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Orville J. (Orville James) Victor.

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and the departmental isolation of students and teachers are no longer either ethically
defensible or socially practicable. An education valid for our world must find its basis
in an integrated understanding of man in his essential roles : as living creature in the
natural universe, as inheritor of a rich and significant past, as participant in human
institutions, and as discoverer (and creator) of patterns and values which give mean-
ing to human existence. Similarly, the wise choice of a vocation and adequate train-
ing in its special techniques must be based upon an inclusive knowledge of the chief
fields of human endeavor and some appreciation of the special potentialities and
obligations of the various callings.

In an attempt to provide such foundations for its students, the College has estab-
lished the following general courses. The first two are required of all A.B. students.

1. INTRODUCTION TO CONTEMPORARY CIVILIZATION

Messrs. Bloom, Crapster, Darkah, Dunkelberger, Fortenbaugh, Glat-

FELTER, HeLMRICH, L. JoHNSON, P. JOHNSON, LaNGERHANS, MaRA, RiCHARD-

SON, Schubart, and Smoke

A general education course introducing the student to the backgrounds of con-
temporary social problems through the major concepts, ideals, hopes, and
motivations of western culture since the Middle Ages.

Six semester hours credit.
Required of all A.B. Freshmen. Three hours, throughout the year.

2. LITERARY FOUNDATIONS OF WESTERN CULTURE

Messrs. Ahrens, Darrah, Geyer, Held, Lindeman, Mason, Pickering,
Shaffer, Sundermeyer, and Wolfinger; and Mrs. Taylor
An introduction to the ideas and forms of Western thought, presented through
reading and interpretation of selected classics : Homer through St. Augustine
and Dante through Goethe. Six semester hours credit.

Required of all A.B. Sophomores. Three hours, throughout the year.

3. WORLD LITERATURE SINCE 1830 Mr. Sundermeyer

The forming of contemporary thought in literary masterpieces of East and West.

Six semester hours credit.
Elective for Juniors and Seniors. Three hours, throughout the year.

86



COURSES OF INSTRUCTION 87

Departmental Courses

Bible

(Biblical Literature and Religion)

Professor Waltemyer, Associate Professor Dunkelberger, Assistant Professor
Freed, and Lecturer Moore

Requirements for a major include 24 semester hours: Greek 6 and Philosophy 12
may be included. Courses la and lb are prerequisite for all other courses in the de-
partment and may be counted toward a twelve-hour minor. Students majoring in
this department are required to have a minor in Greek or Latin.



la. OLD TESTAMENT HISTORY Messrs. Dunkelberger,

Freed, Moore, and Waltemyer

The rise and progress of the Hebrew people with emphasis upon the religious
truths which, through them, were communicated to the world in preparation for
the advent of Christ. Three semester hours credit.

Required of all Freshmen. Three hours, first semester.



lb. LIFE OF CHRIST Messrs. Dunkelberger,

Freed, Moore, and Waltemyer

The external aspects of Christ's life as it presented itself to those who witnessed
it, with a view to an understanding of its eternal significance.

Three semester hours credit.
Required of all Freshmen. Three hours, second semester.

4. CHURCH HISTORY Mr. Dunkelberger

An extension of the study of Christianity beyond its Biblical limits, as a con-
tinuous religious development from its New Testament origins to the present.
Three hours, throughout the year. Six semester hours credit.



6. EVIDENCES OF CHRISTIANITY Mr. Dunkelberger

The theistic evidences and the proofs of the presence and action in the world of a
supernatural redemptive power as these appear in the first Christian documents,
and in Christian history ; deals with the questions which arise in the effort to
intellectualize the content of the Christian revelation.

Three semester hours credit.
Three hours, second semester. Alternates with Course 15.
Not given 1955-1956.



GETTYSBURG COLLEGE



8. RELIGIONS OF THE WORLD Mr. Waltemyer

A survey of the history and content of the great religions of the world, with a
view to their comparison with Christianity and to a better understanding of the
peoples of our day. Three semester hours credit.

Three hours, second semester.

10. NEW TESTAMENT HISTORY AND LITERATURE Mr. Waltemyer
The spread of Christianity from Jerusalem, through Palestine, to Antioch,
through Asia Minor to Greece and then to Rome, with emphasis on the life and
writings of Paul. Three semester hours credit.

Three hours, first semester.

12. THE HEBREW PROPHETS Mr. Freed
The prophets and their times, with a view to discovering the abiding principles
contained in their messages. Effort is made to relate these principles to the
present social order. Two semester hours credit.
Two hours, first semester.

13. CONTEMPORARY RELIGIOUS THOUGHT Mr. Dunkelberger
An examination of the ideas of the religious leaders of our times and a con-
sideration of major religious emphases today. Three semester hours credit.
Three hours, first semester.

14. INTRODUCTION TO RELIGIOUS EDUCATION Mr. Waltemyer
The principles and methods of religious education applicable to the Sunday
School, the Week-day Church School, and the Daily Vacation Bible School.
The members of the class will conduct a Week-day Bible School in Christ
Lutheran Church. A limited number of Junior and Senior students will be
accepted. Six semester hours credit.
Prerequisite : Twelve semester hours of Bible.

Three hours, throughout the year.

15. PSYCHOLOGY OF RELIGION Mr. Dunkelberger
A survey of thought in the field of the psychology of religion as developed by
William James, James Leuba, J. B. Pratt, E. D. Starbuck and a few others, to-
gether with the significant problems of religious personality and its development.
Two hours, second semester. Tzuo semester hours credit.

16. THE GOSPEL OF JOHN Mr. Freed
The chief emphasis will be given to the thought and content of the gospel
itself. An effort will be made to discover some of the various forms of the
thought background of the gospel, especially that of the Old Testament. There
will also be some study of the gospel in its relationship to the Synoptic Gospels
and to the First Epistle of John.

Three hours, second semester. Three semester hours credit.



COURSES OF INSTRUCTION 89



Biology



Professor Bowen, Associate Professor Messer, Assistant Professor Hensley,
Instructors Muma and Gardner, Lecturer Darrah, atid Assistants

The courses in this department are designed to provide an imderstanding of the
basic principles of general and comparative biology. Emphasis is placed on the
following features : the cultural values of biological science ; correlation of biology
with sociology, psychology, and related studies ; biological principles in relation to
human life ; fundamental training for students who plan to enter schools of medicine,
dentistry, nursing, forestry, laboratory technology, or other professional biological
fields.

Requirements for a major include a minimum of 32 semester hours, as approved
by the adviser. A premedical major in Biology includes Biology 11, 12, 23, 31, 33
and such other courses in Biology, and in Physics, Chemistry, English, and modem
foreign languages as are arranged with the adviser.

I. GENERAL BIOLOGY Messrs. Gardner, Hensley, Messer,

Muma, and Assistants

Basic principles of structure and function in plants and in animals, including
man. Eight semester hours credit.

Three class hours and three laboratory hours, throughout the year.

II. GENERAL BOTANY Mr. Darrah
An introduction to the biology of plants, presenting basic principles and
emphasizing the position of plants in nature and in relation to human interests.

Four semester hours credit.
Three class hours and three laboratory hours, either semester.

12. GENERAL ZOOLOGY Mr. Muma

An introduction to the biology of animals, presenting basic principles and
emphasizing the position of animals in nature and in relation to human interests.

Four semester hours credit.
Three class hours and three laboratory hours, either semester.

21. VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY Mr. Messer

Representative vertebrates, with special emphasis upon structure, the physio-
logical importance of organs, and the relationships existing among the various
groups of vertebrate animals. Four semester hours credit.

Prerequisite: Biology 1 or 11 and 12. Three class hours and three laboratory
hours, first semester.

23. COMPARATIVE ANATOMY OF VERTEBRATES Mr. Messer

Detailed examination of the origins, structure, and functions of the principal
organs of typical fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Special at-



90 GETTYSBURG COLLEGE

tention is given to the progressive modification of organs from lower to higher
vertebrates. Eight semester hours credit.

Prerequisite: Biology 1 or 11 and 12.
Three class hours and three laboratory hours throughout the year.

24. BOTANY Mr. Gardner
The identification and classification of plants ; the origin and distribution of
plants ; the importance of plants in human affairs, including history, culture, and
social customs. Emphasis on field work. Three semester hours credit.
Prerequisite: Biology 1 or Biology 11. Two class hours and three field or
laboratory hours, second semester.

25. CONSERVATION Mr. Hensley
An introduction to the general principles of conservation including the man-
agement of forests, soils, waters, fishes, birds, and mammals, and their im-
portance in economic and cultural life. Three semester hours credit.
No prerequisites. Two class hours, and field trips as arranged, first semester.
Alternates with Course 27.

Not given 1955-1956.

26. FIELD WORK IN BIOLOGY: ORNITHOLOGY Mr. Hensley
The identification and distribution of plants and animals and the mutual rela-
tions between organisms and their environment. Emphasis upon ornithology.
Prerequisite: Biology 1 or 11 and 12. Two class hours and three field or
laboratory hours, second semester. Three semester hours credit.
Alternates with Course 28.

Not given 1955-1956.

27. ECOLOGY Mr. Hensley
The major natural regions of the earth, particularly North America, and the
adaptations of living organisms to their environments. Emphasis on animal
associations. Three semester hours credit.
Prerequisite: Biology 1 or 11 and 12. Two class hours, and field trips as ar-
ranged, first semester.

Alternates with Course 25.

28. FIELD WORK IN BIOLOGY: HERPETOLOGY Mr. Hensley
The identification and distribution of plants and animals, and the mutual rela-
tions between organisms and their environment. Emphasis upon herpetology.
Prerequisite: Biology 1 or 11 and 12. Two class hours and three field or
laboratory hours, second semester. Three semester hours credit.
Alternates with Course 26.



COURSES OF INSTRUCTION 91

31. MICROSCOPY AND MICROTECHNIQUE Mr. Bowen
Theory and use of the microscope and other types of optical instruments ; the
handling of microscopic objects; the techniques of preparing materials for
microscopic investigation.

Prerequisites: Biology 1 or 11 and 12. Three class hours and three laboratory
hours, first semester. Four semester hours credit.

32. HISTOLOGY Messrs. Bowen and Muma
The microscopic structure, origin and function of individual cells, the funda-
mental tissues, and the principal organs of the animal body.
Prerequisites: Biology 1 or 11 and 12 and Biology 21 or 23. Three class hours
and three laboratory hours, second semester. Four semester hours credit.

33. EMBRYOLOGY Messrs. Bowen and Muma

Development from the germ cells to the establishment of the principal organs
of the body, including both the anatomy and physiology of development.
Prerequisites: Biology 1 or 11 and 12 and 21 or 23. Three class hours and
three laboratory hours, first semester. Four semester hours credit.

36. MAMMALIAN ZOOLOGY Mr. Messer

Detailed structure of a typical mammal and an introduction to human anatomy
and physiology. Four semester hours credit.

Prerequisites : Biology 21 or 23. Three class hours and three laboratory hours,
second semester.

41. GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY Mr. Bowen

The nature and importance of microorganisms, including yeasts, molds, bacteria,
and pathogenic protozoa. Four semester hours credit.

Prerequisites: Biology 1 or 11 and 12 and 31. Three class hours and three
laboratory hours, first semester.
Not given 1955-1956.

43. PRINCIPLES OF HEREDITY Mr. Bowen
The fundamental principles of heredity as observed in common plants and
animals, including man, and the relationships between heredity and develop-
ment, physiology, and evolution.

Prerequisites: Biology 1 or 11 and 12. Two class hours, first semester.

44. PREHISTORIC LIFE Mr. Bowen
An introduction to the geologic history of plants and animals from the de-
velopment of life to the beginning of historic time. Two semester hours credit.
No prerequisite. Two class hours, second semester.



92 GETTYSBURG COLLEGE

45. GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY Mr. Bowen

The structural and functional bases of plant and animal reactions ; the mechanics
and dynamics of living matter. Four semester hours credit.

Prerequisites: Biology 1 or 11 and 12 and 21 or 23. Three class hours and
three laboratory hours, second semester.

5L BIOLOGICAL SEMINAR Staff

A survey of the field of biology ; the history of biology ; the use of scientific
publications, including recent biological texts and current journals.
Course advised for Junior or Senior Biology majors. Two class hours through-
out the year. Four semester hours credit.
Not given 1955-1956.

55. PROBLEMS IN BIOLOGY Staff

An introduction to special techniques and methods in biological investigation.
Offered to Junior or Senior Biology majors who have the approval of the de-
partment for this particular course.

Maximum credit of four semester hours each semester.
Hours and credit as arranged.

Chemistry

Professors Zinn and Sloat, Associate Professor Weiland, and Assistants

Requirements for a major include 1, 2a, 2b, 4, and 5. Premedical majors in Chem-
istry need in addition such courses in Biology, Physics, English, and modern foreign
languages as are necessary to meet the requirements of the medical school of the
student's choice. Other Chemistry majors will take advanced courses according to
their needs and upon the advice of the head of the department.

1. GENERAL CHEMISTRY Messrs. Sloat, Weiland,

Zinn, and Assistants

The occurrences, properties, uses, and methods of preparation of the more com-
mon elements and their compounds and the theoretical principles involved. Spe-
cial emphasis is placed upon the scientific method of reasoning and the applica-
tion of chemical principles through the solving of problems.

Eight semester hours credit.
Two lectures, one recitation, and three laboratory hours, throughout the year.

2a. QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS Mr. Weiland

Comprehensive study of chemical equilibrium and its application to inorganic
qualitative analysis. Laboratory is on a semimicro scale.

Prerequisites : Chemistry 1 and Mathematics 1 and 2. Two lectures and six
laboratory hours, first semester. Four semester hours credit.



COURSES OF INSTRUCTION 93

2b. QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS Mr. Wetland

Theory and practice of gravimetric and volumetric analysis. Familiarity with
the work and principles is sought through the solution of problems.
Prerequisite : Chemistry 2a. Two lectures and six laboratory hours, second
semester. Four semester hours credit.



ADVANCED ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY Mr. Weiland

Discussion and laboratory practice of gravimetric separations, volumetric and
colorimetric analysis, and organic combustion methods.
Recommended to prospective graduate students and industrial chemists.
Prerequisites: Chemistry 1, 2a, and 2b. Six laboratory hours, throughout the
year. Four semester hours credit.



4. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Mr. Zinn

Systematic study of the compounds of the aliphatic and aromatic series with
special emphasis upon relationships and synthesis of the more common com-
pounds together with the study of their properties and technique of preparation
in the laboratory.

Prerequisites : Chemistry 1, 2a, and 2b. Three lectures and three laboratory
hours, throughout the year. Eight semester hours credit.



5. PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY Mr. Sloat

Fundamental atomic and molecular theory, electron conception of valence, com-
plex compounds, gases, solids, energetics, liquids, solutions, colloids, conductance,
electromotive force, ionic equilibria. Chemical equilibria, physical properties of
matter, and phase rule. Laboratory illustration of such of these principles as are
of theoretical interest or of particular service in medical school or industrial
practice.

Prerequisites : Chemistry 1, 2a, and 2b, Physics 102, and Mathematics 6. Three
lectures and three laboratory hours, throughout the year.

Eight semester hours credit.



SPECIAL QUANTITATIVE METHODS
A course designed to acquaint the student with a large variety of the methods
and apparatus used in the analysis of minerals, alloys, iron and steel, gases,
water, carbon and nitrogen compounds, foodstuffs, and natural and artificial
products by modern gravimetric, volumetric, electrometric, potentiometric,
polarigraphic, colorimetric, and photometric methods.
Prerequisites: Chemistry 1, 2a, 2b, and 3.

Hours and credit as arranged up to four semester hours.



94 GETTYSBURG COLLEGE

8. ADVANCED ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Mr. Zinn

Special topics in organic chemistry. Organic analysis and advanced preparations
constitute the laboratory work. Recommended to prospective graduate students
and industrial chemists. Eight semester hours credit.

Prerequisite : Chemistry 4. Two lectures and six laboratory hours, throughout
the year.

9. TEACHER'S COURSE Mr. Sloat

A course designed to acquaint the prospective teacher with the practical aspects
of administration and conduct of an elementary course in Chemistry. In consists
of three hours of practical laboratory and a one hour seminar in which the stu-
dent studies and becomes familiar with such subjects as the historical back-
ground of chemistry, the use of the scientific method in teaching chemistry, the
selection and evaluation of texts, the problems of the teacher, the conduct of sci-
ence and photographic clubs, the study of scientific periodicals and reference
books, the conduct of research, the writing of technical papers, the care of the
stock room, and the ordering of chemicals. Required of prospective teachers and
graduate students.

Open to Juniors and Seniors. Foxir semester hours credit.

One lecture and three laboratory hours, throughout the year.

Dramatic Arts

Professor Arms

lb. APPRECIATION OF THE THEATRE Mr. Arms

Current plays of the English-speaking stage discussed in detail.
One hour, throughout the year. Two semester hours credit.

2. TECHNIQUE OF THE THEATRE Mr. Arms

Theory and practice of acting and production.
Two hours, throughout the year. Four semester hours credit.

Economics and Business Administration

Professor Stokes, Associate Professor Larkin, Assistant Professors Baird and
Williams, Lecturer Heimer, and Assistants

The courses ofifered in this department are designed to provide an understanding
of the principles of economic behavior. Both theoretical and applied courses are
designed to meet the needs of students who intend to enter graduate and profes-
sional schools, or plan a career in business or government. Fundamentals rather
than techniques are stressed.

Students may select either Economics or Business Administration as their major
field.



COURSES OF INSTRUCTION 95

ECONOMICS

The requirements for a major in Economics are a minimum of 24 semester hours
including courses 3, 15, 16, and 18, and Mathematics 23 (Statistics). In addition all
majors are required to take Political Science la (American Government), and
are advised to take Economics 4 (Accounting).

3A. PRINCIPLES OF ECONOMICS Staff

A survey of the existing and changing economic order. An analysis of basic
factors of production, exchange, distribution, and consumption of wealth. This
course is designed to meet the requirements in economics of those who wish to
be certified to teach social studies in the public schools of Pennsylvania. This
course is not acceptable in partial fulfillment of the major and minor require-
ments of the department. Three semester hours credit.
Three hours, second semester.

3. PRINCIPLES OF ECONOMICS Staff

Economic principles, problems, and policies with special emphasis on produc-
tion, value, money, wages, interest, rent, profits, and consumption.
Sophomore course. Three hours throughout the year. Six semester hours credit.
Required of all majors and minors in Economics. Recommended for all Political
Science majors.

11. LABOR RELATIONS Mr. Larkin

Background for understanding and analyzing labor relations. Labor union his-
tory, organization, and operation ; labor market analysis and employment prac-
tices ; labor legislation ; collective bargaining ; the rights and responsibilities of
employers and employees. Three semester hours credit.

Prerequisite: Economics 3. Three hours, first semester.

14. TRANSPORTATION Mr. Larkin
Development, operation, and coordination of rail, motor, and water transporta-
tion facilities and their regulation. Three semester hours credit.
Junior and Senior course. Three hours, second semester.

15. ADVANCED ECONOMIC THEORY Messrs. Stokes and Williams
An analysis of the forces affecting the level of economic activity, income, and
employment ; monetary and fiscal policy ; value and distribution.

Senior course. Three hours, either semester. Three semester hours credit.

16. MONEY AND BANKING Mr. Stokes
The nature and functions of money and credit, credit instruments, monetary
standards, classes and functions of banks, commercial bank operations, the
structure and operations of the Federal Reserve System, theories of money
value, credit control, monetary policy. Three semester hours credit.
Junior or Senior course. Three hours, first semester.



96 GETTYSBURG COLLEGE

18. HISTORY OF ECONOMIC THOUGHT Mr. Williams
An analysis of the main contributions to economic thought from Adam Smith
and his immediate predecessors to the present time. Three semester hours credit.
Junior or Senior courses.

Prerequisite : Economics 3. Three hours, first semester.
Not given 1955-1956.

19. PUBLIC FINANCE Mr. Stokes
The provision, custody, and disbursement of the resources required for the con-
duct of government functions, the various types of taxes and their economic
effects, fiscal policy, the budget, management of the public debt.

Three semester hours credit.
Junior or Senior course. Three hours, first semester.
Prerequisite: either Economics 3 or Political Science 1.

20. INTERNATIONAL ECONOMICS Mr. Stokes
International trade, foreign exchange, international capital movements, tariffs
and restrictive trade practices, trade agreements, international monetary agencies.

Three semester hours credit.
Junior and Senior course. Three hours, second semester.
Not given 1955-1956.

AMERICAN ECONOMIC HISTORY See History 5.

ELEMENTARY STATISTICS See Mathematics 23.

22. CONSUMER ECONOMICS Mr. Larkin

An analytical treatment of the consumer's role in the economic system. The
course includes the forces behind demand ; family income and budgets ; instal-
ment finance ; life insurance ; investments ; home ownership ; producer and gov-
ernment aids to consumers. Three semester hours credit.
No prerequisites. Junior and Senior course. Second semester.

BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

The requirement for a major in Business Administration is 30 semester hours.
Courses 3, 4, and 15 are required and the remainder of the subjects may be selected
from any of the courses listed below or from those listed under Economics. All
majors are further required to take Political Science la.

1. ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY Messrs. Heimer and Williams

The location and use of the world's economic resources. The course aims to pro-
vide a background for imderstanding industrial, commercial, and agricultural



COURSES OF INSTRUCTION 97

opportunities and limitations, with emphasis on climate, topography, population,
and essential resources. Three semester hours credit.

Open only to Freshmen, except with special permission of department. Three
hours, first semester.

2. INDUSTRIES OF THE UNITED STATES Messrs. Heimer and Williams
A survey of American industries, with emphasis on the origin, nature, and de-
velopment of selected industries. Attention will be focused on the geographic
basis, historical evolution, and current economic position and problems.



Online LibraryOrville J. (Orville James) VictorGettysburg College Catalog (Volume 1955/56-1958/59) → online text (page 7 of 59)