Orville J. (Orville James) Victor.

Gettysburg College Catalog (Volume 1977/78-1981/82) online

. (page 49 of 108)
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the Gettysburg area. One course credit is given
for successful completion of the internship.

Students majoring in economics or in business
administration are encouraged to participate in
The Washington Economic Policy Semester at
The American University. Those persons inter-
ested should see page 38 and contact Dr. Rail-
ing at the beginning of the spring term of their
sophomore year, or earlier, to learn more about
the Semester and to make application for it.

Students enrolled in The Harrisburg Urban
Semester, who are majoring in economics or in
business administration, should do the individ-
ualized study project in this Department.

Each student majoring in the Department must,
as a requirement for graduation, achieve a sat-
isfactory score on the senior comprehensive ex-
amination in his or her major field (economics or
business administration), which is administered
during the spring term of a student's senior year.
In order to qualify for Departmental Honors in his
orher majorfield, a student must (1 ) perform very
well in the senior comprehensive examination,
(2) satisfactorily complete Economics 400 dur-
ing the senior year, and (3) have earned an ac-
ceptable overall and Departmental grade point

The Departmental brochure, entitled Handbook
for Majors, contains additional information re-
garding the policies and practices of this De-
partment. All majors and potential majors are
urged to obtain a copy of this booklet.

A student may satisfy the College distribution
requirement in social sciences by successfully
completing Economics 101-102.

Course Descriptions I Economics and Business Administration


101-102 Principles of Economics
The purpose of these courses is to give the student a general
understanding of economic systems and economic analy-
sis, with emphasis on the operation of the American
economic system. The courses deal with topics of neoclas-
sical, Keynesian, and post-Keynesian economics, such as
national income, employment and growth, monetary and
fiscal policy, the price system, income distribution, and
international economics. A student completing these
courses should be able to analyze economic problems and
reach well-considered judgments on public policy issues.
Miss Cavalluzzo, Mrs. Fender, Messers. Gemmill, Griffith,
Kapoor, Niiro, W.F. Railing, Schlegel, Shrager, Siegel,

and Williams

241 Introductory Economics and Business Statistics
The purpose of this course is to introduce the student to
statistical techniques and quantitative analysis as used in
economics and business. Topics included are measures of
central tendency, dispersion, skewness, kurtosis, the nor-
mal distribution and applications; Chi-square applications;
probabilities based on the normal distribution, the binomial
distribution, and the Poisson distribution; sampling; infer-
ence theory and its application to decision-making; and
linear regression and correlation. Offered during the fall and
spring terms. Prerequisite: Economics 1 01 -1 02. Please note
that a student may not receive credit for both this course and
Mathematics 107 or Sociology 302, 303.

Messrs. Hill and Niiro

153 Financial-Managerial Accounting

The primary objectives are to have the student grasp the
overall usefulness of accounting to management and other
interested parties, and to understand and use typical ac-
counting reports of both the internal (managerial) and exter-
nal (published) types Special emphasis is placed on the
role of accounting in managing economic units by analyzing
and interpreting financial statements. The subject matter is
presented largely from the point of view of the user, rather
than the producer, of economic information. Offered during
the fall and spring terms.

Mr. Baird, Mrs. Cerasa, Mr. Laudeman, and Mrs. Lewis

154 Fundamentals of Accounting Theory

A more detailed study of the process of identifying, meas-
uring, recording, classifying, and summarizing economic
information for single proprietorships, and corporations.
Topics covered include the worksheet, special journals,
electronic data processing, payroll, interest, investments,
and cost accumulation, including its control. The subject
matter is presented largely from the point of view of the
producer, rather than user, of economic information. Offered
during the fall and spring terms. Prerequisite: Economics

Mr. Baird, Mrs. Cerasa, and Mrs. Lewis

177 Introduction to Business-Oriented Computer
The purpose of this course is to give the student an introduc-
tion to computers and the use of a business-oriented pro-
gramming language. Topics to be covered include basic
computer concepts, the representation of data and informa-
tion, storage concepts and devices, input-output concepts
and devices, file organization and the retrieval of data from
tape and disk storage devices, problems of file mainte-
nance and file updating, and the COBOL programming lan-
guage with emphasis on the use of the language in the
solution of business problems. The topics are presented in
such a way as to give a basic foundation to those who wish to
pursue more advanced business-oriented data processing

Mr. Katzman

242 Intermediate Economic and Business Statistics

This course introduces more advanced statistical theory and
its application to economic and business problems of anal-
ysis and forecasting. It includes nonlinear regression and
correlation; multiple regression and correlation; Chi-square
tests; variance analysis; index numbers; and time series and
their decomposition as to trend, cyclical, seasonal, and
irregular components. Prerequisite: Economics 241.

Mr. Hill

243 Intermediate Macroeconomic Theory
This course continues the study of the theory of the determi-
nation of the aggregate level of economic activity in a free
enterprise system, the methods by which a high level of
employment and income may be maintained, the causes of
inflation and methods of preventing it, and related aspects
of monetary and fiscal policy. There is also a brief consider-
ation of social accounting, with special emphasis on the
National Income Accounts of the Department of Commerce,
the input-output analysis, flow of funds analysis, and na-
tional balance sheets. Offered during the fall and spring
terms. Prerequisite: Economics 101-102.

Messrs. Gondwe and W.F. Railing

245 Intermediate Microeconomic Theory
An advanced study of the partial equilibrium theory of con-
sumer demand; the theory of production; the theory of the
firm in market conditions of pure competition, monopoly,
oligopoly, and monopolistic competition; the theory of factor
prices and income distribution; general equilibrium; welfare
economics; and linear programming. Offered during the fall
and spring terms. Prerequisite: Economics 101-102.

Miss Cavalluzzo, Mrs. Fender, Mr. Griffith, and Mr. Hill

253-254 Intermediate Accounting

A continued and more intensive study of the principles and
theories prevalent in accounting with consideration given to
alternative methods of recording and presenting account-
ing data. An effort is made to acquaint the student with
the predominant professional groups and their pro-
nouncements on accounting matters Prerequisite: Ec-
onomics 153, 154

Mr Patterson


Course Descriptions I Economics and Business Administration

301 Labor Economics

A study of the economic aspects of the employer-employee
relationship from the viewpoint of employer, employee, and
the public is presented. Discussions of contract determina-
tion; labor movements, problems and legislation; union or-
ganization and behavior; and labor-management relations
are included. Prerequisite: Economics 101-102. Recom-
mended: Economics 245.

Mr Siegel

303 Money and Banking
An examination of the role of money, credit, and financial
institutions in the determination of price and income levels
Coverage includes the nature and functions of money and
credit, the nature and operation of the commercial banking
system, the structure and activities of the Federal Reserve
System, monetary theory, and the role of monetary policy in
the American economy. Emphasis is placed upon the
evaluation of current theory and practice in meeting the
needs of a dynamic economic system. Prerequisite:
Economics 101-102.

Mr. Gemmill

333 History of Economic Thought and Analysis

A historical study and analysis of economic ideas, institu-
tions, and policies in relation to major forms of social, politi-
cal, and economic problems. Particular emphasis is laid on
the economic, nationalist, and socialist criticisms of this
type of economic thought; historical schools and institu-
tional economics, and Keynesian and post-Keynesian de-
velopment of economic thought and its criticisms. Prerequi-
site: Economics 101-102.

Mr. Gondwe

336 International Trade
An examination of the pure theory of international trade.
Topics to be discussed include the emergence of the mod-
ern views on trade, the reasons for and the gains from trade,
factor price equalization, tariffs, quotas, and customs
duties. Emphasis will be placed upon the application of
basic economic tools and concepts to problems in the area.
Prerequisite: Economics 101-102. Please note that students
who have previously taken International Economic Devel-
opment and Trade may not take this course for credit.

Mr. Griffith

305 Public Finance
This course is concerned with the principles, techniques,
and effects of obtaining and spending funds by gov-
ernments, and of managing government debt. The nature,
growth, and amount of the expenditures of all levels of gov-
ernment in the United States are considered, along with the
numerous types of taxes employed by the various levels of
government to finance their activities. The growth and size of
government debt in the United States are also studied. Pre-
requisite: Economics 101-102.

Mr. W F Railing

310 Cultural, Social, and Physical Geography

The first half of the course is a survey of the physical envi-
ronment to acquaint the student with the elements and in-
terrelationships of the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and the
lithosphere. The second half of the course is a systematic
and regional study of the habitable earth with emphasis on
latitudinal position, the climatic and demographic resource
limits: fauna and flora distributions; and the superimposed
involvement of cultural, economic and political institutions.
This course satisfies the geography requirement for those
students who wish to teach in the public schools.

Mr. Hill

324 Comparative Economic Systems
This course is concerned with a comparative analy si s of free
enterprise economies, centrally planned economies, and
mixed economies. Primary attention is given to the
economic aspects and institutions of these economic sys-
tems, but the political, philosophical, and historical aspects
are also considered. Prerequisite: Economics 101-102.

Mr. W. F. Railing

338 Economic Development

An examination of the economic and non-economic factors
accounting for the economic growth and development of
modern economically developed nations and less devel-
oped areas of the world. A review of the problems encoun-
tered in initiating and sustaining the process of economic
development will be covered. Various theories of economic
growth and development will be analyzed and major policy
issueswill be discussed Prerequisite: Economics 101-102.

Mr Gondwe

351 Application of Mathematics to Economics
and Business
This course is designed to introduce the student to the
application of calculus and matrix algebra in economic
theory, economic measurement, and business administra-
tion, and to enable him or her to carry theory from economic
into mathematical terms and vice versa. Readings in the
economic and business literature, and problems will be
assigned Prerequisites: Economics 243, 245, and Mathe-
matics 117-118 or Mathematics 111-112 and 211-212.

Mrs. Fender and Mr, Niiro

352 Introduction to Econometrics
This course is designed to introduce the student to the
applications of mathematical economic theory and statisti-
cal procedures to economic and business data Economic
theorems will be tested empirically, and readings in the
econometric literature and problems will be assigned. Pre-
requisites: Economics 243, 245, Mathematics 117-118 or
Mathematics 111-112 and 211-212, and Economics 242,
Mathematics 358

Mr. Niiro

Course Descriptions I Economics and Business Administration

353-354 Cost Accounting
The study of physical and monetary input-output relation-
ships and the use of such productivity and cost studies for
managerial evaluation, planning, and control. Practice work
is performed in job order, process, and standard costs
Emphasis is placed on managerial control and use of cost
accounting data in 354. Prerequisites: Economics 1 53, 1 54.
Alternate years, offered 1979-80.

Mr. Patterson

355 Auditing

An introduction to principles and procedures of auditing, in-
cluding preparation of audit programs and working papers
and the writing of reports. Some of the actual experience
of conducting an audit is simulated through completion of a
practice set. Prerequisites: Economics 153, 154. Alternate
years, offered 1978-79.

Mr. Patterson

356 Federal Taxes

A study of federal taxes, their historical development and
current implementation, with particular attention given to the
income tax on corporations and individuals. Emphasis is
placed on the researching of tax problems through use of
loose-leaf tax services. Some work on the preparation of
returns is also included. Prerequisites: Economics 1 53, 1 54.
Messrs Patterson, and Raffensperger

361 Marketing Management

The marketing system is evaluated as a mechanism for the
exchange of information, creation of and adjustment to de-
mand, and the sale of products and services. Emphasis is on
the managerial approach to the selection, evaluation, and
control of price, product line, distribution, and promotion in
the marketing program. Marketing case studies are pre-
pared and discussed. Prerequisite: Economics 101-102.
Messrs. Doherty and Robert

363 Business Law I

The purpose of Business Law I is three-fold: (1) to introduce
the student to the American judicial system, (2) to make the
student aware of how legal disputes can occur, and (3) to
help prepare the student for the Business Law Part of the
Certified Public Accounting Examination. An overview of the
historical development of law, the sources of law today, and
criminal and tort laws are presented. The law of contracts is
then explored in depth. Civil procedure and the court sys-
tems as well as secured transactions are also fully dis-
cussed. Offered during the fall and spring terms.

Mrs. J. M. Railing

364 Business Law II

This course is a continuation of Business Law I. The student
is given further preparation for the Business Law Part of the
Certified Public Accounting Examination. Among the topics
covered are commercial paper, employment, principal and
agent, partnerships, corporations and estates. Prerequisite:
Economics 363.

Mrs. J. M. Railing

365 Personnel Management

The changing nature of the management commitment and
the essential techniques, attitudes, and areas of responsi-
bility that contribute to a sound personnel program are
presented. Both the functional context and the behavioral
factors and implications that underlie individual and group
behavior in the work situation are studied. Additional time is
spent on the nature of the decision-making process as it
affects the individual and the organization, as well as the
central importance of the individual in the organization. The
place of character and personal ity, and a sense of individual
and social responsibility are also stressed. Prerequisite:
Economics 101-102.

Mr. Williams

366 Business Management

The language background, and need for scientific man-
agement and the changing social responsibilities and man-
agement's response are presented. The major functional
areas of internal and external activities of an organization
are studied, and further consideration is given to the con-
tribution of behavioral and management sciences in treating
the organization as a complex interrelated system. The attri-
butes of good administration and administrative practices
are emphasized. The decision-making process and the
place of the computer in modern management are consid-
ered. The key position the professional manager holds in the
firm or any other organization and in the economy is stressed.
The importance of a professional attitude is introduced. The
organization is presented as the preeminent user of people,
and of knowledge through people, as a major managerial
and social responsibility.Pre/'egu/s/fe: Economics 101-102.

Mr. Williams

367 Business Finance

An introduction to the principles, practices, and institutions
involved in the acquisition and administration of funds by
the business firm, with emphasis upon the corporate firm.
Coverage includes asset management, sources and costs
of capital, the money and capital markets, business expan-
sion, failure, and reorganization. Emphasis is upon the ap-
plication of economic theory and basic decision theory to
the financial problems and practices of the firm. Prerequi-
site: Economics 101-102.

Mr Gemmill

373-374 Advanced Accounting

An examination of accounting problems related to certain
areas such as estates and trusts, non-profit organizations,
partnerships, bankruptcies, and with particular emphasis
on consolidations. Considerable attention is also directed
toward regulation of accounting practices as effected by
governmental agencies, such as the Securities and Ex-
change Commission, and professional bodies, such as the
Accounting Principles Board and the Financial Accounting
Standards Board. Prerequisite: Economics 253-254. Alter-
nate years, offered 1978-79.

Mr. Baird


Course Descriptions I Economics and Business Administration

378 Business Data Processing Systems and Management
The purpose of this course is to give the student an under-
standing of the technical and management facets of busi-
ness data processing. Topics to be covered include basic
concepts of systems analysis and design, systems for busi-
ness decision-making, the organizational aspects of data
processing, project justification, authorization and control,
performance evaluation, equipment selection considera-
tions, and contractual and negotiation alternatives. The
topics are presented from the viewpoint of those who will be
future users of data processing equipment and services,
especially those who may be in a management position
requiring an understanding of data processing. Prerequi-
sites: Economics 101-102, 153, 177 and Economics 241 or
Mathematics 107. Recommended: Economics 366.

Mr. Katzman

381 Small Business Management
This course provides practical tools in principles and pro-
cedures of small business management. Emphasis is
placed on the entrepreneur in starting and effectively
operating an organization within the unique environment
peculiarto small businesses. Case studies will be utilized to
evaluate the interrelationships between numerous business
functions of the entire firm. Prerequisite: Economics 101-
102, 153, 361, and 366.

Mr. Doherty

400 Senior Seminar
Open to senior majors with the consent of the Department.
Research papers on contemporary economic and business
problems are prepared and discussed. Seniors must take
this course to qualify for Departmental Honors.

Mr. Gemmill

402 Management Practicum
This course offers students the opportunity to apply the
concepts to which they have been exposed in earlier
courses by engaging in the practical application of busi-
ness theory Students will either assist local small business
firms in improving their operations or engage in directed
independent field research of a business problem. Prereq-
uisite: Economics 101-102, 153, 361, 366, and 381.

Mr. Doherty

Individualized Study
Well qualified students may pursue topics of an advanced
nature, through individual reading and research, under the
supervision of a member of the Department's faculty. A
student wishing to pursue independent study must present a
proposal at least one month before the end of the term
preceding the term in which the independent study is to be
undertaken. Prerequisite: Permission of the supervising
faculty member and the Department Chairman. Offered
during the fall and spring terms.


Course Descriptions I Education



Professor Rosenberger (Chairman)
Associate Professors J. T. Held and Packard
Assistant Professor J. Slaybaugh
Lecturers K. Ciolino, Deaner (part-time),

N. Slaybaugh (part-time)
Supervisor of Elementary Teachers Harvey

The purposes of the teacher education programs
are to give the student a thorough background in
educational philosophy and theoretical con-
cepts of instruction, and to provide an opportu-
nity for student teaching.

The Education Department works cooperatively
with all other departments in the preparation of
teachers in secondary education, elementary
education, music education, and health and
physical education. Students interested in pur-
suing one of these programs will need to study
carefully the teacher education programs on
pages 34 to 37.

201 Educational Psychology

The development of the individual and the development of
psychological principles of learning are extensively inves-
tigated. An introduction to evaluating and reporting pupil
progress, and the statistics necessary for analyzing test
data. Repeated in the spring term Psychology 101 recom-
mended as background.

Messrs. Packard and Slaybaugh

209 Social Foundations of Education — Secondary
A study of the professional aspects of teaching, the relation
of schools to society, the organization of state and local
school systems, the impact of the national programs on
education, including Supreme Court decisions. Study of
secondary curricular programs. Sophomore year course
Psychology 101 recommended as background.

Mr. Rosenberger

303 Educational Purposes, Methods, and Educational
Media: Secondary
The function of schools in a democracy. Emphasis is placed
on methods and techniques of the teaching — learning proc-
ess and classroom management in secondary schools. The
underlying principles and techniques involved in the use of
teaching materials and sensory aids. Includes a unit on
reading. Prerequisite: Education 201. Repeated in the
spring term.

Mr. J. T. Held

304 Techniques of Teaching and Curriculum of
Secondary Subject

The secondary subjects are: biology, chemistry, physics,
English, French, Spanish, German, Latin, mathematics,
health and physical education, and social studies. This
course is taught by a staff member of each department
having students in the Education Term. Included is a study
of the methods and materials applicable to the teaching of
each subject and the appropriate curricular organization.
Prerequisite: Consent of the major department. Repeated in
the fall term.

306 Educational Purposes, Methods, and Instructional
Media in Social Studies, Art, Music, Health and
Physical Education

The philosophy and approach to teaching social studies
and geography in the elementary school. The correlation of
art, music, health and physical education with other el-
ementary subjects. Study of art, music, and physical educa-
tion as background for assisting the special teacher. Use of
appropriate educational media. Prerequisite: Education

Mr. Packa r d and Special Instructors

309 Social Foundations of Education — Elementary

The study of educational theory and programs, professional
and legal aspects of teaching, the historical development of
the American education systems, and the relationship of the
modern school to society. Elementary teacher education
students enroll for this course during the Education Term.

Mr. Packard

328 Principles of Guidance
The principles and practices of counseling and guidance
The systematic study of the individual, the theories and
techniques in practice, guidance programs, and the place
of guidance in the total educational program. Prerequisite:
Education 201.

Mr. J. T Held

331 Foundations of Reading Instruction and the
Language Arts

An introduction to the theory and problems in reading in-
struction and language arts. Current trends relating to rec-
ognition of these problems and appropriate instructional

Online LibraryOrville J. (Orville James) VictorGettysburg College Catalog (Volume 1977/78-1981/82) → online text (page 49 of 108)