Orville J. (Orville James) Victor.

Gettysburg College Catalog (Volume 1977/78-1981/82) online

. (page 98 of 108)
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tive compositions of various styles and periods. Public per-
formance is required of those majoring in this area of con-
centration. Fee for one half-hour lesson per week per
term: $147 '/¬Ђ Course

Messrs. Matsinko and Belt

124 Class Piano

Emphasis on sight-reading, ensemble playing and harmoniz-
ing melodies with various types of accompaniment as well as
playing some of the standard piano literature Fee for class
lessons per term: $147.

Vt Course
Messrs. Matsinko and Belt

Course Descriptions I Music I Philosophy




125 Organ

Private instruction designed to include literature of various
periods, sight reading, hymn-playing, chant and anthem
accompaniment. Prerequisite: Satisfactory performance of all
major and minor scales (two octaves) and a Bach Inven-
tion. Fee for one forty-minute lesson per week per
term: $147.

V* Course
Messrs. Weikel and Belt

127 Band Instrument Instruction

Private instruction in woodwind, percussion and brass instru-
ments Repeated spring term. Fee for one half-hour lesson
per week per term: $147.

Ms Landgren and Messrs. Thurmond and Zellner

129 Stringed Instrument Instruction

Private instruction emphasizing both the fundamentals of
string playing and repertory. Repeated spring term. Fee for
one half-hour lesson per week per term: $147

% Course
Mr. Nunamaker and Mrs. Jarvinen

131 College Choir

An intensive study of the best of choral literature. In addition to
appearances in nearby cities, the Choir makes an annual
concert tour. Oratorios are presented in conjunction with the
Chapel Choir. Four rehearsals weekly.

No Credit
Mr. Getz

132 Chapel Choir

Performs standard musical literature with the purpose of
supporting and assisting the College community in the Sun-
day morning services. The Choir appears in nearby cities and
makes a short tour each spring. Three rehearsals weekly.

No Credit
Mr, Matsinko

133 Band

Membership in the Band dependent on the individual's abil-
ity and interest. The Band plays at athletic events and during
the spring term gives concerts on the campus and in nearby
cities. Four rehearsals weekly.

No Credit
Mr. Powers

135 Orchestra

The study and performance of orchestral music of all eras.
Membership is open to all students of qualifying ability. Two
rehearsals weekly.

No Credit
Mr Nunamaker

456 Senior Recital

Solo or duo presentation of representative literature of vari-
ous stylistic periods of the student's major applied area with
emphasis on historical performance practice.


Professor Coulter (Chairman)
Associate Professor Schubart
Assistant Professor Portmess


The Philosophy Department designs its courses
with the following goals in mind: to acquaint
students with the history of philosophy, to assist
students to understand and to analyze the
assumptions and theories which guide our efforts
to obtain knowledge of the world, and to encour-
age students to become aware of the social,
scientific, religious, ethical and aesthetic aspects
of human existence. Philosophy can help stu-
dents achieve perspective on the knowledge
acquired from their other college courses.

A major in philosophy may be chosen for its own
sake, or as preparation for graduate study in
philosophy or for professional study in fields such
as law or the ministry. A student may take courses
in philosophy to fulfill a distribution requirement or
to supplement a major in another department.
The Department is interested in assisting and
encouraging students to design Special Majors in
which philosophy is an integral part.


Philosophy 101, 113, and 211 have no pre-
requisites. Philosophy 101 is recommended as
preparation for 223 and any 300 or 400 level
course. Students who have not had 101 should
consult with the Instructor before registering for
223 or any 300 or 400 level course.

A philosophy major includes at least eight
courses in the Department, chosen in consulta-
tion with the student's advisor. Philosophy majors
are encouraged to obtain a broad background in
the liberal arts in addition to their major.


Any of the courses offered by the Department,
with the exception of 1 1 3, may be used to satisfy
the distribution requirement in History, Philos-
ophy and Religion.




Course Descriptions I Philosophy

101 Introduction to Philosophy

A study of selected philosophical works, such as Plato's
Republic, Descartes' Meditations and Sartre's Existentialism,
with the aim of developing the students' ability to read
philosophy and to reflect and comment critically upon philo-
sophical problems.

Ms. Portmess

113 Thinking Clearly

An informal logic course designed to help students develop
the practical ability to analyze and to evaluate arguments and
explanations. The course deals with clarifying language, with
the analysis of arguments, with informal fallacies, with causal
analyses and with inductive reasoning Does not meet a dis-
tribution requirement. Not recommended for majors or for
persons who have had Philosophy 21 1 .


211 Logic and Semantics

An introduction to formal logic and a study of the uses of lan-
guage, with particular reference to the nature of inference
from premises to conclusion; rules for deductive inference;
construction of formal proofs in sentential and quantifica-
tional logic; the nature of language; informal inferences and
fallacies; theory of definition.

Mr. Coulter

223 Ethics

The main types of theories of ethics. The course emphasizes,
first, the goals and obligations of human life and their rela-
tion to a general philosophical position; and second, the
relevance of ethical theory to contemporary individual and
social situations. Prerequisite: one course in philosophy or
permission of instructor.

Mr Schubart

321 Seminar in Twentieth Century Philosophy

A study of contemporary philosophies such as pragmatism,
logical positivism, analytical philosophy, phenomenology,
existentialism, and Marxism.

Mr. Schubart

332 Seminar in Ethics
An examination of such topics as: contemporary develop-
ments in ethical theory; the relation of ethics to economic,
political, and social practices and theories; the philosophy of
law and its relation to ethics; and the analysis of the funda-
mental concepts of ethics. The student will have the oppor-
tunity to choose a specific topic in ethics, or one of the pre-
ceding topics, for investigation.

Mr. Schubart

334 Seminar in Philosophy of Art

The course explores such topics as: the nature of art; the
functions of art, aesthetic experience, aesthetic judgment,
and relates aesthetics to other aspects of philosophy.

Mr, Schubart

337 Seminar in Philosophy of Religion

An analytical study of religious concepts and statements, with
an attempt to relate this study to contemporary constructive

Mr. Coulter

400 Senior Seminar

An advanced seminar for philosophy majors in which signifi-
cant problems are raised, and where the student has the
opportunity to write a thesis on one of the problems or on one
of the major contemporary philosophers.

Ms. Portmess

303 History of Philosophy: Classical Philosophy

A study of the philosophers and philosophies of ancient
Greece and Rome. Major emphasis will be on the Pre-Socra-
tics, Plato, Aristotle, and Hellenistic Neoplatonism.

Mr. Coulter

Individualized Study

With the consent of the Department, qualified students may
take a course of directed reading and conferences under the
supervision of a member of the staff Repeated spring term


304 History of Philosophy: Medieval and Early Modern

A study of philosophers and philosophies of Medieval and
Early Modern Europe as these reflect the impact of religion
and science on the traditional problems and assumptions of
philosophy. Major thinkers to be studied include Augustine,
Thomas Aquinas. Descartes, Leibniz, Spinoza, Locke,
Berkely, Hume, and Kant.

Mr. Coulter

320 Seminar in Nineteenth Century Philosophy

A study of the major continental thinkers of the period. The
philosophies of Kant and Hegel are studied as criticisms of
the Enlightenment and as idealistic constructions. The phi-
losophies of Kierkegaard, Marx, and Nietzsche are in-
cluded as criticisms of idealism and as significant new
constructive attempts.

Ms. Portmess

Course Descriptions I Physics





Professors T. Daniels, Haskins (Chairman),

T. J. Hendrickson, and Mara
Associate Professors Cowan, Marschall,

and W. J. Scott


Within wide limits, a physics major can be tailored
to meet the needs and desires of individual
students. A major in physics is appropriate for
those who enjoy the subject and who have no
particular career in mind. It is also suitable
preparation for careers ranging from government
and law to theoretical physics and molecular

Persons who become physics majors ought to be
curious about the ways of nature and have a
strong urge to satisfy this curiosity. Their success
depends upon their ability to devise and perform
meaningful experiments, their intuitive under-
standing of the way nature behaves, and their skill
in casting ideas into mathematical forms. No two
majors are endowed with precisely the same
division of these talents, but they must develop
some proficiency in each.

Courses in the Department emphasize those
theories and principles that give a broad, unifying
understanding of nature and the analytical rea-
soning needed for their use. Laboratory training
stresses the design of experiments, the tech-
niques of precise measurement, and the interpre-
tation of data.


The minimum physics major consists of eight
courses including Physics 111, 112, 211, 212,
31 1 , 312 and J 26. This minimum major is more
than adequate preparation for physics certifica-
tion for secondary school teaching and industrial
or government laboratory work. Anyone for whom
graduate study is a possibility should plan to take
twelve courses in the Department. Students are
not permitted to take more than twelve courses in
the Department without the permission of the
Department unless the thirteenth course is
Physics 462. Gettysburg physics graduates have
selected a wide range of fields for graduate study,
including: astronomy; astrophysics; biophysics;
business; geophysics; environmental, electrical,

nuclear, and ocean engineering; physics; and
physiological psychology.

All majors must complete mathematics courses
through Mathematics 21 2 or its equivalent. Those
planning to go to graduate school should also
complete the Applied Analysis course Mathema-
tics 363-364. Majors are expected to exhibit
increasing competence with computer facilities
as they progress through the courses in the
physics curriculum.

Qualified majors should consider the opportuni-
ties afforded by Physics 462. This course entails
the study of a problem in physics or astronomy
selected by a student in consultation with a staff
member. The problem may be of a theoretical or
experimental nature. A student electing this
course should obtain an adviser for the project by
the end of his or her junior year and expect to
begin work in the fall term of the senior year with
the completion of the work to be accomplished in
the spring term of the senior year.

Freshmen who are considering a major in physics
should enroll in Physics 111, 112 and Mathema-
tics 111-112, if possible. While it is desirable for
majors to take this freshman program, students
may accomplish a full major in physics even if
they take Physics 111, 112 in their sophomore


The laboratory science distribution requirement
may be satisfied by taking one course from
among Physics 1 01 , 1 03, or 1 1 1 and one course
from Physics J 1 , 1 02, 1 04, or 1 1 2.

The prerequisites listed below in the course
descriptions are meant only as guides. Any
course is open to students who have the
permission of instructor.


In addition to the usual classrooms, seminar
rooms, laboratories, and faculty offices, Masters
Hall contains the physics library, a machine shop,
and a planetarium. The Department has well
equipped nuclear physics, X-ray, optics, and
electronics laboratories, and it directs the obser-
vatory and the planetarium. Some of the larger
pieces of equipment are multichannel analyzers,
coincidence-anticoincidence circuitry, two X-ray
diffraction units, a Mossbauer analyzer, a neutron
howitzer, a 16" Cassegrain telescope with cam-


1911 Woman's League of Gettysburg College organized

eras, a UBV photometer, a 12" Varian electro-
magnet, and an astronomical spectrometer.
Computational resources include a large pro-
grammable calculator, microcomputers and mul-
tiple access to the College's Burroughs 6800.


The Department administers the Cooperative
Engineering Program with Pennsylvania State
University, Washington University in St. Louis,
and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Students
selecting this program will take Physics 111,112,
211, J 33, and 216 and will graduate from
Gettysburg with a major in Physics upon suc-
cessful completion of an engineering degree at
Pennsylvania State, Washington University in St.
Louis, or RPI. For more details on the Cooperative
Engineering Program, see page 39.

Further details about the physics and the co-
operative engineering program are described in
the Handbook for Students prepared by the
Physics Department. Majors and prospective
majors are encouraged to request a copy from
the Physics Department office.

101, 102 General Physics

An introduction to the basic concepts of classical and
modern physics with applications in a contemporary context.
The fields covered include mechanics, energy, heat, waves,
sound, electricity, magnetism, relativity, and atomic and
nuclear physics. These courses are designed for students
who are not majoring in the sciences. Prerequisite: Compe-
tence in high school algebra Three class and three labora-
tory hours.


J 1 Vibrations, Waves, and Music

An introduction to the physical principles employed in the
production of sound and music. The acoustical properties of
musical instruments wil be studied in depth. The laboratory
provides experience in electrical measurements, vibrations,
and the analysis, synthesis, and production of sound. Oppor-
tunities exist for individual projects such as the design and
construction of a simple musical instrument. The level of
mathematics required is elementary algebra. Some exper-
ience in music is expected. Physics 101 and Physics J1 will
complete the laboratory science distribution requirement.
Prerequisite: Physics 101 or consent of instructor. Class and
laboratory hours.

Messrs. Hendrickson and Scott

103, 104 Elementary Physics

A general coverage of the fields of classical and modern
physics with time devoted to areas of special interest in biol-
ogy; fluids, heat, radiation and numerous applications While
particularly useful for biology majors, the course will serve
any student as an introduction to a wide range of topics in
physics. Rudimentary calculus is taught and used. Prerequi-
site: facility in algebra and geometry. Three class hours and
three laboratory hours.

Messrs. Scott and Daniels

108 Introductory Astronomy

Fundamental observations of classical astronomy and the
recent discoveries of modern astrophysics Starting with the
solar system, the course surveys contemporary knowledge of
stellar systems and of the structure and behavior of the uni-
verse at large. Physical principles of gravitation, relativity,
atomic and nuclear structure, and electromagnetic radiation
are introduced where they apply to astronomical problems.
Frequent observational activities at the College Observatory
will be scheduled to supplement the lectures. Prerequisite:
High school algebra and trigonometry will be helpful. Three
class hours and occasional evening observing sessions.

Mr Marschall

109 Topics in Astronomy
Highlighting a single area of current interest in astronomy.
The development and present state of thinking in such fields
as the structure and origin of the solar system, stellar and
galactic evolution, extraterrestrial life, and cosmology may be
investigated. The specific area of concentration will be pub-
lished in the announcement of courses during the spring pre-
ceding the course May not be counted toward the minimum
requirement for a major in physics. Prerequisite: Completion
of the College science distribution requirement or the consent
of the instructor.

Mr Marschall

111 Mechanics

An introduction to classical mechanics: laws of motion and
the conservation laws of linear momentum, energy, and
angular momentum. The rudiments of calculus and vector
analysis are introduced and used throughout the course.
Laboratory work emphasizes the detection, measurement,
and interpretation of electrical signals and elementary circuit
analysis. Students already having credit for Physics 1 01 , 1 02
or 1 03, 1 04 may register for Physics 111 for credit only with
the permission of the Department. Prerequisite: Mathematics
111, which may be taken concurrently. Four class hours and
three laboratory hours.

Mr. Mara

112 Heat, Electricity, Magnetism, and Relativity
Heat and the first and second laws of thermodynamics,
electrostatic fields, currents, magnetic fields, electro-
magnetic induction, Maxwell's equations, light as a propagat-
ing electromagnetic disturbance, and the special theory of
relativity Laboratory work emphasizes the detection,
measurement, and interpretation of optical signals and
nuclear radiation. Prerequisite: Physics 111. Four class
hours and three laboratory hours

Mr. Mara

Course Descriptions I Physics



211 Vibrations, Waves, and Optics

Simple harmonic motion including damped and forced os-
cillations of mechanical and electrical systems. Coupled and
continuous systems are also treated. Properties of light and
sound, including reflection, polarization, interference, and
diffraction are covered as well as physical and geometrical
optics Prerequisite: Physics 1 1 2 Three class hours and one
afternoon laboratory.

Mr. Cowan

212 Atomic and Nuclear Physics I

Experimental foundations of atomic physics and their use in
developing the quantum theory. Some of the topics included
are: kinetic theory, blackbody radiation, photoelectric effect,
Rutherford's atom, x-rays, Compton effect, Bohr-Sommerfeld
theory, spectra, spin, magnetic moments, de Broglie wave-
length, uncertainty principle, radioactivity, particles. Prerequi-
site: Physics 211 Three class hours and one afternoon

Mr. Haskins

311 Atomic and Nuclear Physics II

A continuation of Physics 212. Course begins with an intro-
duction to quantum mechanics The harmonic oscillator,
potential wells and barriers, the hydrogen atom, and the
helium atom are treated at an intermediate level. Other topics
include the spectra of multielectron atoms, quantum statis-
tics, band theory of solids, nuclear models, nuclear and
fusion reactors and their impact on society, accelerators, and
beta decay. Prerequisites: Physics 2 1 2 and Mathematics 21 2.
Three class hours and three laboratory hours.

Mr Daniels

312 Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics

Temperature, heat, the first and second laws of thermody-
namics, introductory statistical physics; Maxwell-Boltzmann,
Fermi-Dirac, and Bose-Emstein statistics. Applications to
selected topics in solid state physics, low temperature phys-
ics, and other fields are included. Prerequisite: Physics 31 1 .
Three class hours.

Mr. Hendnckson

J 33 Engineering Mechanics: Statics

Equilibrium of coplanar and noncoplanar force systems;
analysis of structures; friction; centroids and moments of
inertia. Required for engineering students. Prerequisites:
Physics 1 1 2, Mathematics 21 1 .

Mr. Daniels

216 Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics

Motion of a particle; translation and rotation of rigid bodies;
work and energy; impulse and momentum. Required for
engineering students. Prerequisite: Physics J 33. Three class

Mr. Scott

301 Electronics

Characteristics of semiconductor junction devices. Circuits
using these devices include amplifiers, oscillators, opera-
tional amplifiers, switching circuits, and digital circuits.
Perequisite: Physics 112. Two class hours and six labora-
tory hours.

Mr. Daniels

319 Classical Mechanics

Advanced Newtonian mechanics for upperclass physics
majors. Topics include equations of motion, gravitational field,
non-inertial reference systems, conservation laws, plane-
tary motion, rigid body motion, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian
mechanics. Prerequisites: Physics 211 and Mathematics

Mr. Cowan

J 26 Advanced Physics Laboratory

A laboratory course with experiments drawn from various
areas of physics such as: optics, electromagnetism, atomic
physics, and nuclear physics with particular emphasis on
contemporary methods. Error analysis and experimental
techniques will be stressed. Normally taken by physics ma-
jors in January of their junior year.

Mr. Haskins

330 Electricity and Magnetism

Static electric and magnetic fields, electromagnetic induc-
tion. Maxwell's equations in space, fields in matter, time
dependent fields Prerequisites: Physics 1 12 and Mathemat-
ics 363. Three class hours.

Mr. Marschall


(P^\ Course Descriptions I Physics I Political Science


341 Quantum Mechanics
An introduction to the Schrodinger and Heisenberg formula-
tions ot quantum mechanics. Topics covered include po-
tential wells and barriers, the harmonic oscillator, the rigid
rotor, angular momentum, hydrogen atom fine and hyperfme
structure, time-independent perturbation theory, the helium
atom and many electron atoms. Prerequisite: Physics 31 1
and 319, Mathematics 363. Three class hours

Mr Mara

342 Relativity: Nuclear and Particle Physics
Special relativity: includes four vectors, tensor analysis, elec-
tromagnetic field. Nuclear and particle physics at a level re-
quiring quantum mechanics are covered including time de-
pendent perturbation theory, scattering, Breit-Wigner cross-
section, Mossbauer effect, and isotopic spin. Prerequisite:
Physics 341. Three class hours.

Mr. Haskins

452 Tutorials: Special Topics
Designed to cover physics or physics related topics not
otherwise available in the curriculum. Open to upperclass
physics majors who arrange with a staff member for supervi-
sion. Possible areas of study include advanced electronics,
medical physics, astrophysics, acoustics, optics. Prerequi-
site: approval by Department.


462 Independent Study in Physics and Astronomy

Experimental or theoretical investigation of a research level
problem selected by a student in consultation with a staff
member. Students should arrange with a staff member for
supervision by the end of the junior year. Open only to second
semester senior physics majors. Results of the investigation
are reported in a departmental colloquium. Prerequisite:
approval by Department.



Professor Boenau (Chairman)

Associate Professors Borock, Mott, Nyitray,

and D. Tannenbaum
Assistant Professors Chase and Entessar
Adjunct Professor Plischke


The Department aims at providing an under-
standing of the study of politics, emphasizing the
methods and approaches of political science and
the workings of political systems in various
domestic, foreign, and international settings.

The program provides balance between the
needs of specialists who intend to pursue
graduate or professional training and those who
do not. Courses offered in the Department help
prepare the student for careers in politics, federal,
state, and local government, public and private
interest groups, business, journalism, law, and


Beginning with the class of 1983, the require-
ments for a major in political science are as
follows (students in earlier classes are subject to
the previously existing requirements): Majors in
the Department are required to take a minimum of
10 courses in political science. Political Science
1 01 , 1 02, 1 03, and 1 04 are required of all majors,
and serve as prerequisites for corresponding
upper-level courses. These courses are intended
to introduce the student to the major sub-fields of

Online LibraryOrville J. (Orville James) VictorGettysburg College Catalog (Volume 1977/78-1981/82) → online text (page 98 of 108)