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on the steamer thirty cords. Away we went after
the Empire. A member of our company cut out
of some red and black cloth representations of
four aces, which he sewed on a sheet, and when
we passed Capt. Randall's vessel the sheet was
unfurled from a mast. Wood was thrown
towards the Empire, to show that the Sultana had
wood to spare." "I tell you," said the Colonel, as
he laughed over his remembrance of the event,
"we had a jolly time."


Hon. Reuben Wood, of this county (Cuyahoga),
who was governor of Ohio from 1850 to
late in 1853, when he resigned to accept a more
lucrative ofifice, was a tall, well-proportioned man,
slow in movement, and of little magnetism, but
was considered a man of ability, and an honest

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jurist. Up to 1852, he had been very successful
in poHtics. That year the National Democratic
convention had great difficulty in selecting a can-
didate for president. • When it became apparent
that none of the avowed candidates could be
nominated a "dark horse" was looked for, and
Gov. Wood seemed to be a favorite. Several dele-
gations had given him their votes, and to secure
his nomination he only seemed to need the solid
support of his own state. This undoubtedly
Vv'ould have given him the nomination. Hon.H.V.
Wilson, Editor J. W. Gray, of the Plain Dealer,
and Gen. H. H. Dodge, delegates in the conven-
tion from Cleveland, however, all held out against
him. They were earnestly entreated to favor a
man from their own county, but nothing could
sway them from their set views.

The "dark horse," Franklin Pierce, a man little
known and less thought of for president, became
the nominee on the forty-ninth ballot, and was
elected, carrying every State in the Union, except
two in the north and two in the south.

One day while employed on the Plai>i Dealer
as "Local Reporter," I asked Mr. Gray why it


was that the Cuyahoga delegates would not sup-
port Gov. Wood. Said he : "Because he is a
Hunker, and had he been made president, he
would have been entirely under the influence of
the 'Himkcrs.' " The name "Hunker" was then
used to designate one of the Democratic factions
in Ne^v• York and was being applied to a lot of
Democratic politicians in Cleveland, who had be-
come very troublesome to the better element.
With these men Gov. Wood often counseled and
they seemed to have over him an unnatural in-
fluence. I knew these "Hunkers," often called
"Old Hunkers," well. They were a bad lot, and
how Gov. Wood got into their toils was a mystery
to the better class of politicians. In thinking of
them I am reminded of a bird spoken of in the his-
tory of ancient Greece, the Hireau, a bird of prey.
It had no particular place of abode, no known
place for nesting, but flew over the country, strik-
ing with its talons bird, or beast, large or small
and sucking its blood. Thus it was with these
"Old Hunkers;" they had no more conception of
political principles than a duck has of philosophy,
but sought for prey only. After succeeding to


control one or two conventions they passed from

Strange to relate, Gov. Wood took in as a law
partner one of these men, "Little Bill Abbey," as
he was called, a hair brained, dissolute fellow,
who a few years since died in the infirmary. Gov.
Wood in his latter days, like poor dog Tray, cer-
tainly fell into bad company and he thereby lost
the presidency.

The State Legislature, 1852-3, gave to Cleve-
land an entire new municipal code. All the old
offices were legislated out of existence and new
ones for the entire government of the city created.
Both parties — Whigs and Democrats — nominated
tickets to be voted at the election in April. A
number of prominent men, not satisfied with
either ticket as a whole, put forward a "Union
Ticket," composed of men selected from the two
tickets. The men who brought out the "Union
Ticket" called themselves, in a letter they issued
to the public, "Friends of order and sobriety."



On this ticket was A. C. Brownell, for mayor;
James Fitch, for city solicitor; O. J. Hod.crc, for
police clerk; J. B. Bartlett, for city auditor, and
Michael Gallagher, for city marshal, all Demo-
crats and all of whom were elected. Of the Whigs
on the "Union Ticket," \Vm. Hart, for city treas-
urer, and one or two others running for minor
positions, were the ones successful. John Barr,
for police judge, and Bushnell White, for city
prosecutor; candidates on the Whig ticket only
were among the successful candidates, only suc-
ceeding, however, by small majorities, that of jMr.
White being seventy-six, the least of any candi-
date. Thus the first police court became officered
by a Whig judge, a Whig prosecutor and a
Democratic clerk.

The court was organized May 17th (1S53), and
held its first session in a second story room on
the north side of Superior street, a few doors east
from Seneca street. Within a year, however, it
was moved to a new court house, a small brick
building with court room above and cells for
prisoners below, on Johnson street, near_Water



From the first there \vas httle harmony among
the officers. An incident pending the election
had created an estrangement between the jxidge
_ and clerk which did not heal, while the judg'c and
prosecutor often had animated disputes. Judge
Barr, though not a man of enlarged views, was
honest and died greatly respected by a large
circle of friends. Prosecutor White was an able
lawyer and a fine speaker, but — well — had he been
a woman and lived in Rome in the day of Julius
Caesar, he could not, according to Shakespeare,
have been Caesar's wife.

The term of office of the clerk was three years,
while that of the judge and prosecutor was for
only two.

When the terms of the two latter expired they
were succeeded, the first by Seth A. Abbey and
the second by Albert T. Slade. After their election
there was no further discord among the court
officers. Judge Abbey was a large, genial, florid-
.'faced man, whom everybody liked. He served as
police judge, four terms. Mr. Slade, the prose-,
cutor, was a -young man of brilliant attainments,
and his. death, some jears later, caused great sor-


row to a large circle of friends. Capt. D. L.
Wood, the newly elected city marshal, also an
officer of the court, v/as "rough hewn," but very
energetic in the discharge of his official duties.
One day he saw Mr. J. W. Gray, editor and
proprietor of the Plain Dealer, deposit in the
street some office sweepings, which the janitor had
failed to care for, and promptly placed him under
arrest. The editor expostulated, but to no pur-
pose. Said the officer, "Gray, you're a big man
up in your editorial room, where you have been
squibbing me, but down here emptying dirt in the
street, you only size up with other people." Gray
was fined $3 and costs, which greatly delighted
the Clcvelcuid Herald.


Mr. Irad Kelley for very many years was a
prominent character in Cleveland. He inherited a
sm.all property, which he managed well, added to,
and in time became a man of considerable means.

In 1814, he and his brother erected the first

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brick building in Cleveland, which then boasted
of having tv/enty-four residence and business
buildings. Before 1830, Mr. Kelley was village
postmaster for many years. He was a man of
about medium size, perhaps a little below the
average, had rather a sharp face, and in his latter
days his head was nearly bald. His movements
were quick, and as he hurried about the street w^as
sure to attract attention. Everybody knew
"Irad." His eccentricities were quite observable.
Several times, of his own volition, he v/as an
independent candidate for congress. I remem-
ber, once at least, he carried one or more of the
wards, and perhaps also some one or more of the
townships. After the election Mr. Gray, of the
Plain Dealer, in a mirthful article insisted that
Mr. Kelley was the real representative of the f)arts
of the district he had carried, and in all matters
pertaining to them should be consulted rather
than the congressman-elect. In fact, that it was
the duty of Mr. Kelley to go to Washington when
congress met, and remain there during the ses-
sion. Mr. Kelley, when any matter came before
the public for consideration, was always sure to

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be on the "off side." At one time he "bung" a
jury for two days, and succeeded in preventing
an agreement. When asked wliy the jury did not
agree he repHed, as the story went, "I agreed at
once, but the other eleven hung out ; they were
the most stubborn lot of fellows I ever met." It
was said that the foreman of the jury in giving
an order for meals, called for ham and eggs for
eleven men and a bale of hay for one mule.

In 1854, a fence was put around the Public
Square which very much displeased Mr. Kelley.
In passing through the inclosure in a direction
where there was no opening he was sure to
jump the fence. Just before the spring election,
1855, he got out a large poster calling a meeting
at the old Court House, which stood on the
southwest section of the Public Square, to
nominate a municipal ticket, to be composed of
men opposed to the fence, to which he so much
objected. The court room was filled with
people to witness the fun which was expected.
Mr. Kelley was called to act as chairman.
A committee, of which I was chairman, was
appointed to make up a ticket. While the com-



mittee was out muchi aniiisenient was created by
the offering of various resolutions. Mr. Buch-
anan had just been nominated for president, and
knowing- that there were many more Democrats
out of office than there were in, thought to make
a point by proclaiming in favor of rotation in
office. This was caught up by some one at the
Kelley meeting, who proposed this : "Resolved,
that we believe in rotation in office ; rotation
from a poorer office to a better one, as ex-
emplified in the whole political career of James
Buchanan." This hit brought great applause,
soon after which the committee on nominations
made its appearance. The proposed ticket was
read off commencing at the bottom with con-
stable, for which some of Cleveland's most prom-
inent men were named. So on up, persons were
selected for office beneath their consideration or
for which they were well known to be uiffit. Fin-
ally the time for naming a man for mayor came,
when with due gravity the chairman said the
committee after nuich reflection and great labor,
had come to the unanimous conclusion that the-
exigencies of the times, and the important prob-


Icni to be met, called for the nomination of the
Hon. Irad Kelley.

Mr. Kelley who for some time had been sitting
apparently uneasy in. his chair, for about the first
time in his life, realized that he was being made
the butt of ridicule, and he left the meeting much
as though he had been shot from a gun.


For some tmknown years previous to 1842, and
for at least fifteen years thereafter, Lake and Ash-
tabula counties, and probably other sections of
country adjoining on the east, were a great breed-
ing place for wild pigeons. In the early summer,
when the young birds began to hy, they migrated
westward and flew over Cleveland in great num-
bers ; often many thousands in a single day. As
might be expected of young birds, their flight was
low, in fact so near the earth that many were
killed with clubs and long poles. Every old shot
gun, at this season of the year, was sure to be
in service. There was a law then, as there is now,

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against the discharge of firearms within the city
Hmits, but it was httle regarded.

I remember how in 1854, Mr. Caleb Hunt,
a photographer, doing business in the upper story
of a building just west of the Forest City House,
was arrested for shooting pigeons from the roof
of the building where his business was carried on.
A policeman, by forcing a door, reached the roof,
where he found J\Ir. Hunt, gun in hand, with a
number of dead pigeons in a pile near by. Mr.
Hunt admitted to the officer that he had been
shooting, but when brought before the police
judge, pleaded "not guilty." Said the judge,
"Did you not admit to the policeman that you
were guilty?" To this Mr. Hunt replied, "Yes,
your honor, but I can bring a dozen men here
who will swear that they would not believe me
under oath." "Well,'" said the judge, "take your
choice, prove yourself a liar, or pay a fine." He
paid a fine.

In 1S42, a youth, fourteen years of age, with
whom I was intimately acquainted, and have well
known ever since, with a gxui he had borrowed
from Capt. D. L. Wood, stood in an oak grove on

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the southwest corner of Erie street and Euclid
avenue, firing away at pigeons. On the opposite
corner, where the Hickox building now stands,
there was a grove of beech and chestnut trees, and
here Mr. Richard Hilliard and another prominent
citizen were bagging birds as fast as they could.
Mr. James Eawrence, the city marshal, came
along where the boy was, and in a very per-
emptory manner ordered him to stop firing. Said
the young man, "Why don't you stop the men
over there?" The marshal replied, "That's my
business, give me any of your sass and I will
take you to the lockup." He passed on down
street, m no way molesting the men on the other

Eleven years later, in 1853, the young man was
a delegate in a political convention. Mr. Law-
rence, and Michael Gallagher, prominently long
known in Cleveland, were candidates before the
convention for city marshal. The young man
whom Mr. Lawrence had threatened to take to
the "lockup" naturally voted for Mr. Gallagher,
who was nominated b\' one majority. Byron, in
Mazeppa, well says :



"For time at last sets all things even,
And if we do but watch the hour,
There never yet was human power,
Which could evade if unforgiven.
The patient search and vigil long.
Of him, who treasures up a wrong."


Back in 1856, when colored men had few rights
which white men seemed boui d to respect, and to
be an AboUtionist was Httle less than a crime,
the negro was usually denied lodgings at the best
hotels. SoTne time in this year Mr. Frederick
Douglass, the negro orator, came to Cleveland to
deliver a lectttre, and while here was given ac-
commodations at the Forest City House. The
event gave the hotel considerable tiotoriety, of
such a character as might have been expected in
those days.

Soon after Mr. Douglass' visit, when nearing
Cleveland on a Lake Shore train, I was accosted
by a dark complexioned man, who asked me if I
could direct him to a good hotel in the city. I

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answered him, saying I thought the Forest City-
House would be a good place for him to go — that
Mr. Douglass had lately been received there, and
I had no doubt well treated. This v/as said as I
was passing to the front of the car. On my re-
turn the man called out to me in an angry voice :
"Say, Mr., what has Fred Douglass got to do with
my stopping at the Forest City House? Do you
think I am a d — d nigger?"

I afterwards found that the man was a south-


ern planter, and I did not wonder at his swearing
a little because of my mistake in supposing him,
as I did, to be a mulatto.


For about ten years after the financial panic of
1837, there was a great scarcity of money, not
only in Cleveland, but throughout the country.
Trading was mostly done by exchange of com-
modities. Land was often paid for with work,
or something of value other than money. The
laborer was generally paid with an order on some
store. The merchant often paid for his advertis-


ing with goods ; orders being drawn on him for
the same. A storekeeper, knowing goods were to
be paid for on an order, was sure to add not less
than twenty per cent to the cash vahie. This was
occasioned because the merchant usually was
obliged to wait some time before realizing on his
orders, and for the further reason that often he
had to give the maker a certain percentage.
Persons known as largely trading on orders, to
avoid the merchants' excessive charges, sometimes
would send an unknown person to make pur-
chases for them, the order not being presented
until the price of the goods had been given. This
often would greatly provoke the seller. Many an
interesting story was told of how some sharp
housewife outwitted a merchant, getting goods
on an order at cash price.

The block of brick houses now seen on the east
side of Bond street, at the corner of St. Clair
street, was built by a merchant doing business on
Water street, and long v.-as known as the "Calico
Block," because the work on it was largely paid
for in orders given on the builder's store.

In Weathersfield, Conn., a church, still stand-


ing, was erected, which it is even now often told,
was built with onions, because the people who
had little money made their contributions almost
entirely in onions. Onions then, as now, were
a staple product in that town. In those days
it was about all a man could do to get money
enough together to pay his taxes. In this con-
nection, 1 am reminded of an incident which
came under my observation early in the forties,
which will illustrate the manner of dealing in
those days. At that time, and for many years
thereafter, there was a prominent firm in the
city known as "Whitclaw & Marshall, saddle and
harness makers." Mr. Geo. F. Marshall, now of
Rockport, aged nearly ninety, was the junior
member. The firm in its dealing with a farmer,
agreed to take of him a load of wood. An order
for the wood was given by the firm to the Cleve-
land Herald in payment on a bill for advertising.
At this time M. C. Younglove & Co. owned a
power press, the first in the city, and was doing
the press v/ork of both the Herald and Plain
Dealer. The Herald turned the wood order over
to the Younglove Company to apply on account,



The latter now gave the order another turn, and
it went to Capt. D. L. Wood, for work as fore-
man in the Younglove printing ofiice. The farmer
dehvered the w'ood at the residence of the Captain
on W^ood street, where I, a boy then hving, had
the pleasure of sawing it into stove wood!


In October, 1847, Hon. H. B. Payne, then in
the prime of hfe, was elected to the State Senate.
He was the first Democratic Senator from Cuy-
ahoga county. His election was brought about by
a division among the Whigs, a portion of them
going over to what was then called the Free Soil
party. The election throughout the state was
hotly contested and the returns showed that
neither the Democrats nor the Whigs had a ma-
jority in the State Senate. Three or four "Free
Soilers" held the balance of power.

W^hen the senators-elect convened at Colum-
bus in January, in the contest for a presiding offi-
cer the Whigs cast their votes for a Mr. Randall
and the Democrats for Mr. Swift. After several



days' balloting it became evident that neither of
these gentlemen could be elected. Then there
commenced a strong effort by both these leading-
parties to secure the votes of enough of the Free
Soil members to give them success. The "Free
Soilers," however, stood solid together. In one of
the senatorial districts there was a contest. A Mr.
Johnson, Democrat, held the election certificate,
while the Whigs contended that a Mr. Broadwell
had been fairly elected. The question as to
which of these men should be recognized was the
important point in the choice of a presiding

Finally the Democrats agreed with the "Free
Soilers" that one of their number, Hon. H. G.
Blake, should be elected president of the body,
provided he would recognize Air. Johnson, the
Democratic contestant, until the question as to
who was entitled to the seat should be settled by
the Senate. Mr. Blake agreed to the arrangement
and was duly elected. He recognized Mr. John-
son as a senator-elect, according to his acrreement,
but a few days after Air. Broadwell rose in the
Senate and was also recognized. This brought

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Mr. Payne to his feet. He called attention to the
fact that the constitution of the state provided
for thirty-six senators, but the presiding officer
had recognized thirty-seven. Mr. Payne, continu-
ing, spoke with great vehemence, declaring the
course of the presiding officer an outrage and de-
serving of the severest censure. He closed amid
great excitement. As he was taking his seat, he
was heard to remark in an undertone: "Such a
president is not fit to carry entrails to a bear."

Soon afterward a recess was taken, when Mr.
Blake and Mr. Pa}ne chanced to meet. It is said
that at this meeting the following spicy conversa-
tion took place :

Mr. Blake: "Mr. Payne, I understand that
after your speech today you made a very uncom-
plimentary remark in regard to me, and I think
you ought to apologize."

Mr, Payne : "Sir, what am I charged with

Mr, Blake : "Your words were, as I am told,
'Such a presiding officer is not fit to carry en-
trails to a bear.' "

Mr. Payne: "Sir, I believe I did use some

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such language, but upon second thought I am
satisfied I was mistaken; I apologize; you are fit
to carry entrails to a bear, and I think you had
much better be engaged in that occupation than
presiding over the Senate. Good day, sir."

The two senators knew each other no more.
The following day J\lr. Blake resigned his posi-
tion as presiding officer.


Late in the year i860, Ohio, under the supervis-
ion of Gen. D. L. Wood, of Cleveland, then
quartermaster general of the state, built at Co-
lumbus a state arsenal. When it was finished
Generals Wood and Carrington, the latter being
adjutant general of the state, had made what
they were pleased to designate, a "state flag," the
body of which was white, and the center a repre-
sentation of the state coat-of-arms. This the two
generals pointed to with pride as it floated over
the new arsenal.

On the 17th of January following, the Typo-
graphical Union of Columbus gave a banquet in



honor of the one hundred and fifty-fifth birthday
anniversary of Benjamin Franklin. At the ban-
quet one of the sentiments offered was this :

"The ladies, our stars before marriage, our
stripes afterwards."

Capt. Reaniy, a southerner by birth, was called
upon to respond, which he did, much surprising
the audience by going into a tirade on state's
rights. He lauded the Palmetto flag of South
Carolina and closed as follows : "You may talk
of your power and your strength ; you may call
back Ohio's sons from the wide world, and send
them forth to desolate the fair and sunny fields of
the South, but you can never subjugate her.
When you demand of me to join this band I will
not respond to your call."

While Capt. Reamy was speaking, Hon. James
A. Garfield, then a member of the State Senate,
sat apparently uneasy in his chair. Soon he was
called to respond to the following:

"A union of hearts, a union of hands,
A union of States, none can sever;
A union of lakes, a union of lands.
And the flag of our Union forever."

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Said he: "Ohio, thank God, has and knows
but one flag — ^the stars and stripes — that emblem
of unity of states, which now vv'aves over her cap-
itol, her halls of justice, her as3dums and her edu-
cational institutions. The sons of Ohio will come
forth from the wide world, to defend and uphold
that flag, and should a day of conflict arise, be it
with foreign or domestic foes, she will not ask
assistance from those who believe in other flags
and harbor in their hearts treason to the

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