Oliver Howard] [Wolfe.

Back log and pine knot; a chronicle of the Minnisink hunting and fishing club online

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is coming now. 6. Headman, where are the porters? 7. Perhaps
I will go back to Nairobi to-morrow. 8. Boy, is the food ready
now? 9. No, Sir, there is no food here now. 10. Shall I go and
buy? II. No, I do not want you to go, tell the headman to buy.
12. Where is the hartebeest now, gun bearer? 13. I do not know.
Sir, perhaps it has fallen ! 14. No, Mabruki, I see the animal near
the large hill. 15. Have you seen a lion to-day? 16. No, Sir, I
have not seen any animal. 17. Is the soldier here now? 18. I do
not know, Sir! 19. Awaken the porters at once, I want to help the
European there ! 20. The cook is inside the tent, ask if the meal is
ready. 21. A bad man will not help his wife. 22. He will per-
haps arrive here to-morrow, I do not know. 23. Have you cleaned
the gun and the knife? 24. Yes, Sir, they are ready now. 25. Very
well, eat the food right away.

Lesson IV

1. The Swahili verb also uses an objective prefix to denote
the one, which receives the action of the verb; this prefix is in-
serted between the tense prefix and the verb-root. The objective
prefixes are: -Ni-, -ku-, -m-, -tu-, -wa-, -wa-; Me, you (thee),
him (her, it), us, you, them. You beat me, U-na-ni-piga; I have
beaten them, Ni-me-wa-piga; they will beat us, Wa-ta-tu-piga,
the syllables being written together: Unanipiga, Nimewapiga,
and Watatiipiga.

2. This objective prefix is also used instead of the lacking
definite article : for instance, he beats a man, anapiga mtu; but,

22 317


he beats the man, anampiga mtu. We shall shoot the Lion,
Tutampiga simba. If the verb begins with a vowel, a -w- is
inserted between the objective -in- and the verb, for the sake of
euphony; thus, for instance, instead of saying* alimona, he saw
him, the Swahili says alimivona, etc.

3. Two of the most common irregular verbs are ku-ja, to
come, and ku-zvenda, to go, abbreviated to kzvcnda. These verbs
are always used with the infinitive mark, like all monosyllable
verbs. Hence, he comes, anaktija; they go, wanakzuenda; we will
come, tutakuja, etc. The imperative of these verbs is also irreg-
ular; for instance: Come! Njoo! Come! (plural) Njooni! Go!
Nenda! Go! (plural) Nendem!

4. One of the most useful of the many compound forms
of the verb is the form for " if." For all persons and tenses this
form is the same; it is -ngali-, inserted immediately behind the
personal prefixes. It denotes that if a person does something,
another thing is bound to follow; for instance, Ningalizvapiga
(ni-ngali-wa-piga) zvangalikimbia (wa-ngali-kim-bia) may
mean : If I beat them, if I had beaten, would beat, or shall beat
them, they will, would have, or might run away.

5. If can also be expressed by kama, which generally starts
the sentence; If you buy food, give (it) to me, Kama unammua
posho, nipe (an irregular form for nikupa).


mbwa, dog. ku-safiri, to travel, march.

kiboko, bibako, hippo. ku-andika, to zvritc, engage,

posho, porter's food. ku-pa, to give, present.

-refu, long. sana, much, very much.

labda, perhaps. huyu, this.

campi, camp. hawa, these.

mto, river. mti, miti, tree.

killa, all, every. rningi, many.

upesi, fast, quick. gani? zvhat kindf

ku-sikia, to hear, listen. mimi, /, / myself.

ku-ambia, to tell, narrate. ingine, another.

ku-weza, to be able to. yule, that.



kii-taka, want, like. wale, those.

ku-tasama, to see, behold. kazi, zvork, labor.

ku-funga. to tie, bind. choroa, oryx, antelope.

ku-kimbia, to run, run away. sikitika, sorry, sad.

Translate into English:

G. I. Umetasema simba hapa? 2. Ndio, nimemtasama karibu
ya milima huko. 3. Waliwajibu watu sasa hivi. 4. Tutampiga
mtoto mbaya ndani ya hema kesho. 5. Umewatasama nyama huko?
6. Ndio, Bwana, ninawaojia sasa kongoni, simba na kifaru. 7. Ni,
karibu ? 8. Hapana, si karibu, Bwana. 9. Ungalitaka chakula sasa,
ningalikuleta. 10. Kama kifaru angalikwenda, singalimpiga. 11.
Njoni hapa, killa watu, nitawakupa posho chini ya mti mkubwa
huko. 12. Hungahsafisha bunduki, ningahkupiga. 13. Watu hawa
si wazuri. 14. Sikumpiga simba leo karibu ya mhma huko. 15.
UngaUmwona tembo karibu, nisema sasa hivi. 16. Nataka kwenda
kupiga nyama mingi sasa. 17. Watu wanakula nini, mnyampara?
Ah, Bwana, chakula mingi leo, nyama wa kongoni na choroa. 18.
Watu wanataka posho sasa? 19. Wangalikuja tungaliwakupa
pesa. 20. Unataka nini, boy? 21. Bwana, mimi nataka kazi. 22.
Kazi gani unataka? 23. Ah, Bwana, nataka kazi wa gun bearer ao
kirongozi. 24. Nimewaandika killa watu wangu, sasa sitaki ingine.
25. Mimi sikitika sana, Bwana, mimi najua kazi mingi, niandika !

Translate into Szvahili:

H. I. I shall beat the dog, if it does not come. 2. The hippo
has come up above the water. 3. Can you see him, boy? 4. No,
Sir, I cannot! 5. Do you want to shoot him right away? 6. Yes,
bring me the big gun and the long knife. 7. Yes, Sir, they are here
now. 8. Where (are) the porters? Are they near the camp? 9. Go
and ask the headman. 10. He says he does not know where (they
are) now. Sir. 11. Bind the little rhino with rope, he will run away!
12. Come up here, all (you) people, I want to see you. 13. I want
to leave camp to-morrow and go to the big river. 14. All right, Sir,
we will make all things ready. 15. Is the caravan not here, head-
man? I want them to arrive at once! 16. He said he had not shot
a lion. 17. I told him to run very fast, but he would not ! 18. Is



he lazy or is he not well? 19. I do not know, Sir, I believe he was
eating his food. 20. We will not shoot animals here, they have
run away. 21. Listen, if you will come here, I shall give you food.
22. If you hear the lion, tell me at once! 23. Porters, do not kill
the little hippo, bind him ! 24. Sir, they do not come here, they do
not like to help the gun bearer! 25. Tell them if they do not come,
I shall not give them food to-morrow.

Lesson V

1. The personal pronouns are: Mimi, I; zvewe, you, or thou,
(always used in addressing a person) ; yeye, he (she or it) ; sisi,
we; nyinyi, you; wao, they.

2. The possessive pronouns for the first class are: Wangu,
my, mine; wako, thy, thine; zvake, his (her, its); wetu, our;
wenu, your; wao, their. For instance, Bibi wangu, my wife,
or the wife is mine. lVapagaf;i wetu, our porters. Tembo wake,
his elephant.

3. The interrogatives are : Nani, who ? Lini, when ? Mini,
what? Gani, what kind? Ngapi, how many? Wapi, where?
They stand after the word they refer to; for instance, Svmba
wapif Where is the lion? Wapagazi gani ninyi? What kind
of porters are you ?

4. The interrogative Which? is in singular Yiipif in plural
Wapif For instance, Mtu yupif Which man? Tembo yupi
wakof Which elephant is yours?

5. Most of the numerals up to ten may be prefixed like ad-
jectives, but they are also often used without any prefix, which
is better than to add the wrong one. Half is miss; kumi na nuss,
ten and a half, etc.

1, moja. 7, saba.

2, wili, or hili. 8, nane.

3, tatu. 9, tissa, or kenda.

4, nne. 10, kumi.

5, tano. 11, Mumi na moja.

6, sita. 12, kumi na bili.



13, ku7ni na tatu, etc. 70, sabaini.

20, asherini. 80, themanini.

21, asherini na moja. 90, tissini.

22, asherini na bili, etc. 100, mia, mia moja.

30, thalathini. 200, who ;n6i7i.

31, thalathini na moja, etc. 300, mia tatu, etc.
40, arbaini. 1,000, elfu.

50, khamsini. 2,000, ^//m m&tYt.

60, sittini. 10,000, lakhi.

6. The time is expressed by saa, watch ; saa sitfa, six o'clock ;
saa nane na nuss, half past eight, etc. The Swahili time is six
hours behind in reckoning; for instance, Saa sitta is 12 o'clock;
saa saba, one o'clock ; saa kumi, four o'clock, etc. The question,
What time is it, is expressed by Saa ngapi. For instance, Saa
ngapi sasa? What time is it now? Saa tissa! It is nine o'clock,
or according to European reckoning, three P. M.

Translate into English:

I. I. Mimi tayari sasa hivi. 2. Ambia mtu huyu nikuleta mi-
kate sitta! 3. Wapagazi wangapi unataka, Bwana? 4. Mimi?
Ninataka (nataka) watu kumi na saba. 5. Umekuja lini? 6.
Mimi, niHkuja jana, saa tatu na nuss. 7. Bibi huyu nani? Bibi
wangu, Bwana. 8. Watu, nyinyi wabaya sana. 9. Sisi? Ah, hap-
ana, Bwana! 10. Ulitasama nyama mingi, gun bearer? 11. Ndio,
niliwatasama kongoni sitta, vifaru tatu na simba moja. 12. Killa
nyama wanasimama karibu ya milima huko. 13. Tutakwenda wa-
kupiga, Bwana? 14. Ndio, nitakuja sasa hivi. Leta watu asherini
na tano! 15. Tembo wangu mkubwa sana na ameanguka karibu
ya campini. 16. Yeye mbaya sana, anataka mkupiga, Bwana! 17.
Mpagazi, umefanya nini sasa? 18. Mimi? Sifanyi kitu (a thing).

19. Bunduki gani hapa? Bunduki mkubwa wa tembo na 'faru.

20. Unataka nini, Bwana? Sitaki kitu! 21. Wapagazi kumi na
mbili walinisema, hawataka kwenda kesho, Bwana, si wazima. 22.
Waambia kwenda sasa hivi ndani ya hema woa na pumzika. 23.
Visu ngapi katika campi, Boy. 24. Sijui, Bwana, labda tissa. 25.
Leta killa hapa !



Translate into Swahili:

J. I. How many animals have you shot? 2. I have killed six
lions, seven elephants, four hippos, two leopards, three giraflFes,
twenty-five hartebeests, and twelve rhinos. 3. All the people are
coming back to camp. 4. Tell them to rest to-morrow. 5. I will
eat my food now, boy, bring (it) at once. 6. Go quickly and shoot
that animal. 7. What animal, Sir, I do not see anything? 8. A
big river is near our camp, bring water at once. 9. Headman, tell
twelve men to help carry the heavy skin to camp. 10. Very well,
Sir, they are coming at eight o'clock (2 p.m.). ii. If your load is
very heavy, ask two men to help you. 12. I do not know where the
porters are now. 13. Are they down by the river? 14. We do not
see them. 15. If you do not run, I shall beat you ! 16. I am not able
to run. Sir, I am not well. 17. This porter has beaten two Masai
warriors. 18. Now they will perhaps kill him. 19. Where is my
guide? 20. I wish to know how many loads of food are in camp.
21. What kind of a headman are you? 22. You do not know any-
thing. 23. What do you want? 24. I want my food, Sir, the head-
man did not give me. 25. Tell the gun bearer to give me my big
gun right away.

Lesson VI

1. The comparative of the adjectives is generally formed by
adding zayidi ya, more than, to the adjective ; for instance,
Temho nyama mkuhwa nayidi ya simha, The elephant is an ani-
mal larger than the lion, Mpagazi huyu mbaya zayidi ya yule,
This porter is worse (more bad) than that.

2. The superlative is mostly expressed by putting the words
Sana, very much, or kabisa, exceedingly, after the adjective. For
instance, Tembo mkubzva kabisa katika killa nyama, The ele-
phant is the largest of all animals. Mpishi huyu nsuri sana. This
cook is the very best.

3. The ordinal numbers are expressed by putting wa in front
of the number. For instance, Mtu wa tatu, the third man.
Nilimpiga leo simba wa saba, I shot to-day the seventh lion.

4. The verb ku-wa, to be, is in many respects irregular ; it is



not used in the present tense, as before remarked, but, if it must
be expressed, ni signifies am, is, and are, and si, am not, is not,
and are not.

nilikuwa (regular), / was. sikuwa (regular), / was not.


nimekuwa (regular), / have sikuwa (regular), / have not
been. been.


nitakuwa (regular), / shall be. sitakuwa (regular), / shall not



uwe ! be! usiwel be not!

mwe! be! (plural). msiwe! be not! (plural).

5, The verb to have is expressed by ku-zvan-na, literally to
be with, and forms the imperfect, perfect, and future tenses ex-
actly as the verb kuzva, only adding -na at the end. For in-
stance, Niniekuwa-na, I have had; tutakuwa-na, we shall have;
hatutakiiwa-na, we shall not have, etc. The present is formed
by simply adding the -na to the personal verb-prefixes Ni, u, a,
etc., as before remarked; and the imperative of ku-wa is not
used at all.


siku, day. kibanda, vibanda, hut, house.

nguo, clothes. kitambaa, vitam, towel, rag.

kofia, hat. sabuni, soap.

kilemba, vilemba, turban. kijiko, vijiko, spoon.

shirti, shirt. uma, nyuma, fork.

suruali, trousers. ku-osha, to wash.

suruali ndogo, drawers. ku-oga, to bathe.

socks, socks, stockings. ku-anika, to dry in the sun.

bakuli, mabakuli, basin. mafuta, fat, grease.



ndoo, bucket. risassi, cartridge.

kamba, rope, tzvine. nguvu, strong.

mshipi, mishipi, belt. ku-jenga, to build.

kiatu, viatu, boot, shoe. ku-shona, to saw.

koti, coat. ashanti, thanks!

Translate into English:

K. I. Mpagazi huko nguvu zayidi ya huyu. 2. Simba kali za-
yidi ya kiboko. 3. Anika ngoo wango leo nzuri sayidi ya yana !
4. Ndio, Bwana, nimefanya nzuri kabisa leo! 5. Umeosha suruali
na koti wangu sasa, boy? 6. Killa nguo tayari, niliosha yana.
7. Socks wangu nzuri kabisa. 8. Mtu huyu nguvu sana na anakula
mingi. 9. Sema mpagazi wa tano atakuja hapa. 10. Nimekuw^a
mzima yana, lakini leo siwezi. 11. Mnyampara huyu ni mtu v^^a
sitta katika hema hapa. 12. Una risassi mingi wa. bunduki mkub-
wa, gun bearer? 13. Hapana, Bwana, si mingi sasa, lazimo ku-
nunnua ingine katika Nairobi. 14. Ndio, kesho nitanunnua risassi,
viatu na mshipi. 15. Uwe nguvu sasa na mpiga mpagazi huyu!
16. Ah, hapana, mnyampara, Bwana wangu hataki. 17. Hatuta-
kuwana posho wa killa watu, kama hatununnui zayidi leo. 18. Ypi
amejenga kibanda huko? 19. Sijui, labda Mzungo yule katika
campi. 20. Boy, safisha sasa hivi sahani kwa sabuni, na kijiko na
uma. 21. Ndoo na bakuli wapi? Nataka kuoga. 22. Leta suruali
ndogo, viatu mkubwa na kofia, mimi nataka kwenda kupiga nyama.
23. Killa kitu tayari, Bwana. 24. Ema, boy, sasa umefanya nzuri
sana, nitakukupa rupia moja. 25. Ah, wewe nzuri kabisa, Bwana
Mkubwa, ahsanti sana!

Translate into Swahili:

L. I. Where are my clothes, boy? Bring here the trousers,
drawers, socks, small shoes and the hat. 2. I will at once go out to
shoot animals. 3. What kind of animals do you like the most?
4. I have told you that I want very much another lion, an elephant
and a kongoni. 5. Very well, all the animals are here near by, but
a lion, I do not know. 6. Tie the knife to my belt and give me many
cartridges, gun bearer ! 7. Where is the long rope ? We had it yes-
terday in the tent, but I do not know now where it is. 8. I believe


the headman has taken the rope into his tent. 9. When did you
arrive in camp, porter? 10. I have been here the v^hole day, Sir.
II. Headman, has this man been here all the day? 12. I do not
know. Sir, I have not seen him. 13. Porter, you are very bad, I
will not have you in my caravan. 14. Go and take your food and
run away. 15. If you do not go at once, I shall send the soldier
to beat you ! 16. Yes, Sir, I have been very bad, but now I shall
be good. 17. All right, go and do your work now. 18. What work
shall I do? 19. Help the headman to make the loads ready, we shall
march on to-morrow. 20. Boy, bring here water, soap and a towel,
I will now bathe. 21. When I have bathed, I want my food at once.
22. See that the plate, fork, spoon and knife are very clean. 23.
Have you not had your food to-day, guide? 24. Yes, thank you
very much, I have eaten my posho. 25. Go now and sleep.

Lesson VH

1. The passive forms of the verbs are made by the insertion
of a -IV- between the last two letters of the verb, but are other-
wise exactly like the active tenses. For instance, Ninapiga, I
love; Ninapigwa, I am being loved; Amepiga, he has shot; ame-
pigwa, he has been shot, etc. Kongoni amcwwa na simba, the
hartebeest was killed by the lion. Wapagam zvamepigwa tm
askari, the porters have been beaten by the soldier.

2. The Swahili is very fond of a special narrative tense,
which includes the idea of " and " with a past tense ; this narra-
tive tense is expressed by inserting -ka- between the personal
prefix and the verb. For instance, Akakuja, akasema mimi tay-
ari, and he cam.e and he said I am ready. Tiikakuja tiikaona ki-
faru na tukampiga, and we came and we found a rhino, and we
shot him.

3. The infinitives of verbs are often used as substantives and
are in English translated by the present participle or by the
infinitive with to. For instance, Nafaka kupiga, I like shooting,
or to shoot. Gunhearcr anapenda kusaiisha bunduki, the gun-
bearer likes the cleaning of guns, or to clean guns.


4. The syllable -ni attached to a substantive denotes in, at,
around, by. For instance, campi, camp; campini, in, at, around,
or by the camp.

5. Most of the adverbs can be used as prepositions by add-
ing the syllable ya to the word. For instance, Jiiu, above; juu
ya nyumha, above the house, etc.

Adverbs and Conjugations.

juu, on top, above.
mbele, before, in front.
yakini, certainly.
hatta, until, even.
mbali, far, far off.
nyuma, after, behind.
chini, bclozv, at bottom.
yamikini, possibly.
halisi, exactly.
upesi, fast, quickly.
zamani, formerly.
marra moja, immediately.
mwisho, lastly.

na, and, also.
na-na, both, and.
ao-ao, either, or.
lakini, hozvever, but.
illi, in order that.
hatta, till.

zayidi, more.
sasa hivi, instantly.
nje, outside.
kweli, truly, sincerely.
polepole, gently, slowly.
ndani, inside, within.
tu, merely, only.
karibu, near.
marra nyingi, often.
halafu, presently, soon.
ema (pron. yema), well, all

kwamba, although.

ilia, except.

kama, kwamba, if, that, how

wala-wala, neither, nor.
na, kwa, to, with, together.

Translate into English:

M. I. Nimeambiwa kama mpagazi alimpiga mnyampara katika
campi (or campini). 2. Nikamsema askari kumkamata mpagazi na
kumpiga. 3. Sijui kama ninapendwa na watu wangu, lakini nina-
sadiki. 4. Boy wangu anasema kama ameona kifaru amemwua
kongoni. 5. Akamwambia gun bearer kama walikimbia wapagazi
watano. 6. Ni mbaya kupigwa na mtu mkali. 7. Mto mkubwa si



mbali ya campini, karibu sana, Bvvana. 8. Fanyeni kazi wao polepole
sasa! 9. Njooni upesi na sayideni mnyampara ndani ya hema yake
sasa hivi ! 10. Tasama maji chini ya ngozi wa simba, ni mbaya
kabisa. 11. Wapagazi hawa ni wavivu sana, hawanataka kufanya
kazi wao nzuri. 12. Unataka kupiga nyama wakubwa ? Ndio, kweli,
nataka sana. 13. Tutakwenda sasa wapi? 14. Tutafika miti wakub-
wa chini ya milima huko leo? 15. Ah, hapana, Bwana, njia mbali
kabisa; labda tutafika kesho. 16. Wapi ngozi wa nyama, Mabruki,
ni nje wa nyumba katika maji? 17. Mabruki hajui, mimi nitak-
wenda na tasama, Bwana ! 18. Zamani we we uhfanya kazi wako
nzuri lakini sasa mbaya. 19. Ao wewe ni mwivu sana ao si mzima,
sijui. 20. Wala mimi na bibi wangu, wala wapagazi tunajua njia
huko. 21. Njoo hapa, ilH nitakusema tutafanya nini sasa. 22.
Walimwambia marra nyingi kama yeye mbaya, lakini hataki
asikia. 23. Mizigo ngapi wa posho una sasa campini? Tatu tu,
Bwana. 24. Simama hapa hatta mimi nakuja. 25. Na tembo na
kifaru ni nyama wakubwa sana, na wakali kabisa.

Translate into Swahili:

N. I. My headman is very much beloved by all the porters in
the caravan. 2. He is a very good man and I like him very much.
3. The gun bearer came and told me to-day that we have not many
cartridges in the camp. 4. And he said he would like to go and
buy cartridges in Nairobi. 5. And he went and came back and
gave me seventy-five. 6. Have you heard what this fellow has
done, when he came in the tent yesterday? 7. No, what did he do?
He is certainly not a bad man. 8. Truly, he is now not good and
he likes to fight often with the men. 9. We are not much beloved
by these people, but know we that we are good (to them). 10. For-
merly there were many lions and rhinos here, but the foreigners
have shot (at) them much. 11. They have all run away to the hills,
where it is bad to go. 12. If what you say is true, we shall go with
the caravan to-morrow. 13. Very well. Sir, I shall make all the
men ready to-day. 14. We have not much posho now in camp.
All the meat has been finished. 15. H we go out to shoot game to-
day, you will tell ten men to go with us. 16. I and my best men
shall go in front with the guns, and the caravan will go behind (us).
17. Very well, we shall do what you say. Sir! 18. In the camp


is now much water and grass, although it is on top of the hill.
19. Will they arrive soon from the river? 20. We do not know,
but think they will come to-morrow. 21. Where is the Masai
guide ? I have not seen him to-day. 22. Here he is, Sir, he has eaten
his food in the big tent. 23. Tell the truth (truthfully), do you
know the path to the nearest water? 24. Yes, I am guide, I know
all the paths here. 25. We will reach the water to-morrow, but
it is quite far from here.

Lesson VIII

1. By prefixing m-, pa-, and ku- for the syllable -na (with),
the following much used words are formed: Mna, here is (or,
is there here?) ; pana and kuna, there is (or, is there there?) ;
their negative form is, Hamna, here is not, or are not ; hapana
and hakuna, there is not, or are not. These words are also used
in the form of a question, Mna nyama, are here wild animals?
The answer Mna means there are! Hamna, there are none!
Hapana matunda, there is no fruit there. Hapana also stands
for no and not.

2. The usual Swahili greeting is a combination of the per-
sonal verb prefixes and the word jamho, circumstance, matter.
So, for instance, si jamho, I am well (literally I have nothing the
matter with me) ; hu jamho, you are well, or are you well? etc.;
hatujambo, we are well, or are we well; hawajamhof are they
well, all according to the tone of voice.

3. When Swahili people meet, they generally greet each
other in the following way: Hn jamho? How do you do? Si-
jamho! I am well! or Siwezi! I am ill! Then they say Hali-i
ganif How are you? to which they answer either Ema sana,
very well, or Siwezi, I am not well.

Among interjections and other useful words are :

4. Baado, afterwards, which is used for all sorts of expres-
sions. For instance, if you ask: Is the food ready now? if it is
not, the man will probably say Baado, Bwana! meaning Not yet,



it will be though, presently ! Or if you ask : Have you finished
your work? Umekwisha kam zvako? and he answers: Baado!
it means that it is not yet finished, but that he is going to finish
it some time. Baado corresponds in this respect to the Spanish
" la manjana," or to the Russian " ce chass," freely translated,
" some time in the future."

5. The word bass, or bassi^ enough, is used also for " stop
that ! " If, for instance, two men are fighting, a " bassi " from
the Bwana will put an instant stop to it. If the boy is pouring
in tea or water for you, and you do not want any more, bass is
the word to use to imply that you have had enough.

6. To signify something in the distance, the Swahili uses the
word kule, which literally means there. If the object is about
one hundred yards off or a little more, he says, " kule! " (with
the accent sharply on the " e ") but pronounced in an ordinary
pitch of voice. If the object referred to is half a mile away, he
says again " kide! " but in a much higher pitch of voice, and
dwelling much longer on the e. Should the animal or whatever
the man is pointing out, be very far away, like distant hills,
the Swahili will again use his " kide! " but with the voice at the
very highest pitch, and at the same time dwell so long on the "e,"
that it sounds as if he had at least ten " e's " in his " ku-
leeeeeeeeee " to pronounce. It is, therefore, really necessary to
note in what pitch the word is pronounced, so as to be able to
" judge the distance."

7. The exclamation Hodi! (possibly translated hello! and
pronounced with great stress on the " o "), must always be used
before any tent or house, not one's own, is entered. It is very
improper, and betrays in the eyes of the Swahili the greatest
ignorance and bad breeding to enter without first calling,
"Hodi!" The answer is generally simply, " Karibu!" Come
near, come in! Then the stranger says, "Salaam!" Hail, or
peace, if the occupant is Indian or Arab, or even an " educated "
Swahili, otherwise he uses the regular greeting with Hujambo!

8. When an honored guest comes in, all the people in the



room generally get up to greet him; if he wants to prevent this
— which he should do according to " etiquette " — he says :
" Starehe, starehe!" Don't trouble yourselves! or Sit down,
don't move!

9. Good-bye is Kwa heri! and have a good night, or sleep
well, lala nnuri!

10, Some adjectives are taken from the Arabic and are al-

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