Oliver W Gleason.

Gleason's veterinary hand-book and system of horse taming online

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DiarrhoBa. — When this disease is manifest, ascertain
at once the quality of food which the animal has recently
had.

If taken in its incipient stage, a mere change to a
,more binding diet, as corn, flour, etc., will suffice for a
cure. If acidity is present — produced, probably, by
the hog's having fed upon coarse, rank grasses, in
swampy places — give some chalk in the food, or pow-



424 DISEASES OF SWINE.

dered egg-shells, with about half a drachm of powdered
rhubarb ; the dose, of course, should vary with the size
of the animal. In the acorn season, they alone will be
found sufficiently curative. Dry lodging is indispens-
able ; and diligence is requisite to keep it dry and
clean. x

Fever. — Symptoms. — Redness of the eyes, dryness and
heat of the nostrils, the lips, and the skin generally ;
appetite gone, or very defective ; and, generally, a very
violent thirst.

Treatment. — Bleed as soon as possible ; after which
house the animal well, taking care, at the same time,
to have the sty well and thoroughly ventilated. With
a return of appetite, feed the animal bread steeped in
broth.

The fever will ordinarily yield to bleeding, and the
only object needs to be the support of his strength, by
small portions of nourishing food, administered fre-
quently.

Do not let the animal eat as much as his inclination
might prompt; when he appears to be no longer
ravenous, remove the mess, and do not offer it again
until after a lapse of three or four hours. If the bowels
are confined, castor and linseed oil, in equal quantities,
should be added to the bread and broth, in the propor-
tion of two to six ounces.

A species of epizootic fever is often caused by the bad
sties in which pigs are lodged, and the noisome food
which they contain. When an animal is attacked he
should be separated from the others, placed in a warm
situation, some stimulating ointment applied to the
chest, and a decoction of sorrel administered. Fric-
tions of vinegar should also be applied to the dorsal



tout sKiij-. 425

and lumKar region. The drinks should be emollient,
slightly imbued with nitre and vinegar, and with aro-
matic fumigation about the belly. If the fevef then
appears to be losing ground, which may be ascertained
by the regularity of the pulse, by the absence of the
plaintive cries before heard, by a less laborious respira-
tion, by the absence of convulsions and by the non-
appearance of blotches on the skin, there is a fair chance
of recoverj'. Then administer every second hour, as
before directed, and give a proper allowance of white
water, with ground barley and rye. When the symp-
toms redouble in intensity, it is best to destroy the
animal, for it is rare that, after a certain period, much
chance of recovery exists. Bleeding is seldom of much
avail, but produces, occasionally, considerable loss of
vital power, and augments the putrid diathesis.

Foul Skin. — A simple irritability or foulness of skin
will usually yield to cleanliness, and a washing with a
solution of chloride of lime ; but, if it is neglected for
any length of time, it assumes a malignant character —
scabs and blotches, or red and fiery eruptions appear —
and the disease rapidly passes into mange.

Inflammation of the Lungs (Heavings). — If this
disease is observed in its first stage, when indicated by
loss of appetite and a short, hard cough, it may be
possible to get it under control by copious bleeding,
and friction, with stimulating ointment on the region
of the lungs. Minute and frequent doses of tartar
emetic should also be given in butter — all food of a
stimulating nature carefully avoided — and the animal
kept dry and warm. If once the heaving set in, it may
be calculated with confidence that the formation of



426 DISEASES OF SWINE.

tubercles in the substance of the lung has begun : and
when these are formed, they are very rarely absorbed.
The* causes of the disease are damp lodging, foul air,
want of ventilation, and unwholesome food. The dis-
ease gradually becomes infectious. The knife is prob-
ably the best resort to provide against the danger of
infection, but the following remedy may be tried : Shave
the hair away from the chest, and beneath each fore-
leg; wet the parts with spirits of turpentine, and set
fire to it, having previously had the animal well secured,
with his head well raised, and a flannel cloth at hand
with which to extinguish the flames after it has burned
a sufficient time to produce slight blisters ; if carried
too far, a sore is formed, productive of no good effects,
and causing unnecessary suffering. Calomel may also
be used, with a view to promote the absorption of the
tiibercles ; but the success is questionable.

Jaundice. — Symptoms. — Yellowness of the white of
the eye; a similar hue extending to the lips; some-
times, but not invariably, swelling of the under part of
the jaw.

Treatment. — Bleed freely; diminish the quantity of
food; and give an active aperient every second day.
Aloes are, perhaps, the best combined with colocynth ;
the dose will varj^ with the size of the animal.

Leprosy. — Symptoms. — The formation of a small
tumor in the eye, followed by a general prostration of
spirits; the head is held down; the whole frame in-
clines toward the ground ; universal languor succeeds ;
the animal refuses food, languishes, and rapidly falls
away in flesh ; blisters soon make their appearance be-
neath the tongue, then upon the throat, the jaws, the



MANGE. 427

head, and the entire body. The causes of this disease
are want of cleanliness, absence of fresh air, want of
due attention to ventilation, and foul feeding.

Treatment— First bleed, then clean out the sty daily ;
wash the animal ; rinse thoroughly with soap and water,
to which soda or potash has been added ; supply him
with a clean bed; keep him dry and comfortable; let
him have gentle exercise, and plenty of fresh air ; limit
the quantity of his food, and diminish its rankness;
give bran with wash, in which add— for an average-
sized hog — say one of one hundred and sixty pounds'
weight — a tablespoonful of the flour of sulphur, with as
much nitre as will cover a dime, daily. A few grains
of powdered antimony may also be given with effect.

Lethargy. — Symptoms. — Torpor; desire to sleep;
hanging of the head; and, frequently, redness of the
eyes. The origin of this disease is, apparently, the
same as that of indigestion, or surfeit.

Treatment. — Bleed copiously ; then administer an
emetic. A decoction of chamomile flower will be safest ;
though a sufficient dose of tartar emetic will be far
more certain. After this, reduce for a few days the
amount of the animal's food, and administer a small
portion of nitre and sulphur in each morning's meal.

Mange. — Symptoms. — Scabs, blotches, and sometimes
multitudes of minute pustules on different parts of the
body. The disease spreads rapidly over the entire sur-,
face of the skin, and will, before long, produce deep-
seated ulcers and malignant sores, until the whole
carcass of the affected animal becomes a mass of cor-
ruption.

The cause is to be looked for in contagion or dirt,
accompanied by hot feeding.



428 DISEASES OF SWINE.

Treatment. — Wash the animal from snout to tail,
leaving no portion of the body uncleansed, with soap
and water. Place him in a dry and clean sty, with
fresh air, without, at the same time, an exposure to cold
or draught ; furnish a bed of clean, fresh straw. Re-
duce his food, both in quality and quantity. Let boiled
or steamed roots, with buttermilk or dairy-wash, take
the place of any food of a heating or inflammatory
character. Keep him without food for five or six hours,
and then give to a hog of average size two ounces of
Epsom salts in a warm bran-mash — to be increased or
diminished, of course, as the animal's size may require.
This should be previously mixed with a pint of warm
water, and added to about half a' gallon of warm bran-
mash, and it will act as a gentle purgative. Give in
every meal afterward one tablespoonful of flour of
sulphur, and as much nitre as will cover a dime, for
from three days to a week, according to the state of the
disease. When this treatment has been practiced for
fourteen days, without affecting a cure, prepare the
following:

Train Oil 1 pt.

Oil of Tar ... 2 dr.

Spirits of Turpentine 2 dr.

Naphtha . 1 dr.

With as much flour of sulphur as will form the fore-
going into a thick paste. Having washed the animal,
rub him over with this mixture. Keep him dry and
warm after this application, and allow it to remain on
his skin for three days. On the fourth day wash him
again with soft-soap, adding a small quantity of soda
to the water. Dry him well afterward, and let hina
remain as he is, having again changed his bedding, for
a day or so ; continue the sulphur and nitre as before.



MEASLES. 429

Almost all casqs of mange will yield to this treatment.
After he is convalescent, whitewash the sty, and lumi-
gate it by placing a little chloride of lime in a cup or
other vessel, and pouring a little vitriol upon it. In
the absence of vitriol, boiling water will answer nearly
as well. .

Measles. — This malady is attributable to dirt, com-
bined with the giving of steamed food or wash to hogs
at too high a temperature.

Symptoms. — Redness of the eyes, foulness of the skin,
and depression of spirits ; decline, or total departure of
the appetite ; small pustules about the throat, and red
and purple eruptions on the skin. The last are more
plainly visible after death, when they impart a peculiar
appearance to the grain of the meat, with fading of its
color, and distention of the fibre, giving an appearance
similar to that which might be produced by puncturing
the flesh.

Treatment. — Allow the animal to fast, in the first
instance, for twenty-four hours, and then administer a
warm drink, containing a drachm of carbonate of soda,
and an ounce of bole armenian ; wash the animal,
cleanse the sty, and change the bedding : give at every
feeding, or three times a day, thirty grains of flour of
sulphur, and ten of nitre.

Murrain. — This resembles leprosy in its symptoms,
with the addition of staggering, shortness of breath, and
discharge of viscid matter from the eyes and mouth.

Treatment. — Cleanliness, coolness, bleeding, purging,
and limitation of food, Cloves of garlic are recom-
mended.



430 DISEASES OF SWINB.

Quinsy. — This is an inflammatory affection of the
glands of the throat.

Treatment. — Shave away the hair and rub with tartar-
emetic ointment. Fomenting with very warm water
is also useful. When external suppuration takes place,
it is to be regarded as a favorable symptom. In this
case, wait until the swellings are thoroughly ripe ; then
with a sharp knife make an incision through the entire
length, press out the matter, wash with warm water,
and afterward dress the wound with any resinous oint-
ment, or yellow soap with coarse brown sugar.

Staggers. — Treatment. — Bleed freely and purge.

Swelling of the Spleen. — Symptoms. — Leaning to
one side, cringing, as it were, from internal pain, and
bending toward the ground. The cause of the obstruc-
tion on which the disease depends, is over-feeding.

Treatment. — Clean out the alimentary canal by means
of a powerful aperient. Allow the animal to fast for
four or five hours, when he will take a little sweet wash
or broth, in which may be mingled a dose of Epsom
salts proportioned to his size. If the affection has con-
tinued for any length the animal should be bled. A
decoction of the leaves and tops of wormwood and liver-
wort, produced by boiling them in soft water for six
hours, may be given in doses of from half a pint to a
pint and a half, according to the size, age, etc., of the
animal. Scammony and rhubarb, mixed in a bran
wash, or with Indian meal, may be given with advan-
tage on the following day ; or, equal portions of blue-
pill mass and compound colocynth pill, formed into a
bolus with butter. The animal having been kept
fasting the previous night, will probably swallow it ;
if not, let his fast continue a couple of hours longer.



SUKFEIT. 431

Surfeit. — This is another name for indigestion.

Symptoms. — Panting ; loss of appetite ; swelling of the
region about the stomach, etc. ; and frequently throwing
up the contents of the stomach.

Treatment. — In general, this affection will pass away,
provided it is allowed to cure itself, and all food care-
fully kept from the animal for a few hours; a small
quantity of sweet grains, with a little bran mash, may
then be given, but not nearly as much as the animal
would wish to take. For a few days the food should
be limited in quantity, and of a washy, liquid nature.
The ordinary food may then be resumed, only observing
to feed regularly, and remove the fragments remaining
after each meal.

Tumors. — These are hard swellings, which make
their appearance on different parts of the body. They
are not formidable, and require only to be suffered to
progress until they soften : then make a free incision,
and press out the matter. Sulphur and nitre should
be given in the food, as the appearance of these swell-
ings, whatever be their cause, indicates the necessity of
alterative medicines.



DISEASES OF DOGS.



If you wish to keep a dog in good health give him
plenty of exercise and be careful not to overfeed him.
Once a day is often enough to feed a grown dog, though
his allowance may be divided into two portions,; if
deemed advisable, and given in the morning and
evening. Never allow food to remain in a dog's, dish
after he has satisfied his hunger. Any remnants of his
meal should be thrown away. Puppies require food
three times a day. Dogs that haVe to be chained should
be supplied with two swivel chains to allow them some
freedom ; they should also be kept in a dog-house that
is snug and free from draughts.

As regards food, dogs fed upon table-scraps should
never have more than one-fourth meat in theif allow-
ance. The best food for dogs has been found to be a
biscuit made of a combination of cereals, and a certain
percentage of beef. These can be bought ready made. .

At least one of these biscuits should be fed every day ;
whatever the food allowed. It can be given dry or
soaked, but is better dry, if the dog will take it. If not,
do not soak long. Pour water over the broken pieces,
let them stand five minutes, and thpn drain. Once or
twice a week the broken biscuit may be mixed with an
equal quantity of Indian and oatmeal (half-and-half)
and boiled with water to a stiff mush. Feed cold. For
puppies and young dogs, soak the biscuit in unskimmed
milk.



ASTHMA. 433

It is very essential to the health of dogs that they be
kept clean. Dog-soap and a crash towel should be used
frequently.

Asthma. — Symptoms. — Heavy breathing, panting,
hoarse bark, and constipation. "
Treatment. —

Charcoal 1 scruple.

Iron 10 gr.

In a pill, three or four times a week. Feed on dog-
biscuit, and purge twice a week with castor-oil. Allow
plenty of exercise.

Bronchitis. — Symptoms. — A dry cough, sometimes
attended by vomiting ; expectoration showing bloody
froth ; eyes inflamed ; nostrils dry ; tongue parched ;
and pulse quick.

Treatment. — Keep the dog out of draughts, and give
from one to three grains of tartar emetic, according to
the size of the animal. If this does not cure give :

Spirits of Camphor ^ oz.

Spirits of Ether 1 oz.

Extract Licorice 4 oz.

Dose : For a small dog, one teaspoonful three times
a day ; three times the dose, three times a day, for a
large dog. Feed dog-biscuit soaked in soup, broth, or
milk.

Chorea, or Jerks (More commonly called St. Vitus'
Dance).— ^A nervous movement of the paws, head,
shoulders, etc., intensified in sleep.

Treatment. — ^Keep him out of the wet and give :

Sulphate of Zinc 2 to 5 gr.

Extract of Gentian 2 gr.

Three times a day.



434 DISEASES OF DOGS.,

Common Gold. — Symptoms. — A chilliness, with
heated surface of the body ; a rapid pulse and quick
breathing. The appetite fails, costiveness shows itself,
and the urine becomes dark in color. A cough often
accompanies these symptoms, and a slight running
from the eyes and nose is observed, which must not be
taken, for the beginning of a distemper attack. If the
discharge becomes profase and a doubt exists that it
results from a cold, go to your veterinary surgeon.
Give a dose once a day of:

Podophyllin J to J gr.

Extract Colocynth 12 to 18 gr.

Powdered Rhubarb .... 3 to 5 gr.
Oil of Cloves 2 drops.

Pleurisy. — Symptoms. — Shivering, quick breathing
with inspiration especially short ; a dry cough ; fever ;
hot nose ; watery eyes ; slimy tongue and hard pulse.
The dog keeps his fore-legs stretched apart, as any
pressure or contraction of the ribs causes pain.

Treatment. —

Spirits Ether . . 2 oz.

Ammonia Acetate 4 oz.

Dose : For a small dog, one teaspoonful every four
hours, mixedlwith double the amount of linseed tea.
For a large dog, give twice the quantity of each ingre-
dient. Apply a mustard plaster to the chest.

Pneumonia. — Symptoms. — Shivering; high fever;
quick pulse and breathing ; short cough and bloodshot
eyes.

Treatment. — The same as for Pleurisy. Be sure to
use the counter-irritants, such as mustard plaster, etc. "

Rheumatic Fever. — Symptoms. — Considerable, but



DISTEMPER. 435

not very high fever, pulse quick, with shivering, except
when touched, when the slightest approach will cause
a shriek, apparently from pain.

Treatment. — The following purgative :

Calomel 2 to 5 gr.

Jalap 10 to 20 gr.

Mix with syrup and make into a bolus. After this
has operated, give :

Calomel J to 1 gr.

Powdered Opium | to 1 gr.

Powdered Colchicum . . . . l| to 3 gr.
Syrup enough to make one pill.

The animal can be rubbed with any approved lini-
ment where the pain seems to be present, and his diet
kept free from meat.

Distemper, — Symptoms. — Great dullness with loss of
appetite, followed in a day or two by a husky cough,
especially showing itself after exercise ; a sneezing is
now noticed ; strength and flesh rapidly diminish, the
stools are inky and offensive ; the urine becomes very
highly colored, and the membranes of the eyes, and
sometimes the whites, are greatly inflamed. Some
cases of distemper seem to be confined principally to
the head, another to the chest, and a third to the bowels.
When the brain is attacked the eyes are more injected,
than when the bowels or the lungs are affected. The
nose and eyes show increased mucous discharge as the
disease progresses. A fit is almost always the surest
sign of brain trouble, and when this takes place more
than twice, the attack generally proves fatal, or. the
animal is ever afterwards affected with chorea, or the
jerks. If the lungs be i-nvolved there is rapid breathing,
cough, and profuse running from the eyes and nose.



436, DISEASES OF DOGS.

If this runs into inflammation of the lungs, the danger
is as great as if the head was affected. The bowels are
sometimes seized, and show by black purgings that
these organs are involved. Very often in this stage
passages of blood quickly carry the dog qff.

Treatment. — At the commencement of the attack, give
the dog a fever mixture, as follows :

Nitre 1 dr.

Spirits of Nitre 3 dr.

Mindererus Spirit 1 oz.

Camphor Mixture 6J oz.

One to four dessertspoonfuls every six hours, accord-
ing to the size of the dog.

If thei lungs are severely attacked, a powder must be
put upon the dog's tongue every night and morning,
made of:

Nitre in Powder 3 to 5 gr.

Tartar Emetic J to J gr.

If a severe and weakening cough presents itself, ad-
minister every night and morning a bolus of:

Ipecacuanha, in powder . . . . J to IJ gr.

Powdered Ehubarb 1 to 2 gr.

Purified Opium ^ to IJ gr.

Compound Squill Pill 1 to 2 gr.

Bloody diarrhoea, which is very dangerous in die-
temper, can be checked with :

Prepared Chalk 2 to 3 dr.

Aromatic Confection 1 dr.

Laudanum 3 to 8 dr.

Powdered Gum Arabic . . . , . 2 dr.
Water 7 oz.

One to three teaspoonfuls, according to size of dog,
every time the bowels are relaxed.

For a diet, beef tea thickened with grated dog-biscuit
can be given. Especially at the time of exhaustion
should good strong beef tea with an egg stirred into it,



iNPLAMMATtON OS' THE STOMACfi. 48'7

be given by spoon, every two or three hours. If the
dog will not take it, his head must be held up, and he
should be gently forced to swallow it, by rubbing his
throat after it has been poured into his mouth. If this
troublesome plan of feeding is followed, many a valu-
able animal can be saved for his owner. As strength
gradually returns, the diet can be made stronger, with
care taken to allow no exercise until a gain is well
established, for fear of a relapse. The kennel, during
distemper, should be dry, and moderately warm, and
in a position where the dog will not be exposed to
draughts of air.

Inflammation of the Stomach. — Symptoms. — Fre-
quent and violent efforts to vomit ; great thirst ; dry
and hot nose, and quick respiration. The dog will
ofttimes lie on the floor or ground, with his belly in
contact with it as if to allay the pain. Give :

Calomel i to 1 gr.

Opium J to 1 gr.

In pill, every three hours ; .and feed with dog-biscuit
soaked in soup or broth. Gastritis and dyspepsia are
much alike, and may be treated the same.

Inflammation of the Livev.— Symptoms.— The
whites of the eyes, in this disease, are yellow ; shivering ;
hot nose ; rapid breathing ; costiveness ; weak pulse,
and scanty clay colored stools are also accompanying
symptoms.

Treatment. — Give a pill of:

Podophyllin J to J gr.

Extract of Colocynth 12 to 18 gr.

Powdered Ehubarb 3 to 5 gr.

Oil of Cloves 2 drops.



438 DISEASES OF DOGS.

The greater proportiou for a large dog and less for a
small dog. As soon as this has operated, rub the right
side with an embrocation of:

Strong Mustard 3 to 5 oz.

Liquid Ammonia ^ to 1 oz.

Spirits Turpentine 1 oz.

At same time give a pill of :

Opium ^ to 1 gr.

Calomel | to 1 gr.

And keep the bowels open with castor-oil.

Inflammation of the. Bowels. — Symptoms. — Great
thirst and loss of appetite, and the peculiar attitude the
animal takes. His back becomes arched, and his legs
drawn together.

Treatment. — Calomel and opium in doses of one-half
to one grain each, every three or four hours. If severe,
bathe the dog in warm water, and after he is well dried,
rub his belly with a liniment of one-half ounce each of
spirits of turpentine, liquor ammonia, and laudanum.
Feed with grated dog-biscuit, well soaked in milk,
broth, or soup.

Mange. — Mange is a skin disease in dogs, arising
from filth, damp kennels, housing in cellars, and a con-
sequent want of sunlight and from parasites. The
disease is of different varieties.

1. The Blotch. — Which appears in scabby lumps of
hair, chiefly on the back, side, head and quarters ; and
in a few days the scab drops off, leaving a moist red
spot.

2. Foul'Mange. — Is brought about by impure blood,-
and cannot be cured by lotions alone. It is both hered-
itary and contagious. In foul mange the skin becomes



CANKER OF THE EAR. 439

thick and discharges an offensive matter, and finally
runs into ulcers, with great itching all the time ; the
hair becomes dead and falls out, and the animal is
nervous and irritable. The cure requires patience
and ofttimes long treatment. The method we advise,
if minutely carried out, will effect a cure. It is as
follows :

Feed on dog-biscuit broken and mixed with equal
weight of half, oat and Indian meal, and administer
Fowler's solution of arsenic, one drop to each four
pounds in weight of the dog, three times a day ; dividing
the food into three portions for morning, noon and
night. This must be kept up until itching ceases, and
very often continued for months.

3. Red Mange. — Is a disease of the hair, and may
be known by the red appearance always at the roots in
spots, at the elbows, under the arms, and inside of them,
also inside the thighs.

In all cases of mange, disinfectants should be used
on bedding and kennel of the dog, and the animal
washed with some reliable " mange wash," which can
be had of any fancier.

A proprietary medicine known as "Phenyle," has
been used with excellent effect for mange. It is com-
posed largely of carbolic acid, is quite inexpensive, and
can be got at any drug store.



Online LibraryOliver W GleasonGleason's veterinary hand-book and system of horse taming → online text (page 28 of 33)