the dweller in crowded cities, to the jaded man of business,
to the antiquary, artist, amateur photographer, naturalist,
geologist, or lover of nature, it is something a great deal
better. To all these the place is a rich mine of good things,
but it is not a watering-place ; and for those who seek
crowded hotels and brass bands its beauties are not revealed.



2 LUDLOW TOWN AND NEIGHBOURHOOD.

Like most things that turn out well, it is a trifle disappoint-
ing at first the visitor arriving by rail has no preparation
in the approach to the town, or in the first aspect of the
place itself, for the actual wealth of beauty and interest
that await him, and it is only on closer acquaintance that
he will fully realise it.




THE BUTTER CROSS, FROM A SIDE- STREET, LUDLOW.



Then he will find that the town is grouped on the summit
of a bold mass of Ludlow rock, that rises at the lower end
of a flat and fertile plain. On three sides it is nearly



INTRODUCTORY. 3

isolated from the neighbouring hills by the rivers Teme and
Corve, and on the fourth it gradually merges into a spur of
the Clee range. On the side towards the plain, where
the rock is precipitous, stand the church and castle crown-
ing the summit, the one with its tall and graceful tower,
and the other with roofless and crumbling turrets and
ivy-covered walls, which still defy the ravages of time, and
show an outline against the sky nearly as grand as when
they sheltered the Court of the Prince of Wales. The
ridge is fortified along its whole outline in continuation of
the churchyard and castle walls, but only one gate-tower
remains, and that on the sloping side. The old town,
confined within these walls, only covered the upper part
of the mound, but in later times the houses have over-
flowed nearly to the water's edge, and on the east particu-
larly, nearly all the recent growth of the town has extended.
Though ancient enough in appearance, it is even more so
in reality ; numbers of the houses which show a neat front
of brick or stucco, being old within, and often possess early
fireplaces, panelling, or staircases, quite unsuspected from
the outside.




ANCIENT CORPORATE SEAL, LUDLOW.




LUDLOW CASTLE, FROM THE NORTH.



CHAPTER II.



THE CASTLE : ITS EXTERIOR AND HISTORY.

First Aspect Outer Walls Sally-port Beacon Tower Ex-
ternal Walls Gateway Its Origin Leland's Account of
the Fitzwarine Romance Its Castellans The Barons' War
Its Occupation by the Mortimers By Richard Plantage-
net Sacked by the Lancastrians Restored by Edward IV.
Prince Arthur Court of Marches The Lords President
" Comus " " Hudibras " Parliamentary Siege Decay.

OCCUPYING the post of honour, the Castle is the first point
to which every stranger directs his steps. Probably the
first glimpse he will get of the object of his search will be
when reaching the open square, where the old red Market
House stood, he sees its high outer walls and nail-studded
gate among the tall elms, which, planted more than a
hundred years since in the filled-up moat, now make a
green wall of foliage round two sides of the first courtyard.
And though few sights are more picturesque than this
same scene on market days, when the square is filled with
the stalls of the country people, who converge to this spot
from every direction, yet there is nothing in the first glimpse
greatly to raise his hopes or to gratify any high expecta-



THE CASTLE : ITS EXTERIOR AND HISTORY. 5

tions he has already formed of this celebrated ruin. The
entrance arch, flanked by projecting buttresses, is grim
enough, but the gate-tower is too much shattered with age
to be at all striking, and the walls near it are without
character. But if he will turn to the right, through an iron
wicket, down a wide gravel path, once part of the moat,
and past a square tower without windows or even loops,
he will see, behind large trees, a more considerable block of
towers, with a fine chimney ; and when he reaches the
trees, where the old town wall, on his right, ends, he will
begin to realise the unrivalled beauty and boldness of its
site. For between their trunks a prodigious prospect
opens out, stretching from the foot of the hill, across fields,
and farms, and woods, for miles.

Behind him, at the base of the walls, is a small outwork,
built out on a mass of ' Ludlow ' rock, and by clambering
round it he can reach a very curious little sally-port, which
the outwork was doubtless intended to cover. The door
still remains, and is protected in a unique manner with
slabs of stone bolted to the woodwork, and iron plates over
them, which would resist an attack of fire for a long time.

Below the sally-port the path turns to the left, and,
emerging from the trees, brings suddenly into view one of
the main blocks of towers which, lifting their massive
shapes into the sky, compel our admiration and awe, defy-
ing as they have done the attacks of man or " the wreckful
siege of battering days " to reduce them. From the
beacon-cresset on the topmost battlements to the great
drain openings at the foot, where it is difficult to distinguish
the masonry from the solid rock, the whole of this stupen-
dous mass is full of the most varied and interesting detail,
and clothed with lichens and wallflowers and weeds on
every ledge and cranny. The curtain wall beyond is
pierced by the tall and graceful windows of the Great Hall,
often called the Comus Room, from the performance therein
of Milton's celebrated Masque. The path continues round
the walls, commanding fine views over the meadows below,
with the river its current stilled by mill- weirs lower down
flowing sluggishly through them. The castle on the one
hand and the view of distant country on the other con-
tinually arrest the attention, until the path passing through
an avenue of fine trees, the one is nearly hidden and the
other completely lost. Here the path divides, one branch



LUDLOW TOWN AND NEIGHBOURHOOD.

descending steeply to the Castle Mill in the road below,
and the other going straight through the avenue. These
walks were laid out, and the trees which add so greatly to
their beauty planted in 1772 by the Countess of Powis.
Of course the stern and defensive appearance of the place
has thereby been reduced, but they are a great additional
charm, and a source of much health and pleasure to hun-
dreds of inhabitants and visitors. By keeping to the
upper one, we emerge through enormous wych-elms into
an open space level with the castle wall, where an archway
has been cut through it near its junction with that defend-
ing the town. Passing through the arch, on the left is a
large fragment of building, once the court-house. Another
modern archway admits into the area of the old moat, now
level with the street. Passing under the trees, populous
with colonies of rooks, the visitor will find he has com-
pleted the circuit of the castle, eleven acres in extent, and
arrived once more at the entrance. Let him lift the latch
boldly no warder now to challenge and enter the outer
court.

HISTORY.

But before examining in detail the massive ruins that
lie before him, it will be well to glance, in a manner neces-
sarily brief, at the long series of brilliant events which
make up their history, and to enumerate a few of the great
men whose names are linked with their varying fortunes.

Great obscurity hangs over the castle's first foundation,
and learned authorities have differed as to the identity of
its original builder ; but it is almost certain that Roger de
Lacy, who held the estate from Osborne Fitz Richard,
erected at the end of the eleventh century the keep tower.
This Roger rebelled against William II., and later, on the
death of his brother Hugh, it became the property of the
Crown. Henry I. granted it to Pagan Fitz John, who was
slain by the Welsh in 1136. A romance of the first part of
the thirteenth century* which gives a history of the Fitz-
warine family, states that in the reign of Stephen the
castle was held by one Joce de Dinan, who " made the
Castle of three wardes, and surrounded it with a double
foss, one within and one without." It appears that
* Wright's " History of Ludlow." 1852.



THE CASTLE : ITS EXTERIOR AND HISTORY.




CASTLE, FROM THE RIVER ABOVE LUDLOW.



Stephen had seized the estate of Fitz John, and placed as
castellan in Ludlow, Joce de Dinan. Joce was in rebellion
in 1139, and Stephen, accompanied by Prince Henry of
Scotland, unsuccessfully laid siege to the castle. It was
during this siege that Prince Henry, approaching too near,



8 LUDLOW TOWN AND NEIGHBOURHOOD.

was siezed by a grappling machine thrown from the wall,
and was being dragged away when King Stephen rode up,
and saved him by severing the cords with his sword.

From a thirteenth century history of Wigmore Abbey,*
by a monk of that house, we learn that " there arose at this
time a very great war between Sir Hugh de Mortimer
(of Wigmore) and Sir Joce de Dinan. Insomuch that this
same Joce could not freely, or at his pleasure, enter or quit
his castle for fear of Sir Hugh, so pertinaciously the latter
pursued him. And because Joce could avail nothing
against him by force, he set spies along the road where he
heard Sir Hugh was to pass unattended, and took him and
held him in his castle in prison till he had paid his ransom
of 3,000 marks of silver, besides all his plate, horses, and
hawks." In the above-mentioned romance his place of
imprisonment is spoken of as " the highest tower in the
third bailey, which is called to this day Mortimer's." Of
this romance the following is Leland's account, given in his
" Collectanea," under the head " Thinges excerptid out
of an old Englisch boke yn ryme of the Gestes of Guarine

& his sunnes Guarine wedded Mellet & had a sunne

caulid Fulco. Joos, a knight, was left as governor to
young Fulco. Guarine & he defendid his lands agayne one
Walter, the greatest of the marche lorde oute of Lacy &
Ludlow. They met at a bent by Bourne, at a brydge
ende a little from Ludlow. Joos bare a sheld of sylver
with thre blew lyons coronid with gold. Joos had a
daughter caullid Hawise, whom Fulco entirely loved, &
seying her in great dolour, askid the cause of her sorrow, &
she answered that it was no matter for an hauker to amende ;.
& he upon that toke his sworde and spere to rescew Joos.
her father, as one Godarde was about to streke of his hede ;
so that Godarde was slayne of him, & Gwalter Lacy dryven
away. Then Joos recovered a horse & sore woundid Syr
Arnold that did hym much hurt. Then Fulco killid one
Andrew, a knight longging to Syr Walter Lacy. Gwalter
Lacy & Syr Arnold were taken prisoners, & put in the
Castle of Ludlow in a prison caullid Pendower. A gentil-
woman caullid Marion deliverid both these knights by
treason oute of Pendower for love of Syr Arnolde de Lis,
one of them that promised her falsely marriage. Fulco
Guarine wedded Hawise, daughter to Joos, at Ludlow
"Wright's History of Ludlow," 1852.



THE CASTLE : ITS EXTERIOR AND HISTORY. o/

Castel. Joos & Fulco Guarine toke a journey into Ireland ;
Marion tarried, faining sickness, behind, & write a lettre to
her lovre Syr Arnold de Lis, to cum secretly to her up into
the Castel with a ladder of leder & cordes. Arnold came
according to Marion's desier, & had his pleasure of her ; &
sone after came his band, & secretly scalinge the walls,
killed the castellanes. Then Marion, seeing this treason,
lept out of a tower & brake her neck ; * & Arnold killed
after many of the burgesses of Ludlow towne, sparing
neither widow nor child. Walter Lacy hearing that the
castel was won, cam with his band thither, & mannid &
vitailid Ludlow, keeping it as his owne. This tidings was
told to Joos lying at Lamborne. Joos & Fulco, & his
father Guarine, cam to rescue Ludlow, & in assaulting it
killid many of Lacy's men. Lacy, with a band of men,
cam oute to fight with them, but he losing many men, was
fayne to recoyle within the toune. Gualter Lacy sent to
the Prince of Wales for help, & he cam wynning by the way,
Whitington. Fulco Guarine hurte the prince of Wales in
the shoulder & drave hym to a castel caullid Cayhome,
where Cay had been lorde, there asseging by three days
killid many of them at a certen issue. Fulco was wounded,


1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Online LibraryOliver BakerLudlow town and neighbourhood. A series of sketches of its scenery, antiquities, geology, etc., drawn & described in pen and ink → online text (page 1 of 13)