Orville J. (Orville James) Victor.

Gettysburg College Catalog (Volume 1987/88-1991/92) online

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application of economics, majors in economics
are required to demonstrate achievement in
Mathematics equivalent to one term of calculus.
This requirement can be satisfied by taking
Mathematics 105, Mathematics 111, or via
exemption by examination. The Department

strongly encourages students who have an
interest in majoring in Economics to complete
this mathematics requirement during the first
year because several 200-level courses have a
calculus prerequisite.

A student planning to pursue graduate study in
economics is encouraged to take Mathematics
105-106 or Mathematics 111-112 and
Mathematics 211-212, and Economics 351-352.

The computer has become an important tool in
economic analysis. Therefore, the Department
strongly recommends that its majors take a
course or courses dealing with the use of the
computer from among Computer Science 105 or
211, Management 247.

The Department offers a minor in Economics,
which a student can complete by taking
Economics 103-104, two courses from the
Department's 200-level offerings, and two
courses from the 300-level offerings.
Additionally, a student minoring in Economics
must demonstrate the same achievement in
mathematics as required of majors, and must
achieve a grade point average of 2.0 in courses
counted toward the minor.

Economics 103-104 are prerequisites for all
upper-level courses in the Department except for
Geography 310 and Geography 320. Under special
circumstances and upon student application, the
prerequisites for a course may be waived by the

The Departmental brochure, entitled HANDBOOK
FOR MAJORS, contains additional information
about the Department. Students interested in
studying economics are urged to obtain a copy
from the Departmental office.

Honors, Internships, Special Programs

The Department values intensive and
independent work by its majors, as well as
interaction with peers and faculty on topics of
interest to economists. To encourage and
recognize high quality work, the Department
offers Departmental Honors to students who (1)
satisfactorily complete Economics 400, including
the Honors Project, during the senior year, and
(2) earn an acceptable overall and Departmental
grade point average. Students also can
undertake Individualized Study.

Internships involving the application of
economics are available to qualified students.


Those persons desiring more information should
contact Dr. Railing. Gettysburg College also
recognizes the Washington Economic Policy
Semester at The American University, a program
that involves both classroom study and an
internship in Washington, D.C. Page 47 of this
catalogue contains more information about the
program; interested students should contact Dr.
Railing in the spring semester of their sophomore
year. Several foreign study programs are
especially interesting for economics students:
information on these is available from the

Distribution Requirements

A student may satisfy the College distribution
requirement in social sciences by successfully
completing Economics 103, 104, and may satisfy
the non-western culture requirement with
Economics 338.

103-104 Principles of Microeconomics-
Principles of Macroeconomics

Gives students a general understanding of
economic systems and economic analysis, with
emphasis on the operation of the U.S. economy.
Topics covered in 103 include the price system,
theory of consumer behavior, theory of
production, theory of the firm, income
distribution, welfare economics, and the micro
aspects of international trade. In the second
term, topics covered include national income,
accounting, employment, inflation, monetary and
fiscal policies, aggregate demand and supply
analysis, economic growth, and the monetary
aspect of international economics and
comparative economic systems.


241 Introductory Economic and Business Statistics

The nomenclature of descriptive statistics,
probabilities using the normal, binomial, Poisson
distributions, the Tchebycheff inequality,
Chi-square, sampling, estimation of parameters,
hypothesis testing, linear regression, and
correlation. Prerequisites: Economics 103-104,
and one of the following: Mathematics 105, 111,
or the equivalent. Please note that a student
may not receive credit for both this course
and Mathematics 107, Psychology 205, or
Sociology 303.

Messrs. Hill and Niiro

242 Intermediate Economic and Business Statistics

Advanced Statistical Theory applicable to
economics and business problems. Topics
included are non-linear regression and
correlation and the use of transformations;
multivariate techniques and analysis; Chi-square
applications; variance analysis; index numbers
and their use; and time series. Prerequisite:
Economics 241.

Mr. Hill

243 Intermediate Macroeconomic Theory

Further study of classical, neoclassical,
Keynesian and post-Keynesian economics
focusing on, along with national income
accounting, the various theories and policies
which deal with the generation and maintenance
of full employment and a stable price level. The
causes and cures of unemployment and inflation
are also analyzed. Offered both semesters.
Prerequisites: Economics 103-104 and
Mathematics 101 or its equivalent.

Messrs. Gondwe and Kallon

245 Intermediate Microeconomic Theory

Uses the methodological tools of economics to
examine consumer and producer behavior and
economic behavior under different input and
output market structures, and to analyze the
implications of such behavior for general
equilibrium and economic welfare. Prerequisites:
Economics 103-104, and one of the following:
Mathematics 105, 111, or the equivalent.

Ms. Fender and Mr. Griffith

301 Labor Economics

Theoretical and empirical study of the
functioning of labor markets with emphasis on
wage and employment determination. Topics
include impacts of legislation, unions, education,
and imperfect markets; time allocation,
economics of fertility, wage differences, and
discrimination; labor relations, collective
bargaining, and the Phillips curve. Prerequisite:
Economics 103-104. Recommended: Economics
245 and Economics 241.

Ms. Fletcher

302 Gender Issues in Economics

An application of microeconomic theory to
gender issues in our economy. The course will
explore demographic issues such as fertility and
divorce, consider the effect of the tax structure
and other public policies on gender differences in
labor force participation over time, and examine
alternative economic paradigms for explaining
gender discrimination in our society.
Prerequisites: Economics 103-104,



Recommended: Economics 245.

Ms. Fletcher

303 Money and Banking

An examination of the role of money, credit, and
financial institutions in the determination of
price and income levels. Coverage includes the
commercial banking system, the Federal Reserve
System, monetary theory, and the art of
monetary policy. Emphasis is placed upon
evaluation of current theory and practice in the
American economy. Prerequisite: Economics 103-
104. Recommended: Economics 243.

Mr. Gemmill

305 Public Finance

Concerned with the principles, techniques, and
effects of government obtaining and spending
funds and managing government debt. Nature,
growth, and amount of expenditures of all levels
of government in the United States are
considered, along with the numerous types of
taxes employed by the various levels of
government to finance their activities.
Government debt is also considered.
Prerequisite: Economics 103-104.

Mr. W. F. Railing

324 Comparative Economic Systems

Concerned with a comparative analysis of free
enterprise economies, centrally planned
economies, and mixed economies. Primary
attention is given to the economic aspects and
institutions of these economic systems, but the
political, philosophical, and historical aspects
are also considered. Prerequisite: Economics

Mr. W. F. Railing

325-335 Regional Economic History, Growth, and
Development Seminar

An intensive examination of one region, using
the framework of economic analysis and
political economy to consider economic history,
growth, and development within the appropriate
region. Although economic theory provides the
primary paradigm within which these regions are
studied, consideration also will be given to the
historical events that conditioned the economic
outcomes. Each course will review the pertinent
theory and focus on application of that theory to
specific historical events seeking to determine
the relevance of the theory to our understanding
of past and present economic conditions. Four
regions will be studied, one in each of the
courses: Africa, the Caribbean, Japan, and

Messrs. Gondwe, Griffith, Niiro; Ms. Fender

333 History of Economic Thought and Analysis

A study of the development of economic ideas
and policies in relation to major forms of social,
political, and economic problems. Emphasis is
placed on major contributions to economic
thought from Plato to Keynes. Prerequisite:
Economics 103-104. Recommended: Economics
243, 245.

Mr. Gondwe

336 International Economics

Covers comparative advantage, commercial
policy, economic integration, balance of
payments, exchange rates and international
monetary systems. Prerequisite: Economics

Messrs. Griffith and Kallon

337 Introduction to Political Economy

This course examines the origins and
development of capitalism and the contribution of
Third World peoples and minorities in the United
States to the process and continued growth of
capitalist development. It also examines current
economic, social, and political issues as they
relate to, and affect, Third World peoples.
Prerequisites: Economics 103-104.

Messrs. Gondwe and Griffith

338 Economic Development

An examination of the economic and non-
economic factors accounting for the economic
growth and development of less-developed areas
of the world. Various theories of economic and
social growth and development will be analyzed,
and major policy issues will be discussed.
Prerequisite: Economics 103-104. Satisfies
distribution requirement in non-western culture.

Mr. Gondwe

351 Application of Mathematics to Economics
and Business

An introduction to the application of calculus and
matrix algebra in economics and business.
Numerous illustrations of mathematically
formulated economic models are used to
integrate mathematical methods with economic
and business analysis. Prerequisites: Economics
243, 245, and Mathematics 105-106 or
Mathematics 111-112 and 211-212.

Mr. Niiro

352 Introduction to Econometrics

An introduction to the application of
mathematical economic theory and statistical
procedures to economic data. Coverage includes
the development of appropriate techniques for
measuring economic relationships specified by
economic models and testing of economic


theorems. Prerequisites: Economics 243, 245,
Mathematics 105-106 or Mathematics 111-112 and
211-212, and Economics 242, or Mathematics 358.

Mr. Niiro

400 Senior Seminar

Involves study of research methodology and
application of economic theory to contemporary
problems in economics. Students prepare and
discuss research papers on topics in economics.
Seniors must take this course to qualify for
Departmental Honors.

Ms. Fender

Individualized Study

Topics of an advanced nature pursued by well-
qualified students through individual reading and
research, under the supervision of a member of
the Department's faculty. A student wishing to
pursue independent study must present a
proposal at least one month before the end of the
semester preceding the semester in which the
independent study is to be undertaken.
Prerequisites: Permission of the supervising
faculty member and the Department Chairperson.
Offered both semesters.



310 Cultural. Social, and Physical Geography
(World Regional Geography)

A regional approach in the study of the various
elements that make up the atmosphere, the
hydrosphere, and the lithosphere and how the
forces of the interrelationships develop the
physical environment in first half of course and in
the second half a systematic regional study of the
superimposed cultural, social, and economic
developments and how they evolved in response
to the limitations imposed by the existence of
varied environments. This course is designed to
satisfy the geography requirements for students
whose objective is teaching in the public schools.

Mr. Hill

320 Geography of North America

Study of North America based on a regional
approach which is partly physiographic, climatic,
cultural, economic and political. The sequence of
study for each region emphasizes the climate, the
physical structure and landscape which is
followed by the superimposed economic and
political developments. Lastly, each region is
discussed as to the potential possibilities and
habitable earth. Opportunities for special
assignments will be given to students.
Prerequisites: History 131, 132 or Economics

Mr. Hill

Economics / Education

Individualized Study

(See description following Economics 400)


Associate Professors J. T. Held, Packard,

and Slaybaugh (Chairperson)
Adjunct Professor Curtis
Adjunct Instructors Burkholder and

S. Van Arsdale

The purposes of the teacher education programs
are to give the student a thorough background in
educational philosophy and theoretical concepts
of instruction, and to provide an opportunity for
student teaching.

The Education Department works cooperatively
with all other departments in the preparation of
teachers in secondary education, elementary
education, music education, and health and
physical education. Students interested in
pursuing one of these programs will need to
study carefully the teacher education programs
on pages 39 to 43.

201 Educational Psychology

Study of the development of psychological
principles of learning, pupil evaluation, and the
statistics necessary for analyzing test data.
Repeated in the spring semester. Psychology 101
recommended as background.


209 Social Foundations of Education

Study of the professional aspects of teaching,
the relation of schools to society, the
organization of state and local school systems,
the impact of national programs on education,
including Supreme Court decisions. Sophomore
course for all secondary and music education
students. Repeated in the spring semester.
Includes a unit on computer literacy.

Messrs. Curtis and Packard

303 Educational Purposes. Methods, and Educational
Media: Secondary

The function of schools in a democracy.
Emphasis is placed on methods and techniques
of the teaching-learning process and classroom
management in secondary schools. The
underlying principles and techniques involved in
the use of teaching materials and sensory aids
are studied. Includes a unit on reading.
Prerequisites: Education 201 and 209. Repeated in
the spring semester.

Mr. J. T. Held



304 Techniques of Teaching and Curriculum of
Secondary Subject

Secondary subjects including biology, chemistry,
physics, English, French, Spanish, German,
Latin, mathematics, health and physical
education, and social studies. This course is
taught by a staff member of each department
having students in the Education Semester.
Included is a study of the methods and materials
applicable to the teaching of each subject and
the appropriate curricular organization.
Prerequisite: Consent of the major department.
Repeated in the spring semester.

306 Educational Purposes, Methods, and Instructional
Media in Social Studies, Art, and Music

Applying principles of learning and human
development to teaching social studies in the
elementary school. Included is the correlation of
art and music with the teaching of the social
sciences. A field-based program in an
elementary classroom and weekly seminars.
Prerequisites: Education 201, 209, 331, 370, Math
180. Repeated in the spring semester. Elementary
education students enroll for this course during
the Education Semester.

Ms. Van Arsdale

331 Foundations of Reading Instruction and the
Language Arts

An introduction to the theory and problems in
developmental reading instruction and the
language arts. Current trends relating to
recognition of these problems and appropriate
aids are studied. Designed for elementary and
secondary teachers. Prerequisite: Education 201.
Fall semester only.

Mr. Slaybaugh

334 Corrective Reading

A study of the analysis and correction of reading
disabilities. Survey of tests and materials
including children's literature as an incentive to
greater interest in reading are included along
with a reading internship in the public schools
under the guidance of a reading teacher.
Diagnosis and remedial tutoring of school pupils
who are having reading problems is provided.
Elementary education students enroll for this
course during the Education semester.
Prerequisite: Education 331. Repeated in the
spring semester.

Mr. Slaybaugh

370 Elementary School Science: Purposes, Methods,
and Instructional Media

Scientific principles for mastery by the

elementary pupil in connection with appropriate
experimental procedures; lecture, demonstration
classes, and instructional media designed to give
the prospective teacher a thorough background
in elementary school science. Prerequisite:
Education 201. Spring semester only.

Mr. Slaybaugh

411 Internship in Teaching Composition

A teaching internship in a section of English 101.
Under the supervision of the instructor in that
section, the intern will attend classes, prepare
and teach selected classes, counsel students on
their written work, and give students' papers a
first reading and a preliminary evaluation. All
interns will meet regularly with members of the
English Department to discuss methods of
teaching composition and to analyze the
classroom experience. Required of all majors in
English planning to enroll in the Secondary
Education Program. Students should register for
Education 411 in the semester prior to their
Education semester.

English Department Staff

461 Individualized Study— Research

Offered both semesters.

471 Individualized Study— Internship

Offered both semesters.

475 Student Teaching— Elementary

Student observation, participation, and teaching
in the elementary grades under supervision of an
experienced teacher. Group and individual
conferences are held for discussion of principles
and problems. The student will spend the full day
for 12 weeks in the elementary classroom. This
course carries two course credits. Prerequisites:
Education 201, 209, 331, 370, and Mathematics
180. Repeated in the spring semester.

Ms. Van Arsdale and Staff

477 Student Teaching— Secondary

Student observation, participation, and teaching
on the secondary school level under supervision
of an experienced teacher. Group and individual
conferences are held for discussion of principles
and problems. Twelve weeks of full-time student
teaching. This course carries two course credits.
Prerequisites: Education 201, 209. Repeated in the
spring semester.

Mr. J. T. Held

Basic Concepts of Elementary Mathematics,
Mathematics 180, is listed under the
Mathematics Department.



Professors E. J. Baskerville (Chairperson),

Clarke, Fredrickson, J. Myers, Pickering,

Schmidt, Stewart, and Stitt
Associate Professor Stavropoulos
Assistant Professors M. Baskerville, Berg,

Garnett, Goldberg, Hanson, Lambert,

Srebrnik, and Winans
Adjunct Instructors Beedle, Dooley, Hartzell,

and Showalter


The courses offered by the Department are
designed to train students to express their
thoughts clearly and effectively through spoken
and written language and to understand,
interpret, and assimilate the thoughts and
experiences of the great writers of English and
American literature. English is excellent
preparation for careers in business, teaching,
law, publishing, journalism, and government
service and for graduate study leading to
advanced degrees in English, the ministry, and
library science.

The courses in Theatre and Drama offered by the
Department are designed to train students to
conceive of the theatrical event as a unity,
joining its literary and historical values with
means of expression in production,
demonstrating the relationship of acting,
directing, and design with the efforts of
playwrights both past and present. The study of
Theatre Arts prepares students for careers in the
theatre, television, radio, arts administration,
teaching, and business.

The Department offers a major in English and
American literature and a major in theatre arts.
The Department also offers a minor program in
each field.

The Department believes that a well-balanced
program for a major in English and American
literature should include (1) knowledge of the
literary history of England and America; (2)
training in the application of the techniques of
literary analysis and the different critical
approaches to literature; (3) knowledge of the
characteristics and development of the major
literary forms or genres; (4) study in depth of the
work of one author of significance; (5) some
knowledge of the history of the English language
and of English as a system.

The Department also believes that a well-


balanced program for a major in Theatre Arts
should include (1) knowledge of the history of
the theatre from primitive man to the present; (2)
training in and application of the various
performance areas of theatre; (3) knowledge of
the characteristics and development of the
literary genre known as drama; (4) the
development of a play from the initial script to
actual performance.

The Writing Center

The Writing Center, staffed by several English
Department faculty members and specially
trained Gettysburg College students, is a
valuable college resource. The Center's staff
assists students with their writing in the
following ways:

— Discusses an assignment in order to clarify
it or to plan a method of approach

— Helps in organizing a paper or other piece
of writing such as letters of application

— Suggests ways to make troublesome parts
of a paper more effective

— Shows ways to correct recurring
grammatical errors

The Writing Center is open six days a week.
There is no charge for this service.

Requirements and Recommendations

The Major in Literature The requirements for the
major in literature are twelve courses in English
and American language and literature in addition
to the first semester of Literary Foundations of
Western Culture (IDS 103). All majors in literature
are required to take English 151, 152, 153 and IDS
103. In addition, to obtain the desired distribution
of courses, majors must elect the specified
number of courses from each of the following

I. English Language (1 course): English 208,
209, 210

II. English Literary History (2 courses from
Group A; 2 courses from Group B):

A. English 331, 334, 337, 338
B.English 341, 342, 345, 346

III. American Literary History (1 course): English
318, 319, 320

IV. Major Authors (1 course): English 362, 365,
366, or any seminar devoted to a British or
American author considered by the
Department to be of major importance.

V. Electives (2 courses): English 218, 219, 225,


English 101, 110, 201, 203, 205, 206, 305, and
courses in speech may not be used to fulfill the
Department's major requirements. Courses in
theatre arts count only toward the Theatre Arts

The Minor in Literature The requirements for the
minor in literature are six courses. All minors
must take English 151, 152, and at least three
courses on the three-hundred level. Writing
courses, with the exception of English 101, may
be used to fulfill the Department's minor
requirements. No more than two courses may be
at the 100-level.

The Major in Theatre Arts In addition to English
151, 152, and IDS 103, majors with a concen-
tration in theatre arts must take Theatre Arts 105
and either 203 or 204. They must also elect the
specified number of courses from each of the
following categories:

I. Theatre Arts (3 courses): 1 course from each
of the following groups:

A. (Acting) 120, 220, 320

B. (Design) 115, 155, 255, 355
C. (Directing) 182, 282,382

II. Drama (3 courses): English 225, 328, 329,
365, 366

III. Electives (2 courses): Any of the theatre arts
and drama courses listed above and/or

Online LibraryOrville J. (Orville James) VictorGettysburg College Catalog (Volume 1987/88-1991/92) → online text (page 34 of 133)