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Orville J. (Orville James) Victor.

Gettysburg College Catalog (Volume 1963/65-1969/71) online

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102 Chemistry

and research. In the junior and senior years term papers and seminars help
students acquire facility in speaking, writing, and the use of chemical litera-
ture. Qualified juniors and seniors have opportunities for experience as
laboratory instructors and research assistants. The department sponsors a
program of lectures by invited speakers from universities, medical schools,
and chemical industries.

Many graduating majors enter graduate schools of chemistry and bio-
chemistry, medical and dental schools, or go directly into industrial or
government research. Others enter high school teaching, medical technology,
scientific library work, or the chemical industry.

For the prospective secondary school teacher the department cooperates
in offering Education 304, Techniques of Teaching and Curriculum of
Secondary Chemistry.

101-102 GENERAL CHEMISTRY Mr. Sloat and Assistants

The occurrence, properties, uses, and methods of preparation of the more common
elements and their compounds, and theoretical principles involved. Special emphasis
is placed upon the scientific method of reasoning and the application of chemical
principles through the solving of problems. Designed for beginners and liberal arts
students. Emphasis is placed upon applications of chemistry to modern living and
the role it has played in the development of contemporary civilization. Credit is not
given for both 101-102 and 111-112. Two lectures, one recitation, and three labora-
tory hours. Eight hours credit

111-112 FUNDAMENTALS OF CHEMISTRY Messrs. Rowland, Fortnum,

Weiland, and Assistants
Modern theories of atomic structure are used as the basis for developing an intimate
knowledge of fundamental laws governing chemical combinations. As a course
designed primarily for science majors, much emphasis is placed upon the solution
of problems as a means of best understanding those principles which underlie all
important branches of chemistry. Qualitative and quantitative analytical methods
are utilized extensively in the laboratory work. An adequate secondary school
course in chemistry is recommended for those contemplating Chemistry 111-112.
Three lectures and three laboratory hours. Eight hours credit

203-204 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Mr. Schildknecht

A systematic study of the compounds of the aliphatic, alicyclic, and aromatic series,
with special emphasis upon relationships and synthesis of the more important com-
pounds together with the study of their properties and applications. Theories of
reactivity and reaction mechanisms are discussed. Special topics include stereo-
chemistry and polymerization. Three lectures and three laboratory hours.

Eight hours credit

305-306 PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY Mr. Fortnum

The principles of thermodynamics are applied in studies of the states of matter,

solutions, electrochemistry, and equilibrium. Quantum theory is used in the study

of structure and bonding. Theories of kinetics are applied to rates and mechanisms of



Chemistry 103

reactions. The application of chemical principles is developed in laboratory experi-
ments and projects. Prerequisites: Chemistry 111-112, Physics 111-112, and Mathe-
matics 205-206. Three lectures and three laboratory hours. Eight hours credit

317, 318 ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY Mr. Weiland

Basic chemical principles are applied to contemporary analytical techniques.
Instrumental methods studied in the second semester include potentiometry, polar-
ography, amperometry, spectrophotometry, and radiochemistry. Prerequisite: Chem-
istry 111-112. Two lectures and six laboratory hours. Eight hours credit

321, 322 TEACHER'S COURSE Mr. Sloat

Designed to acquaint the student with the practical aspects of class and laboratory

teaching. Strongly recommended for prospective teachers and graduate students.

One lecture and three laboratory hours. Four hours credit

353 ADVANCED ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Mr. Rowland
Topics covered include the point group classification of organic compounds,

stereochemistry, the mechanisms of organic reactions, and an introduction to chemical
kinetics. The structures of compounds are determined in the laboratory by qualita-
tive organic analysis and instrumental methods, and by comparison with authentic
samples prepared by syntheses. Prerequisite: Chemistry 203-204. Two lectures and
six laboratory hours. Four hours credit

354 ADVANCED ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Mr. Rowland
A comprehensive study of the conformational analysis of organic compounds, the

chemistry of steroids and other natural products, important organic reactions, and
additional special subjects. A seminar is given by each student on a topic of current
interest in organic chemistry. Prerequisite: Chemistry 353. Three lectures.

Three hours credit

364 ADVANCED PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY Mr. Fortnum

Selected topics in physical chemistry such as elementary quantum theory, atomic
and molecular structure, spectroscopy, elementary statistical mechanics, properties
of macromolecules, solid state chemistry, theory of rate processes, adsorption, cataly-
sis, nuclear chemistry, and radiochemistry. Prerequisite: Chemistry 305-306. Three
lectures. Three hours credit

373 ADVANCED INORGANIC CHEMISTRY Mr. Fortnum

Principles of physical chemistry are applied to a study of inorganic substances.

Among the topics discussed are structure, stereochemistry, coordination compounds,

and reaction mechanisms. Prerequisite: Chemistry 305-306. Three hours credit

401 INDEPENDENT STUDIES Staff

Honors work, research, laboratory and literature studies, especially in the fields
of analytical chemistry, biochemistry, organic synthesis, physical chemistry, poly-
merization, and steriod chemistry. With department permission. Laboratory work
and conferences. Repeated second semester. One to three hours credit



1 04 Classics



Classics



Associate Professor Pavlantos

(Chairman)
Assistant Professor C. R. Held
Instructor Parks




The main objective of the department is to give a thorough foundation in
Latin and Greek to those students who expect to specialize in this field as
teachers, graduate students, archaeologists, or linguists. The department
also strives to contribute to the education of those who are not specialists; to
help in the clear and artistic expression of thought; to help understand the
terminology of science, law, theology, medicine, etc.; and to help all students
to a better understanding of language structure in general and thereby to a
mastery of English. The long-range objective is to show all students that the
great literary men of Greece and Rome addressed themselves to thoughts
and ideas which are as urgent in the twentieth century as they were to those
ancient civilizations.

Requirements for a major in Latin: 30 hours beyond Latin 101-102,
including Latin 302, 309, and 310. Requirements for a major in Greek:
30 hours beyond Greek 101-102, including Greek 307 and 308.

Latin 201-202, 203, 204 and Greek 201-202 may be used to meet the
College's foreign language requirement. Latin 203, 204, 301, 303, 304,
305, 306, 307, 308, 310 and 401, and Greek 203, 204, 301, 302, 303, 304,
305, 306, 308 and 401 may be used to fulfill the College distribution require-
ment for literature.

For prospective secondary school teachers the department cooperates in
offering Education 304, Techniques of Teaching and Curriculum of Second-
ary Latin.



Classics 105



GREEK



101-102 ELEMENTARY GREEK Staff

An introduction to the reading of ancient Greek. Six hours credit

201-202 INTERMEDIATE GREEK Staff

Designed to increase the student's skill in reading texts. Selections from Xenophon

are read, and a systematic review of the syntax of Greek is conducted through the

use of prose composition. Prerequisite: Greek 101-102. Six hours credit

203 PLATO Mr. Parks
The Apology and the Crito, with selections from other dialogues, are read to give

a coherent picture of Socrates. May be taken at the same time as Greek 201.

Three hours credit

204 NEW TESTAMENT Mr. Parks
Selections from the New Testament are studied, both for their language and for

their content. May be taken at the same time as Greek 202. Three hours credit

301 HOMER Mr. Parks
Selections from the Iliad or Odyssey read in the original Greek. Three hours credit

302 HERODOTUS Mrs. Pavlantos
Extensive reading of the Greek text. Three hours credit

303 GREEK COMEDY Mr. C. R. Held
Selected plays in the original Greek. Three hours credit

304 GREEK TRAGEDY Mr. C. R. Held
Selected plays in the original Greek. Three hours credit

305 GREEK LYRIC POETRY Mr. Parks
A study of the remnants of classical Greek poetry, with the exclusion of epic and

drama. Three hours credit

306 GREEK ORATORY Mr. C. R. Held
Selected orations in the original Greek. Three hours credit

307 GREEK HISTORY Mrs. Pavlantos
A survey of Hellenic civilizations from the earliest times to the Hellenistic age. A

knowledge of Greek is not required. Three hours credit

308 GREEK LITERATURE IN ENGLISH Mrs. Pavlantos
An historical and critical survey of Greek literature from its beginnings to the

Hellenistic period. A knowledge of Greek is not required.

Three hours credit

401 INDEPENDENT STUDY Staff

Designed for advanced majors. Hours and credits arranged



106 Classics

LATIN

101-102 ELEMENTARY LATIN Staff

An introduction to Latin. Six hours credit

201-202 INTERMEDIATE LATIN Staff

Designed to increase the student's skill in reading texts. Selections from Latin

prose and poetry are read. Prerequisite: two years of secondary school Latin or Latin

101-102. Six hours credit

203 LIVY Staff
Selections in the original Latin. Prerequisite: four years of secondary school Latin

or Latin 201-202. Three hours credit

204 HORACE Staff
Selections from the Odes and Epodes. Three hours credit

301 LUCRETIUS Mr. C. R. Held

Selections from On the Nature of Things. Three hours credit

302 LATIN PROSE COMPOSITION Mr. C. R. Held

Three hours credit

303 CICERO Mr. C. R. Held
Selections from the works of Cicero. Three hours credit

304 ROMAN COMEDY Mr. Parks
Selections from Plautus and Terence. Survey of the Roman theater; origin and

development of Roman drama. Three hours credit

305 OVID Mrs. Pavlantos
Selections from the Metamorphoses. Three hours credit

306 ST. AUGUSTINE Mr. C. R. Held
Selections from the first nine books of the Confessions. An introduction to the life

and thought of the greatest of the Latin church fathers. Three hours credit

307 ROMAN ELEGY Mr. Parks

Selections from Catullus, Tibullus, Propertius, and Ovid. Three hours credit

308 VERGIL Mrs. Pavlantos
A seminar devoted to the study of Vergil's literary style. Open only to seniors and

qualified juniors. Three hours credit

309 ROMAN HISTORY Mrs. Pavlantos

The history of the Republic and Empire. A knowledge of Latin is not required.

Three hours credit

310 LATIN LITERATURE IN ENGLISH Mrs. Pavlantos
An historical and critical survey of Roman literature from the beginnings to the

patristic literature. A knowledge of Latin is not required. Three hours credit

401 INDEPENDENT STUDY Staff

Designed for advanced majors. Hours and credits arranged



Economics 107




Economics and Business
Administration

Professors W. F. Railing (Chairman) and

Zagars
Associate Professors Baird, Hill, and Williams
Assistant Professor R. M. Gemmill
Instructor Sylvester
Lecturer J. M. Railing
Assistants



The courses offered by the department are designed to acquaint the student
with the functioning of economic systems, that is, the means by which human
wants are satisfied from the scarce resources at the disposal of a society.
Economics is the social science which is concerned with the study of the
operation of various types of economic systems, but in most of the courses
offered by the department, primary emphasis is placed on the functioning
of the American economic system. Business Administration is the study of
the language, functions, techniques, and creative opportunities involved in
the control and operation of the business firm. A student may select either
Economics or Business Administration as his major field. The department
offers theoretical and applied courses which meet the needs of students who
intend to enter graduate or professional schools, or who plan a career in
business or government. Fundamentals rather than techniques are stressed.
Majors in the department normally minor in one of the following fields:
Mathematics, Political Science, Psychology, Philosophy, Sociology and
Anthropology, or History.

A student who is majoring in Economics is requires to take the following:
Economics 153-154, 201-202, 303, 309, 311, 324, 333, 341-342, 361, and 366.
The requirements for a major in Business Administration are as follows:
Economics 153-154, 201-202, 309, 311, 341-342, 361, 363, 365, 366, and 367.
In addition, majors in Economics and majors in Business Administration are
required to have at least one year of college mathematics or its equivalent.
In order to qualify for Departmental Honors, seniors must take Economics
401.

Economics 201-202 is required for a minor in the department, and is a
prerequisite for all the other courses except Economics 153-154, 205, 341-342,
363, 365, and 366. Upon application by a student, the prerequisites for a
course may be waived by the instructor.

The College distribution requirement in social science may be satisfied by
Economics 201-202 or Economics 203.



108 Economics

153-154 ELEMENTARY ACCOUNTING Messrs. Baird and Sylvester

An introduction to principles of accounting and procedures of double entry book-
keeping as applied in accounting for single proprietorships, partnerships, and cor-
porations. The preparation and analysis of financial statements with attention di-
rected to managerial use of accounting data. Three class hours and two laboratory
hours. Six hours credit

201-202 PRINCIPLES OF ECONOMICS

Messrs. Gemmill, Railing, Williams, and Zagars
The purpose of this course is to give the student a basic understanding of economics,
with emphasis on the operation of the American economic system. It deals with
topics of neoclassical, Keynesian, and post-Keynesian economics such as private
enterprise, national income, employment and growth, money and banking, monetary
and fiscal policy, the price system, income distribution, and international economics.
A student completing this course should be able to analyze economic problems and
reach well-considered judgments on public policy issues. Six hours credit

203 PRINCIPLES OF ECONOMICS Mr. Railing

This course is a survey of the existing and changing economic order. It considers
the determination and control of the level of economic activity along with a brief
study of the factors affecting the production, exchange, and distribution of wealth.
It is designed to meet the requirements in Economics for those who wish to be cer-
tified to teach social studies in the public schools of Pennsylvania. This course is not
acceptable in partial fulfillment of the major or minor requirements of the depart-
ment. Repeated second semester. Three hours credit

205 CULTURAL, SOCIAL, AND PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Mr. Hill

The approach is first to understand the physical elements of our environment.
This is followed by a systematic and regional study of the habitable earth with
emphasis on resources and their development, and the involvement of the cultural,
economic, and political institutions. Designed for those who wish to be certified to
teach in the public schools. Repeated second semester. Three hours credit

253-254 INTERMEDIATE ACCOUNTING Mr. Baird

A continued and more intensive study of principles and theories prevalent in
accounting and consideration given to alternative methods of recording and pre-
senting accounting data. An effort is made to acquaint the student with the pre-
dominant professional groups and their pronouncements on accounting matters.
Prerequisite: Economics 153-154. Six hours credit

301 LABOR ECONOMICS Mr. Zagars
A study of the structure and activities of labor organizations. An analysis of labor

and management relations from the viewpoint of the employee, the employer, and
the public. Three hours credit

302 THE ECONOMICS OF TRANSPORTATION

Deals with the various modes of transportation, their development, characteristics,
operations, problems, and regulation. Consideration of rapid developments which
have occurred in the fields of highway and air transport and coordination of the
different types of transport. Three hours credit



Economics 109

303 MONEY AND BANKING Mr. Gemmill

Undertakes to explain the role of money and financial institutions in determination
and fluctuation of price and income levels. Among the topics presented are the
nature and the functions of money and credit, credit instruments, monetary standard,
classes and functions of commercial banks and their operations, the structure and
operation of the Federal Reserve System, theories of the value of money, credit con-
trol, and monetary policy. Repeated second semester. Three hours credit

305 PUBLIC FINANCE Mr. Railing
This course is concerned with the principles, techniques, and effects of obtaining

and spending funds by governments, and of managing government debt. The nature,
growth, and amount of the expenditures of all levels of government in the United
States are considered, along with the numerous types of taxes employed by the various
levels of government to finance their activities. The growth and size of governmental
debt in the United States is also studied. Three hours credit

306 INTERNATIONAL ECONOMICS Mr. Zagars
A study of the basic theory and major institutions of international economic re-
lations: international trade and finance, barriers to trade and trade agreements,
foreign investment, and foreign economic policies. Three hours credit

309 MACROECONOMIC THEORY Mr. Railing

This course is a study of the theory of the determination of the aggregate level of
economic activity in a free enterprise system, the methods by which a high level of
employment and income may be maintained, and related aspects of economic policy.
There is also a brief consideration of social accounting, with special emphasis on the
National Income Accounts of the Department of Commerce. Repeated second
semester. Three hours credit

311 MICROECONOMIC THEORY Mr. Hill

Includes the theory of consumer demand and the theory of price and output under
market conditions of pure competition, monopolistic competition, monopoly, and
oligopoly. Factor price determination is also considered with resepct to wages, in-
terest, rent, and profits. Repeated second semester. Three hours credit

324 COMPARATIVE ECONOMIC SYSTEMS Mr. Zagars

A comparative analysis of the philosophical, political, and economic principles and
tenets of centrally directed economies as opposed to exchange economies. Primary
attention is given to factors explaining the evolution and present structure of economic
institutions in societies of the Soviet type in relation to the economies of the United
States and Western Europe. Three hours credit

331 ECONOMIC PROBLEMS AND ANALYSIS Mr. Williams

An analysis of current economic problems, based on selected readings which are
designed to exemplify the divergent opinions possible on important and contro-
versial issues of an economic or governmental nature. Being interdisciplinary in its
approach, this study utilizes the language and principles of political economy in a
descriptive and analytical approach to economic problems. Designed to encourage
individual thinking and a sounder understanding of problems of economics and
citizenship. Three hours credit



110 Economics

333 HISTORY OF ECONOMIC THOUGHT AND ANALYSIS Mr. Zagars
An historical study and analysis of economic ideas, institutions, and policies in
relation to major forms of social, political, and economic organizations since an-
tiquity. Three hours credit

336 ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Mr. Zagars

An examination of the economic and non-economic factors accounting for the
economic growth of Western and non-Western nations and underdeveloped areas. A
review of the nature of economic development; the problems encountered in initiating
the process of economic growth; the significance of demographic forces in the growth
process; the role of government in promoting vigorous and steady development; and
the influence of social, political, and geographic factors on capital formation and
technological advancement. Various theories of economic growth are considered.
Major policy issues associated with foreign economic aid are discussed.

Three hours credit
341-342 ECONOMIC AND BUSINESS STATISTICS Mr. Hill

The application of statistical techniques and analysis to quantitative measurements
in economics and business. The first semester includes measures of central tendency,
dispersion, skewness, kurtosis, the normal curve, probability, Chi square test for
goodness of fit, sampling, inference theory, and the application of statistical tech-
niques in decision making. The second semester includes regression analysis, linear
and curvi-linear correlation, rank correlation, index number construction and appli-
cations, time series analysis, and an introduction to variance analysis. Prerequisite:
One year of college mathematics or its equivalent. Six hours credit

350 THE COMPUTER AND ITS USE IN ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS
This course considers the nature and development of high-speed electronic com-
puters, and their use in economics and business. Lectures and case materials are
concerned with such topics as the analysis of economic and business data handling
problems, the place of the computing facility in the organizational structure of the
firm, the economics of high-speed computation, program construction, and the
impact of computers on decision-making. Three hours credit

353-354 COST ACCOUNTING Mr. Baird

A study of the fundamental concepts of accounting for production costs of com-
panies engaged in manufacturing, with practice work in job order, process, and stand-
ard costs. During the second semester emphasis is placed on managerial control
and use of cost accounting data. Prerequisite: Economics 153-154. Six hours credit

355 AUDITING Mr. Baird
An introduction to principles and procedures of auditing, including preparation

of audit programs and working papers and the writing of reports. Some of the actual
experience of conducting an audit is assimilated through completion of a practice
set. Prerequisite: Economics 153-154. Three hours credit

356 FEDERAL TAXES Mr. Baird
A study of federal taxes with emphasis on the accounting and managerial implica-
tions of the law. Preparation of returns and introduction to some of the aspects of
researching tax problems are included. Prerequisite: Economics 153-154.

Three hours credit



Economics 111

361 MARKETING PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES Mr. Sylvester

An analysis of the performance of business activities which direct the flow of goods
and services from producer to consumer. Emphasis is on the managerial approach
to the evaluation, control, and selection of variable components of the marketing
program. Repeated second semester. Three hours credit

363 BUSINESS LAW Mrs. Railing

An introduction to the field of law with special emphasis on the nature of the

sources of law, legal remedies, and the courts. Contracts and negotiable instruments

are among the areas covered. Repeated second semester. Three hours credit

365 INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS Mr. Williams
Scientific manpower management, or personnel principles and policies. Describes

the nature of management commitment and introduces the techniques and areas of
responsibility that contribute to a sound personnel program. Both the functional
context and the behavorial factors and implications underlying individual and group
behavior are considered, as are the social and economic background and material
concerning the union movement and its managerial implications in the collective
bargaining arrangement. Additional time is spent on the essential concerns of the
individual student as he seeks a job, characteristics which will aid or diminish his
career prospects, and what he may expect as he works on the job. Three hours credit

366 BUSINESS MANAGEMENT Mr. Williams
An introduction to the language and background of scientific management: its

changing social responsibilities, and the major functional areas of internal and ex-
ternal activities of the firm, along with some of the alternate possibilities open to it.
The course deals with organization, financing, research, and development, as well



Online LibraryOrville J. (Orville James) VictorGettysburg College Catalog (Volume 1963/65-1969/71) → online text (page 36 of 59)