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ters, with Cromwell and Fairfax, in the Boston region, and able
probably to undertake somewhat. Cromwell and Fairfax with
the horse, we perceive, have still the brunt of the work to do.
Here, after much marching and skirmishing, is an account of
Winceby Fight, their chief exploit in those parts, which cleared
the country of the Newarkers, General Kings, and renegade
Sir John Hendersons ; as recorded by loud-spoken Vicars.
In spite of brevity we must copy the Narrative. Cromwell
himself was nearer death in this action than ever in any other;
the victory too made its due figure, and ' appeared in the world.'

Winceby, a small upland Hamlet, in the Wolds, not among
the Fens, of Lincolnshire, is some five miles west of Horncastle.
The confused memory of this Fight is still fresh there ; the
Lane along which the chase went bears ever since the name of
' Slash Lane,' and poor Tradition maunders about it as she can.
Hear Vicars, a poor human soul zealously prophesying as if
through the organs of an ass, in a not mendacious, yet loud-
spoken, exaggerative, more or less asinine manner : 2

* * * 'All that night,' Tuesday loth October 1643, 'we
' were drawing our horse to the appointed rendezvous ; and the
' next morning, being Wednesday, my Lord' Manchester 'gave
' order that the whole force, both horse and foot, should be
' drawn up to Bolingbrokc Hill, where he would expect the
' enemy, being the only convenient ground to fight with him.
' But Colonel Cromwell was no way satisfied that we should
' fight ; our hors* being extremely wearied with hard duty two
1 or three days together.

'The enemy also drew, that' Wednesday 'morning, their
' whole body of horse and dragooners into the field, being 74
' colours of horse, and 21 colours of dragoons, in all 95 colours.
' We had not many more than half so many colours of horse
' and dragooners ; but I believe we had as many men, besides
' our foot, which indeed could not be drawn up until it was
' very late. The enemy's word was " Cavendish ;" '-he that
was killed in the Bog; 'and ours was "Religion." I believe
' that as we had no notice of the enemy's coming towards us,
' so they had as little of our preparation to fight with them. It

2 Third form of Vicars: God's Ark overtpfifiing the Worlds Waves, or the Third
Part of the Parliamentary Chronicle: by John Vicars (London, printed by M. Si-
mons and J. Meccock, 1646), p. 45. There are three editions or successive forms of
this Book of Vicars's (see Bliss's Wood, in race): it is always, unless the contrary be
expressed, the second (of 1644) that we refer to here.


1 was about twelve of the clock ere our horse and dragooncrs
1 were drawn up. After that we marched about a mile nearer
the enemy ; and then we began to dcsciy him, by little and
' little, coming towards us. Until this time we did not know
1 we should fight ; but so soon as our men had knowledge of
' the enemy's coming, they were very full of joy and resolution,
' thinking it a great mercy that they should now fight with him.
' Our men went on in several bodies, singing Psalms. Quartcr-
1 master-General Vennuyden with five troops had the forlorn-
' hope, and Colonel Cromwell the van, assisted with other of
' my Lord's troops, and seconded by Sir T. Fairfax. Both
' armies met about Ixbie, if I mistake not the Town's name,'
you do mistake, Mr. Vicars ; it is Winceby, a mere hamlet
and not a town.

' Both they and we had drawn-up our dragooners ; who
1 gave the first charge ; and then the horse fell in. Colonel
' Cromwell fell with brave resolution upon the enemy, imme-
' diately after their dragooncrs had given him the first volley ;
' yet they were so nimble, as that, within half pistol-shot, they
1 gave him another: his horse was killed under him at the first
' charge, and fell down upon him ; and as he rose up, he was
' knocked down again by the Gentleman who charged him, who
' 'twas conceived was Sir Ingram Hopton : but afterwards he'
the Colonel ' recovered a poor horse in a soldier's hands, and
' bravely mounted himself again. Truly this first charge was
' so home-given, and performed with so much admirable cour-
' age and resolution by our troops, that the enemy stood not
' another ; but \vere driven back upon their own, body, which
' was to have seconded them; and at last put these into a plain
' disorder ; and thus, in less than half an hour's fight, they
' were all quite routed, and" driven along Slash Lane at a ter-
rible rate, unnecessary to specify. Sir Ingram Hopton, who
had been so near killing Cromwell, was himself killed. 'Above
a hundred of their men were found drowned in ditches,' in quag-
mires that would not bear riding ; the ' dragooners now left on
foot' were taken prisoners ; the chase lasted to Horncastle or
beyond it, and Henderson the renegade Scot was never heard
of in those parts more. My Lord of Manchester's foot did not
get up till the battle was over.

This very day of Winceby Fight, there has gone on at Hull
a universal sally, tough sullen wrestle in the trenches all day ;

i64j. LETTERS XIX. XX. 157

with important loss to the Marquis of Newcastle ; loss of ground,
loss of lives, loss still more of invaluable guns, brass drakes,
sackers, what not : and on the morrow morning the Townsfolk,
looking out, discern with emotion that there is now no Marquis,
that the Marquis has marched away under cloud of night, and
given up the siege. Which surely are good encouragements we
have had ; two in one day.

This will suffice for Winceby Fight, or Horncastle Fight,
of nth October 1643 ; 3 and leave the reader to imagine that
Lincolnshire too was now cleared of the ' Papist Army," as we
violently nickname it, all but a few Towns on the Western
border, which will be successfully besieged when the Spring


IN the month of January 1643-4, Oliver, as Governor of Ely,
is present for some time in that City ; lodges, we suppose, with
his own family there ; doing military and other work of govern-
ment : makes a transient appearance in the Cathedral one
day ; memorable to the Reverend Mr. Hitch and us.

The case was this. Parliament, which, ever since the first
meeting of it, had shown a marked disaffection to Surplices at
Allhallowtide and ' monuments of Superstition and Idolatry,
and passed Order after Order to put them down, has in Au-
gust last come to a decisive Act on the subject, and specifically
explained that go they must and shall. 1 Act of Parliament
which, like the previous Orders of Parliament, could only have
gradual partial execution, according to the humour of the loca-
lity ; and gave rise to scenes. By the Parliament's directions,
the Priest, Churchwardens, and proper officers were to do it,
with all decency : failing the proper officers, improper officers,
military men passing through the place, these and suchlike,
backed by a Puritan populace and a Puritan soldiery, had to
do it; not always in the softest manner. As many a Querela,
Peter Hey lin's (lying Peter's) History, and Persecutio Undecima,

3 Account of it from the other side, in Rushworth, v. 282 ; Hull Siege, &c. ib. 280.

l 28th August 1643 (Scobell, i. 53 ; Commons Jotirnals, iii. 220) : 2d November
1642 (Commons youmals, and Husbands, ii. 119): 3ist August 1641 ; 3d January
1641 (Commons youritals, in diebus).


still testifies with angry tears. You cannot pull the shirt off a
man, the skin off a man, in a way that will please him ! Our
Assembly of Divines, sitting earnestly deliberative ever since
June last, 8 will direct us what Form of Worship we are to
adopt, some form, it is to be hoped, not grown dramaturgic
to us, but still awfully symbolic for us. Meanwhile let all
Churches, especially all Cathedrals, be stript of whatever the
general soul so much as suspects to be stage-property and prayer
by machinery, a thing we very justly hold in terror and hor-
ror, and dare not live beside !

Ely Cathedral, it appears, had still been overlooked, Ely,
much troubled with scandalous ministers, as well as with dis-
affected trainbands, and Mr. Hitch, under the very eyes of
Oliver, persists in his Choir-service there. Here accordingly is
an official Note, copies of which still sleep in some repositories.

1 To the Reverend Mr. Hitch, at Ely : These?

MR. HlTCH, ' Ely,' ioth January 1643.

Lest the Soldiers should in any jt,nultuary
or disorderly way attempt the reformation 01 the Cathedral
Church, I require you to forbear altogether your Choir-ser-
vice, so unedifying and offensive : and this as you shall
answer it, if any disorder should arise thereupon.

I advise you to catechise, and read and expound the
Scripture to the people ; not doubting but the Parliament,
with the advice of the Assembly of Divines, will direct you
farther. I desire your Sermons 'too,' where usually they
have been, but more frequent Your loving friend,


Mr. Hitch paid no attention ; persisted in his Choir-ser-
vice : whereupon enter the Governor of Ely with soldiers,

a Bill for convocation of them, read a third time, 6th January 1643-3 (Commons
Journals, ii. 916): Act itseh, with the Names, ijlh June 1641 (Scobell, i. 42-4).

Gentleman's Magati ne (London, 1788), I via 325: copied from an old Copy, by
a Country Rector,' who has had some difficulty in reading the name 01 Hitch, and
knows nothing farther about him or it.


' with a rabble at his heels,' say the old Querelas. With a rab-
ble at his heels, with his hat on, he walks up to the Choir ;
says audibly : "I am a man under Authority ; and am com-
manded to dismiss this Assembly, " then draws back a little,
that the Assembly may dismiss with decency. Mr. Hitch has
paused for a moment ; but seeing Oliver draw back, he starts
again: "As it was in the beginning" ! "Leave off your
fooling, and come down, Sir!" 3 said Oliver, in a voice still aud-
ible to this Editor ; which Mr. Hitch did now instantaneously
give ear to. And so, 'with his whole congregation,' files out,
and vanishes from the field of History.

Friday, igth January. The Scots enter England by Ber-
wick, 21,000 strong: on Wednesday they left Dunbar 'up to
the knees in snow ;' such a heart of forwardness was in them. 4
Old Lesley, now Earl of Leven, was their General, as before ;
a Committee of Parliamenteers went with him. They soon
drove-in Newcastle's ' Papist Army' within narrower quarters ;
in May, got Manchester with Cromwell and Fairfax brought
across the Humber to join them, and besieged Newcastle him-
self in York. Which, before long, will bring us to Marston
Moor, and Letter Twenty-first.

In this same month of January, 22d day of it, directly after
Hitch's business, Colonel Cromwell, now more properly Lieu-
tenant-General Cromwell, Lieutenant to the Earl oi Manchester
in the Association, transiently appeared in his place in Parlia-
ment; complaining much of my Lord Willoughby, as of a back-
ward General, with strangely dissolute people about him, a great
sorrow to Lincolnshire ; 5 and craving that my Lord Manchester
might be appointed there instead : which, as we see, was done ;
with good result.


ABOUT the end of next month, February 1644, the Lieu-
tenant-General, we find, has been in Gloucester, successfully
convoying Ammunition thither ; and has taken various strong-
houses by the road, among others, Hilsden-House in Bucking-
hamshire, with important gentlemen, and many prisoners ; which

Walker's Sufferings of the Clergy (London, 1714), Part ii. p. 23.
* Rushworth, v. 603-6. * D'Ewes MSS. vol. iv. f. 280 b.


latter, ' Walloons, French, and other outlandish men,' appear
in Cambridge streets in a very thirsty condition ; and are, in
spite of danger, refreshed according to ability by the loyal
Scholars, and especially by ' Mrs. Cumber's maid,' with a tem-
porary glass of beer. 6 In this expedition there had gone with
Cromwell a certain Major-General Crawford, whom he has left
behind in the Hilsden neighbourhood; to whom there is a Let-
ter, here first producible to modern readers, and connected
therewith a tale otherwise known.

Letter Twentieth, which exists as a Copy, on old dim paper,
in the Kimbolton Archives, addressed on the back of the sheet,
with all reverence, To the Earl of Manchester, and forms a very
opaque puzzle in that condition, turns out, after due study, to
have been a Copy by that Crawford of a Letter addressed to
himself : Copy hastily written off, along with other hasty con-
fused sheets still extant beside it, for the Earl of Manchester's
use, on a certain Parliamentary occasion, which will by and by
concern us too for a moment.

A ' Lieutenant-Colonel,' Packer I dimly apprehend is the
name of him, has on this Hilsden-and-Gloucester expedition
given offence to Major-General Crawford ; who again, in a
somewhat prompt way, has had Packer laid under arrest, under
suspension at Cambridge ; in which state Packer still painfully
continues. And may, seemingly, continue : for here has my
Lord of Manchester just come down with a Parliamentary Com-
mission ' to reform the University,' a thing of immense noise
and moment, and ' is employed in regard of many occasions ;'
is, in fact, precisely in these hours, 7 issuing his Summonses to
the Heads of Houses ; and cannot spare an instant for Packer
and his pleadings. Crawford is still in Buckinghamshire; never-
theless the shortest way for Packer will be to go to Crawford,
and take this admonitory Letter from his superior in command :

1 To Major-General Crawford: These'

SlR, Cambridge, loth March ' 1643.'*

The complaints you preferred to my Lord
against your Lieutenant-Colonel, both by Mr. Lee and your

6 Quertla (in Cooper's Annals, iii. 370); Crvimvelliana, p. 8 (5th March 1643)1

7 nth March (Cooper, iii. 371 ; details in Neal, ii. 70-89).

In Appendix, No. 6 (infri, voL v.): Letter from Oliver, notably busy, and not
yet got to Cambridge.


own Letters, have occasioned his stay here : my Lord being
* so' employed, in regard of many occasions which are upon
him, that he hath not been at leisure to hear him make his
defence : which, in pure justice, ought to be granted him or
any man before a judgment be passed upon him.

During his abode here and absence from you, he hath
acquainted me what a grief it is to him to be absent from
his charge, especially now the regiment is called forth to
action : and therefore, asking of me my opinion, I advised
him speedily to repair unto you. Surely you are not well
advised thus to turn-off one so faithful to the Cause, and so
able to serve you as this man is. Give me leave to tell you,
I cannot be of your judgment ; ' cannot understand,' if a
man notorious for wickedness, for oaths, for drinking, hath
as great a share in your affection as one who fears an oath,
who fears to sin, that this doth commend your election of
men to serve as fit instruments in this work !

Ay, but the man " is an Anabaptist." Are you sure of
that ? Admit he be, shall that render him incapable to serve
the Public ? " He is indiscreet." It may be so, in some
things : we have all human infirmities. I tell you, if you
had none but such " indiscreet men" about you, and would
be pleased to use them kindly, you would find as good a
fence to you as any you have yet chosen.

Sir, the State, in choosing men to serve it, takes no
notice of their opinions ; if they be willing faithfully to serve
it, that satisfies. I advised you formerly to bear with men
of different minds from yourself : if you had done it when I
advised you to it, I think you would not have had so many
stumblingblocks in your way. It may be you judge other-
wise ; but I tell you my mind. I desire you would receive
this man into your favour and good opinion. I believe, if
he follow my counsel, he will deserve no other but respect
from you. Take heed of being sharp, or too easily sharpened

VOL. i. M


by others, against those to whom you can object little but
that they square not with you in every opinion concerning
matters of religion. If there be any other offence to be
charged upon him, that must in a judicial way receive
determination. I know you will not think it fit my Lord
should discharge an Officer of the Field but in a regulate
way. I question whether you or I have any precedent for

I have not farther to trouble you : but rest, your hum-
ble servant, OLIVER CROMWELL/

Adjoined to this Letter, as it now lies, in its old reposi-
tory at Kimbolton, copied and addressed in the enigmatic way
above mentioned, there is, written in a Clerk's hand, but cor-
rected in the hand which copied the Letter, a confused loud-
spoken recriminatory Narrative, of some length, about the
Second Battle of Newbury ; touching also, in a loud confused
way, on the case of Packer and others : evidently the raw-
material of the Earl's Speech in defence of himself $ in the time
of the Self-denying Ordinances of which the reader will hear
by and by. Assiduous Crawford had provided the Earl with
these helps to prove Cromwell an insubordinate person, and
what was equally terrible, a favourer of Anabaptists. Of the
Letter, Crawford, against whom also there lay accusations,
retains the Original ; but furnishes this Copy ; of which, un-
expectedly, we too have now obtained a reading.

This sharp Letter may be fancied to procure the Lieu-
tenant-Colonel's reinstatement ; who, we have some intimation,
does march with his regiment again, in hopes to take the Wes-
tern Towns of Lincolnshire. Indeed Lieutenant - Colonel
Packer, if this were verily Packer as he seems to be, became a
distinguished Colonel afterwards, and gave Oliver himself some
trouble with his Anabaptistries. 10 In the Letter itself, still
more in the confused Papers adjoined to it, of Major-General
Crawford's writing, there is evidence enough of smouldering
fire-elements in my Lord's Eastern-Association Army I The

* Communicated, with much politeness, by the Duke of Manchester, from Family
Papers at Kimbolton.

* Rush worth, v. 733-6. M Ludlow (London, 1781), u. 599.


Lieutenant-General Cromwell, one perceives, is justly suspected
of a lenity for Sectaries, Independents, Anabaptists them-
selves, provided they be ' men that fear God,' as he phrases
it. Lieutenant-Colonel Lilburn (Freeborn John), Lieutenant-
Colonel Fleetwood risen from Captaincy now : these and
others, in the Crawford Documents, come painfully to view in
this Lincolnshire campaign and afterwards ; with discontents,
with ' Petitions,' and one knows not what ; all tending to Sec-
tarian courses, all countenanced by the Lieutenant-General. 11
Most distasteful to Scotch Crawford, to my Lord of Manches-
ter, not to say criminal and unforgivable to the respectable
Presbyterian mind.

Reverend Mr. Baillie is now up in Town again with the
Scotcli Commissioners, for there is again a Scotch Commis-
sion here, now that their Army has joined us : Reverend Mr.
Baillie, taking good note of things, has this pertinent passage
some six months hence : ' The Earl of Manchester, a sweet
' meek man, did formerly permit Lieutenant-General Cromwell
' to guide all the Army at his pleasure: the man Cromwell is a
' very wise and active head' yes, Mr. Robert ! ' universally
' well beloved as religious and stout ; but a known Indepen-
' dent or favourer of Sects,' the issues of which might have
been frightful ! ' But now our countryman Crawford has got a
' great hand with Manchester, stands high with all that are
' against Sects ;' which is a blessed change indeed, 1 '- and
may partly explain this Letter and some other things to us !

Of Major-General Crawford, who was once a loud-sounding
well-known man, but whose chance for being remembered
much longer will mainly ground itself on a Letter he copied
with very different views, let us say here what little needs to be
said. He is Scotch ; of the Crawfords of Jordan-Hill, in Ren-
frewshire ; has seen service in the German Wars, and is deeply
conscious of it ; paints himself to us as a headlong audacious
fighter, of loose loud tongue, much of a pedant and braggart,
somewhat given to sycophancy too. Whose history may sum
itself up practically in this one fact, That he helped Cromwell
and the Earl of Manchester to quarrel ; and his character in
this other, That he knew Lieutenant-General Cromwell to be a
coward. This he, Crawford, knew ; had seen it ; was wont to
Assert it, and could prove it. Nay once, in subsequent angry
11 MS. by Crawford at Kimbolton. n I'aillie, ii. 229(i6th Sept. 1644)1


months, talking to the Honourable Dcnzil Holies in Westmin-
ster Hall, he asserted it within earshot of Cromwell himself;
' who was passing into the House, and I am very sure did hear
it, as intended;' who, however, heard it as if it had been no
affair of his at all ; and quietly walked on, as if his affairs lay
elsewhere than there ! !3 From which I too, the knowing
Dcnzil, drew my inferences, ignominious to the human cha-
racter! Poor Crawford, after figuring much among the
Scotch Committee-men and Presbyterian Grandees for a time,
joined or rejoined the Scotch Army under Lesley ; and fell at
the Siege of Hereford in 1645, fighting gallantly I doubt not,
and was quiet thenceforth. 14

In these same weeks there is going on a very famous Treaty
once more, ' Treaty of Uxbridge :' with immense apparatus of
King's Commissioners and Parliament and Scotch Commis-
sioners ; 15 of which, however, as it came to nothing, there need
nothing here be said. Mr. Christopher Love, a young elo-
quent divine, of hot Welsh blood, of Presbyterian tendency,
preaching by appointment in the place, said, He saw no pro-
spect of an agreement, he for one ; " Heaven might as well
think of agreeing with Hell ;" 16 words which were remembered
against Mr. Christopher. The King will have nothing to do
with Presbyterianism, will not stir a step without his Surplices
at Allhallowtide ; there remains only War ; a supreme manag-
ing ' Committee of Both Kingdoms ;' combined forces, and
war. On the other hand, his Majesty, to counterbalance the
Scots, had agreed to a ' Cessation in Ireland,' sent for his
' Irish Army' to assist him here, and indeed already got them
as good as ruined, or reduced to a mere marauding apparatus. 17
A new 'Papist' or partly 'Papist Army,' which gave great
scandal in this country. By much the remarkablest man in it
was Colonel George Monk ; already captured at Nantwich, and
lodged in the Tower.

But now the Western Towns of Lincolnshire are all taken ;

11 Holles's Memoirt : in Maseres's Select Tracts (London, 1815), i. 199.

" Wood's Atkena (Life, p. 8) : Baillie, iL 33$ and szpius (correct ib. ii. p. ai8 n.
and Godwin, i. 380) : Holies ; Scotch Peerages ; c. &c.

14 aoth Jan. sth March, Rushworth, v. 844-946; Whitlocke, p. 123-3.

" Wood, iii. 381 ; Commons yournals, &c.

17 Rushworth, v. 547 (Cessation, ifth September 1643) ; v. 299-303 (Siege of Nant-
wrich, and ruin of the Irish Army, am November).


Manchester with Cromwell and Fairfax are across the Humber,
joined with the Scots besieging York, where Major-General
Crawford again distinguishes himself ; 18 and we are now at
Marston Moor.



IN the last days of June 1644, Prince Rupert, with an army
of some 20,000 fierce men, came pouring over the hills from
Lancashire, where he had left harsh traces of himself, to re-
lieve the Marquis of Newcastle, who was now with a force of
6,000 besieged in York, by the united forces of the Scots
under Leven, the Yorkshiremen under Lord Fairfax, and the
Associated Counties under Manchester and Cromwell. On
hearing of his approach, the Parliament Generals raised the
Siege ; drew out on the Moor of Long Marston, some four
miles off, to oppose his coming. He avoided them by cross-
ing the river Ouse ; relieved York, Monday ist July; and
might have returned successful ; but insisted on Newcastle's
joining him, and going out to fight the Roundheads. The
Battle of Marston Moor, fought on the morrow evening, Tues-
day 2d July 1644, from 7 to 10 o'clock, was the result,
entirely disastrous for him.

Of this Battle, the bloodiest of the whole War, I must leave
the reader to gather details in the sources indicated below ; l
or to imagine it in general as the most enormous liurly burly, of
fire and smoke, and steel-flashings and death-tumult, ever seen

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