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Liberties, surely you will not deny me this; it being not only
a Liberty but a Duty, and such a Duty as I cannot without
sinning forbeai', to examine my own heart and thoughts
and judgment, in every work which I am to set my hand to,
or to appear in or for.

I must confess therefore, though I do acknowledge all
the other ' points,' I must be a little confident in this, That
what with the circumstances which accompany human ac-
tions, whether they be circumstances of time or persons
\Straitlaced Republican Soldiers that have just been presenting
you their Petition^ whether circumstances that relate to the
whole, or private and particular circumstances such as com-
pass any person who is to render an account of his own
actions, I have truly thought, and I do still think, that, at
the best, if I should do anything on this account to answer

t6s7. SPEECH XIV. 71

your expectation, at the best I should do it doubtingly.
And certainly whatsoever is so is not of faith. And what-
soever is not so, whatsoever is not of faith, is sin to him
that doth it, whether it be with relation to the substance
of the action about which that consideration is conversant,
or whether to circumstances about it \Thinskinned Repub-
licans, or the like " circumstances"}, which make all indiffer-
ent actions good or evil. I say "Circumstances" [Pkf/];
and truly I mean " good or evil" to him that doth it. \Not
to you Honourable Gentlemen, 'who have merely advised it in

I, lying under this consideration, think it my duty
Only I could have wished I had done it sooner, for the
sake of the House, who have laid such infinite obligations
on me [ With a kind glance over those honourable faces ; all
silent as if dead, many of them with their mouths open} ; I
wish I had done it sooner for your sake, and for saving time
and trouble ; and for the Committee's sake, to whom I must
acknowledge I have been unreasonably troublesome ! But
truly this is my Answer, That (although I think the Act of
Government doth consist of very excellent parts, in all but
that one thing, of the Title as to me) I should not be an
honest man, if I did not tell you that I cannot accept of
the Government, nor undertake the trouble and charge of
it as to which I have a little more experimented than
everybody what troubles and difficulties do befall men under
such trusts and in such undertakings [Sentence irrecover-
able} I say I am persuaded to return this Answer to you,
That I cannot undertake this Government with the Title of
King. And that is mine Answer to this great and weighty

* Commons Journals, vii. 533 : as reported by Speaker Widdrington, on Tues-
day the 12th. Reported too in Somers (pp. 400-1), but in the form of coagulated
nonsense there. The Commons Journals give it as here, with no variation worth
noticing, in the shape of sense.


And so exeunt Widdrington and Parliament: "Buzz, buzz !
Distinct at last !" and the huge buzzing of the public mind
falls silent, that of the Kingship being now ended ; and this
Editor and his readers are delivered from a very considerable
weariness of the flesh.

' The Protector,' says Bulstrode, ' was satisfied in his private
' judgment that it was fit for him to accept this Title of King,
' and matters were prepared in order thereunto. But afterwards,
' by solicitation of the Commonwealth's-men,' by solicitation, re-
presentation and even denunciation from ' the Commonwealth's-
' men' and 'many Officers of the Army,' he decided 'to attend
' some better season and opportunity in the business, and re-
' fused at this time.' 6 9 With which summary account let us
rest satisfied. The secret details of the matter are dark, and
are not momentous. The Lawyer-party, as we saw, were all
in favour of the measure. Of the Soldier-party, Ex-Major-Ge-
nerals Whalley, Goffe, Berry are in a dim way understood to
have been for it ; Desborow and Fleetwood strong against it ;
to whom Lambert, much intriguing in the interim, had at last
openly joined himself. 1 ? Which line of conduct, so soon as it
became manifest, procured him from his Highness a handsome
dismissal. Dismissal from all employment ; but with a retiring
pension of 2,ooo/.: which mode of treatment passed into a kind
of Proverb, that season ; and men of wooden wit were wont to
say to one another, " I will lambertise you."?* The 'great Lord
' Lambert,' hitherto a very important man, now ' cultivated
' flowers at Wimbledon ;' attempted higher things, on his own
footing, in a year or two, with the worst conceivable success ;
and in fact had at this point, to all reasonable intents, finished
his public work in this world.

The rest of the Petition and Advice, so long discussed and
conferenced upon, is of course accepted ; 72 a much improved
Frame of Government ; with a Second House of Parliament ;
with a Chief Magistrate who is to 'nominate his successor, 'and
be King in all points except the name. News of Blake's victory
at Santa Cruz reach us in these same days, 1 ? 3 whereupon is

t9 Whitlocke, p. 646. 70 Godwin, iv. 352, 367. 7I Heath's Chronicle.

7a Commons Journals, vii. 358 (25th May 1657); Whitlocke, p. 648. See, in Ap-
pendix, No. 30, another Speech of Oliver's on the occasion ; forgotten hitherto. (Note

73 28th May (Commons Journals, vii. 54; Burion, ii. 142).

i6 S7 . SPEECH XV. 73

Public Thanksgiving, and voting of a Jewel to General Blake :
and so, in a general tide of triumphant accordance, and out-
ward and inward prosperity, this Second Protectorate Parlia-
ment advances to the end of its First Session.


THE Session of Parliament is prosperously reaching its
close ; and during the recess there will be business enough to
do. Selection of our new House of Lords ; carrying-on of the
French League Offensive against Spain ; and other weighty
interests. Of which the following small documents, one short
official Speech, and seven short, mostly official Letters, are all
that remain to us.


PARLIAMENT has passed some Bills ; among the rest, some
needful Money-Bills, Assessment of 340,0007. a-month on Eng-
land, 6,ooo/. on Scotland, 9,ooo/. on Ireland ; l to all which
his Highness, with some word of thanks for the money, will
now signify his assent. Unexceptionable word of thanks, acci-
dentally preserved to us, 2 which, with the circumstances attend-
ant thereon, we have to make conscience of reporting.

Tuesday morning gth June 1657, Message comes to the
Honourable House, That his Highness, in the Painted Chamber,
requires their presence. They gather-up their Bills ; certain
Money-Bills ' for an assessment towards the Spanish War ;'
and ' divers other Bills, some of public, some of more private
concernment,' among which latter we notice one for settling
Lands in the County of Dublin on Widow Bastwick and her
four children, Dr. Bastwick's widow, poor Susannah, who has
long been a solicitress in this matter : these Bills the Clerk of
the Commons gathers up, the Sergeant shoulders his Mace ;
and so, Clerk and Sergeant leading off, and Speaker Widdring-
ton and all his Honourable Members following, the whole House

I Parliamentary History, xxL 151 ; Commons Journals, viL 554-7.
* Commons Journals, vii. 551-2.


in this due order, with its Bills and apparatus, proceeds to the
Painted Chamber. There, on his platform, in chair of state
sits his Highness, attended by his Council and others. Speaker
Widdrington at a table on the common level of the floor ' finds
a chair set for him, and a form for his clerk.' Speaker Wid-
drington, hardly venturing to sit, makes a ' short and pithy
Speech' on the general proceedings of Parliament ; presents
his Bills, with probably some short and pithy words, such as
suggest themselves, prefatory to each: "A few slight Bills;
" they are but as the grapes that precede the full vintage, may
" it please your Highness." His Highness in due form signi-
fies assent ; and then says :


I perceive that, among these many Acts
of Parliament, there hath been a very great care had by
the Parliament to provide for the just and necessary sup-
port of the Commonwealth by those Bills for the levying
of Money, now brought to me, which I have given my con-
sent unto. Understanding it hath been the practice of
those who have been Chief Governors to acknowledge with,
thanks to the Commons their care and regard of the Public,
I do very heartily and thankfully acknowledge their kind-
ness herein.*

The Parliament has still some needful polishing-up of its
Petition and Advice, other perfecting of details to accomplish :
after which it is understood there will be a new and much more
solemn Inauguration of his Highness ; and then the First Ses-
sion will, as in a general peal of joy-bells, harmoniously close.


OFFICIAL Letter of Thanks to Blake, for his Victory at
Santa Cruz on. the 2oth April last. The ' small Jewel' sent
herewith is one of 5oo/. value, gratefully voted him by the Par-

* Comtnons Journals, vii. 552 : Reported by Widdrington in the afternoon.


liament ; among whom, as over England generally, there is
great rejoicing on account of him. Where Blake received this
Letter and Jewel we know not ; but guess it may have been in
the Bay of Cadiz. Along with it, ' Instructions' went out to
him to leave a Squadron of Fourteen Ships there, and come
home with the rest of the Fleet. He died, as we said above,
within sight of Plymouth, on the 7th of August following.

1 To General Blake, at Sea:

SlR, Whitehall, loth June 1657.

I have received yours of * the 2oth of April
last ;' 3 and thereby the account of the good success it hath
pleased God to give you at the Canaries, in your attempt
upon the King of Spain's Ships in the Bay of Santa Cruz.

The mercy therein, to us and this Commonwealth, is
very signal ; both in the loss the Enemy hath received, and
also in the preservation of our ' own' ships and men ; 4
which indeed was very wonderful ; and according to the
goodness and lovingkindness of the Lord, wherewith His
People hath been followed in all these late revolutions ;
and doth call on our part, That we should fear before Him,
and still hope in His mercy.

We cannot but take notice also how eminently it hath
pleased God to make use of you in this service ; assisting
you with wisdom in the conduct, and courage in the exe-
cution ' thereof;' and have sent you a small Jewel, as a
testimony of our own and the Parliament's good acceptance
of your carriage in this Action. We are also informed that
the Officers of the Fleet, and the Seamen, carried them-
selves with much honesty and courage; and we are con-
sidering of a way to show our acceptance thereof. In the
mean time, we desire you to return our hearty thanks and
acknowledgments to them.

3 B'ank in MS. : see antea, p. 29.

4 ' 5 > slain outright, 150 wounded, of ours" (Burton, ii. 143).


Thus, beseeching the Lord to continue His presence
with you, I remain, your very affectionate friend,


Land-General Reynolds has gone to the French Nether-
lands, with Six-thousand men, to join Turenne in fighting the
Spaniards there ; and Sea-General Montague is about hoisting
his flag to cooperate with him from the other element. By sea
and land are many things passing ; and here in London is
the loudest thing of all : not yet to be entirely omitted by us,
though now it has fallen very silent in comparison. Inauguration
of the Lord Protector ; second and more solemn Installation
of him, now that he is fully recognised by Parliament itself.
He cannot yet, as it proves, be crowned King ; but he shall be
installed in his Protectorship with all solemnity befitting such
an occasion.

Friday 26th June 1657. The Parliament and all the world
are busy with this grand affair ; the labours of the Session
being now complete, the last finish being now given to our new
Instrument of Government, to our elaborate Petition and Advice,
we will add this topstone to the work, and so, amid the shout-
ings of mankind, disperse for the recess. Friday at two o'clock,
' in a place prepared,' duly prepared with all manner of ' plat-
forms,' 'cloths of state,' and 'seats raised one above the other,'
' at the upper end of Westminster Hall.' Palaceyard, and
London generally, is all a-tiptoe, out of doors. Within doors,
Speaker Widdrington and the Master of the Ceremonies have
done their best : the Judges, the Aldermen, the Parliament, the
Council, the foreign Ambassadors, and domestic Dignitaries
without end ; chairs of state, cloths of state, trumpet-peals, and
acclamations of the people Let the reader conceive it ; or
read in old Pamphlets the ' exact relation' of it with all the
speeches and phenomena, worthier than such things usually are
of being read. 5

'His Highness standing under the Cloth of State,' says Bui-
strode, whose fine feelings are evidently touched by it, ' the
' Speaker in the name of the Parliament presented to him :
' First, a Robe of purple velvet ; which the Speaker, assisted

* Thurloe, vi. 342. ' Instructions to General Blake,' of the same date, ibid.
5 An exact Relation of the Manner of the solemn Investiture, &c. (Reprinted in
Parliamentary History, xxi. 152-160.)


1 by Whitlocke and others, put upon his Highness. Then he,'
the Speaker, ' delivered to him the Bible richly gilt and bossed,"
an affecting symbolic Gift : ' After that, the Speaker girt the
4 Sword about his Highness ; and delivered into his hand the
4 Sceptre of massy gold. And then, this done, he made a
' Speech to him on these several things presented ;' eloquent
mellifluous Speech, setting forth the high and true significance
of these several Symbols, Speech still worth reading; to which
his Highness answered in silence by dignified gesture only.
4 Then Mr. Speaker gave him the Oath ;' and so ended, really
in a solemn manner. ' And Mr. Manton, by prayer, recom-
4 mended his Highness, the Parliament, the Council, the Forces
' by land and sea, and the whole Government and People of

4 the Three Nations, to the blessing and protection of God.'

And then ' the people gave several great shouts ;' and ' the
4 trumpets sounded; and the Protector sat in his chair of state,
4 holding the Sceptre in his hand :' a remarkable sight to see.
4 On his right sat the Ambassador of France,' on his left some
other Ambassador ; and all round, standing or sitting, were
Dignitaries of the highest quality; ' and near the Earl of War-
4 wick stood the Lord Viscount Lisle, stood General Montague
4 and Whitlocke, each of them having a drawn sword in his
4 hand,' a sublime sight to some of us ! 6

And so this Solemnity transacts itself ; which at the
moment was solemn enough ; and is not yet, at this or any
hollowest moment of Human History, intrinsically altogether
other. A really dignified and veritable piece of Symbolism ;
perhaps the last we hitherto, in these quack-ridden histrionic
ages, have been privileged to see on such an occasion. The
Parliament is prorogued till the 2oth of January next ; the
new House of Lords, and much else, shall be got ready in the


SEA- GENERAL MONTAGUE, whom we saw standing with
drawn sword beside the chair of state, is now about proceeding
to cooperate with Land-General Reynolds, on the dispatch of
real business.

5 Whitlocke, p. 661.


For General Montague, on board the Naseby, in the Downs.

SlR, Whitehall, nth August 1657.

You having desired by several Letters to
know our mind concerning your weighing anchor and sail-
ing with the Fleet out of the Downs, we have thought fit to
let you know, That we do very well approve thereof, and
that you do cruise up and down in the Channel, in such
places as you shall judge most convenient, taking care of
the safety, interest and honour of the Commonwealth. I
remain, your very loving friend, ' OLIVER P.'*

Under the wax of the Commonwealth Seal, Montague has
written, His Highness's letter, Aug*- u, 1657, to comand mee
to sayle.


For my loving Friend John Dunch, Esquire.

OlR, ' Hampton Court," 271)1 August 1657.

I desire to speak with you ; and hearing a
report from Hursley that you were going to your Father's
in Berkshire, I send this express to you, desiring you to
come to me at Hampton Court.

With my respects to your Father, 7 I rest, your loving
friend, OLIVER P.f

This is the John Danch of Pusey ; married, as we saw, to
Mayor's younger Daughter, the Sister-in-law to Richard Crom-
well : the Collector for us of those Seventeen Pusey Letters ;
of which we have here read the last. He is of the present

* Cromwelliana, p. 168 ; ' Original Letter, in the possession of Thomas Lister
Parker, Esq.,' is now (1846)10 the British Museum (Additional Ayscough MSS.
no. 12,098), Only the Signature is Oliver's, tragically physiognomic : in letter*
long, thin, uingularly siraif-' in direction, but all notched and Ireniulous,

7 father-in-law, iMayp t Harris, p. 513-


Parliament, was of the former; seems to be enjoying his recess,
travelling about in the Autumn Sun of those old days, and
vanishes from History at this point, in the private apartments
of Hampton Court.


GENERAL MONTAGUE, after a fortnight's cruising, has touched
at the Downs again, ' 28th August, wind at S.S.W.,' being in
want of some instruction on a matter that has risen. 8 ' A
Flushinger,' namely, ' has come into St. Maloes ; said to have
twenty-five ton of silver in her ;' a Flushinger there, and ' six
other Dutch Ships' hovering in the distance; which are thought
to be carrying silver and stores for the Spaniards. Montague
has sent Frigates to search them, to seize the very bullion if it
be Spanish ; but wishes fresh authority, in case of accident.

l For General Montague, on board the Naseby, in the Downs?

SlR, Hampton Court, 3oth August 1657.

The Secretary hath communicated to us
your Letter of the 28th instant; by which you acquaint him
with the directions you have given for the searching of a
Flushinger and other Dutch Ships, which, as you are in-
formed, have bullion and other goods aboard them belong-
ing to the Spaniard, the declared Enemy of this State.

There is no question to be made but what you have
directed therein is agreeable both to the Laws of Nations
and 'to' the particular Treaties which are between this
Commonwealth and the United Provinces. And therefore
we desire you to continue the said direction, and to require
the Captains to be careful in doing their duty therein.
Your very loving friend, OLIVER P.*

His Letter to Secretary Thurloc (Thurlof, vi, 489),
Tfurloe, yi. 489,



BY the new and closer Treaty signed with France in March
last,9 for assaulting the Spanish Power in the Netherlands, it
was stipulated that the French King should contribute Twenty-
thousand men, and the Lord Protector Six-thousand, with a
sufficient Fleet ; which combined forces were straightway to
set about reducing the three Coast Towns, Gravelines, Mardike
and Dunkirk ; the former when reduced to belong to France,
the two latter to England ; if the former should chance to be
the first reduced, it was then to be given up to England, and
held as cautionary till the other two were got. Mardike and
Dunkirk, these were what Oliver expected to gain by this ad-
venture. One or both of which strong Haven-towns would
naturally be very useful to him, connected with the Continent
as he was, continually menaced with Royalist Invasion from
that quarter ; and struggling, as the aim of his whole Foreign
Policy was, to unite Protestant Europe with England in one
great effectual league. 10 Such was the French Treaty of the
23d of March last.

Oliver's part of the bargain was promptly and faithfully ful-
filled. Six-thousand well-appointed men, under Commissary-
General Reynolds, were landed, 'in new red coats," 11 'near
Boulogne, on the I3th and 1 4th days of May' last ; and a Fleet
under Montague, as we observe, sufficient to command those
seas, and prevent all relief by ships in any Siege, is actually
cruising there. Young Louis Fourteenth came down to the
Coast to see the English Troops reviewed ; expressed his joy
and admiration over them ; and has set them, the Cardinal
and he have set them, to assault the Spanish Power in the
Netherlands by a plan of their own ! To reduce not Gravelines,
Mardike and Dunkirk,' on the Coast, as the Treaty has it, but
Montme'di, Cambray, and I know not what in the Interior ;
the Cardinal doubling and shuffling, and by all means putting
off the attack of any place whatever on the Coast ! With which
arrangement Oliver Protector's dissatisfaction has at length

9 23d March 1656-7 : Authorities in Godwin (iv. 540-3).

1 Foreign Affairs iu tlie Protector's Time (in Comers Tracts, vi. 329-39), by
some ancient anonymous man of sense, is worth reading.
11 Antea, vol. i. p. 137 ; vol. ii. p. 289.


reached a crisis ; and he now writes, twice on the same day, to
his Ambassador, To signify peremptorily that the same must

Of ' Sir William Lockhart, our Ambassador in France* in
these years, there were much more to be said than we have
room for here. A man of distinguished qualities, of manifold
adventures and employments ; whose Biography, if he could
find any Biographer with real industry instead of sham industry,
and above all things with human eyes instead of pedant spec-
tacles, might still be worth writing in brief compass. 12 He is
Scotch ; of the ' Lockharts of Lee* in Lanarkshire ; has been in
many wars and businesses abroad and at home ; was in
Hamilton's Engagement, for one thing; and accompanied Du-
gald Dalgetty or Sir James Turner in those disastrous days and
nights at Preston, 13 though only as a common Colonel then,
and not noticed by anybody. In the next Scotch War he re-
ceived affronts from the Covenanted King ; remained angrily
at home, did not go to Worcester or elsewhither. The Cove-
nanted King having vanished, and Lockhart's connexions being
Presbyterian-Royalist, there was little outlook for him now in
Scotland, or Britain ; and he had resolved on trying France
again. He came accordingly to London, seeking leave from
the Authorities ; had an interview with Oliver, now newly made
Protector, who read the worth of him, saw the uses of him,
advised him to continue where he was.

He did continue ; married ' Miss Robina Sewster,' a Hunt-
ingdonshire lady, the Protector's Niece, to whom, in her girl-
hood, we once promised ' a distinguished husband ;' 14 has been
our Ambassador in France near two years now ; 15 does diplo-
matic, warlike, and whatever work comes before him, in an
effectual and manful manner, It is thought by judges, that, in
Lockhart, the Lord Protector had the best Ambassador of that
age. Nay, in spite of all considerations, his merits procured

u Noble (ii. 233-73) has reproduced, probably with new errors, certain MS. ' Family
Memoirs' of this Lockhart, which are everywhere very vague, and in passages (that
of Dunkirk, for example) quite mythological. Lockhart's own Letters are his best
Memorial ; for the present drowned, with so much else, in the deep slumber-lakes
of Tkurloe ; with or without chance of recovery.

13 Antea, vol. ii. p. 23.

" Antea, vol. i. p. 236. 'Married, 22 Feb. 1654, William Lockhart, Esq. and
Robina Sewster, spinster, both of this Parish.' (Register of St. MartitC s-tn-tht-
Firlrts, London.)

" Since aoth December 1655 (' Family Memoirs' in Noble, ii 244).



him afterwards a similar employment in Charles Second's time.
We must here cease speaking of him ; recommend him to some
diligent succinct Biographer of insight, should such a one, by
unexpected favour of the Destinies, turn up.

' To Sir William Lockhart, our Ambassador in France

SlR, Whitehall, sist August 1657.

I have seen your last Letter to Mr. Secre-
tary, as also divers others : and although I have no doubt
either of your diligence or ability to serve us in so great a
Business, yet I am deeply sensible that the French are very
much short with us in ingenuousness 17 and performance.
And that which increaseth our sense ' of this' is, The reso-
lution we ' for our part' had, rather to overdo than to be

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