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Orville J. (Orville James) Victor.

Gettysburg College Catalog (Volume 1987/88-1991/92) online

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behavior, with emphasis on the formation of a scientific
attitude toward behavior and appreciation of the
complexity of human personality. This objective is
approached by providing a representative array of
courses in psychology, including seminars, special
topics, independent reading, and independent
research, and by providing selected opportunities for
field work. Direct experience with the major methods,
instruments, and theoretical tools of the discipline is
emphasized throughout.

Requirements and Recommendations

Psychology 101 is a prerequisite for all other courses in
the Department. Requirements for a major include
Psychology 101, 205, 305, 341, two advanced
laboratory courses, one from each of the following two
groups: (a) 317, 318, 321, 325, and (b) 315, 316, 317,
336, and, three additional courses in psychology. Most
laboratory courses have a 200-level course as a
prerequisite. Majors must earn a grade of C or better
in both Psychology 205 and 305.

It is possible for those who have scored 60 or above on
the CLEP (College- Level Examination Program)
General Psychology examination to waive the
introductory course (Psychology 101) and to qualify for
advanced placement in the department. Write College
Entrance Examination Board, Box 1822, Princeton,
NJ 08540 for information about taking the CLEP
exam.

An Individualized Study. Experience in the use of the
computer and /or training in computer science is
recommended for all majors and is highly
recommended for those planning to go on to graduate
work. Students should consult with their advisers for
specific information on the prerequisites for work at the
graduate level in the specialized areas of psychology.

Departmental Honors in psychology are awarded to
graduating majors who, in the combined judgment of
the staff, have demonstrated academic excellence in
course work and who have completed an
Individualized Study. The Honors Thesis, open by
invitation of the Department Staff only, is not required
for Departmental Honors.



Overview

The Department emphasizes experimental psychology
in all of its course offerings. The objective of the



Distribution Requirements

Psychology 101 may be used to fulfill the distribution
requirement in social sciences.



132



PSYCHOLOGY



101 General Psychology

An introduction to the basic scientific logic, facts,
theories, and principles of psychology, including the
study of human motivation, learning, emotion,
perception, thought, intelligence, and personality.
Some attention is given to the applications of
psychology. Repeated spring semester. May be used
toward fulfilling the distribution requirement in the
social sciences.

Staff

205 Introduction to Measurement and Statistics

Descriptive and inferential statistics, including
nonparametric methods. Measurement theory,
including reliability and validity, is studied in the
laboratory as an application of statistics. Credit may
not be granted for this course and Mathematics 107 or
Economics 241. Offered each semester. Prerequisite:
High school algebra. Required of all majors. Three
class hours and three laboratory hours.

Ms.Fincher-Kiejer and Mr. Mudd

210 Behavioral Economics and Social
Engineering

Introduction to behavioral economics and the
implications of that field for social planning in a high
mass consumption society. The potential contribution
of behavioral systems analysis and social science
research to more effective social and economical
planning is considered. One three hour seminar
; arranged) and one group field survey are required in
the course of the semester. Alternate years.

Mr. Mudd

212 Industrial and Organizational Psychology

An introduction to industrial and organizational
psychology including theory and practice in the
following areas: personnel, organizational behavior and
development, training, and the place of work in the
psychological makeup of humans and human society.
Equal attention is given to theory and applications.
Several group projects are required in addition to the
normal examination pattern. Three class hours.
Offered in alternative years with Psychology 210.

Mr. Mudd

214 Social Psychology

Review o! current psychological theory and research in

social psychology. Topics include attitude and

behavior change, conformity, attraction, interpersonal

perception, and psychological aspects of social

interaction.

Ms. Riggs and Mr. Pittman



215 Human Cognition

Introduction to cognitive psychology вАФ topics covered
include perception, attention, memory, learning,
forgetting, language comprehension, reasoning, and
problem solving. Theories are presented concerning
cognitive processes and empirical evidence is
considered that might challenge or support these
theories.

Ms. Fincher-Kiejh

221 Basic Dynamics of Personality

An introduction to the major approaches to
personality, including psychodynamic, behavioral,
humanistic, and trait models. General issues and
problems which arise in the study of personality are
considered, and the importance of empirical evidence
is emphasized.

Mr. Bornstein

225 Developmental Psychology: Infancy and
Childhood

The psychological development of the individual from
conception to adolescence. Theory, methodology', and
research are presented in the areas of perception,
learning, cognition, language, social and moral
development.

Ms. Gobbel and Mr. Pittman

226 Developmental Psychology: Adolescence

Study of psychological development of the adolescent.
Topics include research methods, physiological
changes, cognitive development, vocational, social sex-
role, and value development. Psychology 225 is
recommended as a prerequisite but not required.

Ms. Gobbel

236 Introduction to Brain and Behavior

Introduction to the anatomical and physiological bases
of human behavior. Topics will include sensory
physiology, biorhythms and sleep, homeostasis, sex,
learning and memory, language, and mental illness.
Emphasis will be on developing an ability to
conceptualize psychological phenomena in biological
terms.

Mr. Loren-

305 Experimental Methods

An introduction to scientific method and experimental
design. Emphasis is placed on the logical development
of new ideas, kinds and sources of error in
experimentation, methods of control, design and
analysis of experiments, and scientific communication.
Prerequisites: Psychology 101 and Psychology 205.



PSYCHOLOGY



133



Three class hours and three laboratory hours.

Ms. Riggs and Messrs. D'Agostino and Pittman

315 Thinking and Cognition

In-depth examination of the cognitive processes
involved in language comprehension, problem solving,
reasoning, and decision making. Current research and
existing theories will be surveyed. Research will be
conducted in one of the areas of investigation.
Prerequisite: Psychology' 204, or permission of the
instructor, and Psychology 305. Three class hours and
three laboratory hours.

Ms. Fincher-hiefer

316 Perception

Introduction to sensory and perceptual processes in
vision. Lectures deal with sensory coding, feature
detection, figural synthesis, and semantic integration.
Laboratory work includes several minor studies and
one major two-person group research study on a
special topic of the students' own choice on some
aspect of human facial perception. Prerequisite:
Psychology 305. Three class horn's and the equivalent
of three laboratory hours.

Mr. Mudd

317 Memory and Social Cognition

An introduction to human memory and social
cognition. Attention will focus on factors known to
influence the storage and retrieval of social
information. Errors and biases in human judgment will
also be examined. Prerequisite: Psychology 305. Three
class hours and three laboratory hours.

Mr. D'Agostino

318 Experimental Social Psychology

Study of specific content areas in social psychology.
Current theories and empirical data will be used to
illustrate experimental designs and relevant
methodological considerations. Laboratory work
includes the design, execution, and analysis of two
original experiments. Prerequisites: Psychology 2 1 4 and
Psychology 305. Three class hours and the equivalent
of three laboratory hours.

Ms. Riggs and Mr. Pittman

321 Assessment of Personality and Intelligence

An introduction to the methodological and conceptual
issues involved in the construction and use of
personality tests. Following a survey of the literature on
test development and validation, selected personality
and intelligence tests will be studied in depth.
Empirical research on each test will be examined.



Each student will also design, conduct, analyze, and
write up an experiment evaluating some aspect of
personality test or measure. Prerequisites: Psychology
221 and 305. Three class hours and the equivalent of
three laboratory hours.

Mr. Bornstein

"&22 Clinical and Counseling Psychology:
Uses and Abuses

A survey of the various topics and issues of
contemporary clinical and counseling psychology.
Topics covered include psychotherapy, diagnosis and
psychological testing, ethical issues, and research in
clinical psychology. The course is not a practicum.
Prerequisite: Psychology 221 or 326. Offered spring
semester, alternate years. Offered 1 989-90.

Mr. Bornstein

325 Experimental Developmental Psychology

An intensive study of one or more areas of research in
cognitive, social, or language development. Emphasis
is placed on unique characteristics of research with
children and/ or adults across the life span. Laboratory
work includes the design, execution, and analysis of a
research project. Prerequisites: Psychology 225 and
Psychology 305. Three class hours and three
laboratory hours.

Ms. Gobbel

326 Abnormal Psychology

An introduction to psychopathology and abnormal
behavior, with particular attention to conceptual,
methodological, and ethical issues involved in the
study of abnormal psychology. Models of
psychopathology and psychodiagnosis are discussed
with an emphasis on the empirical evidence for
different models. Prerequisite: Psychology 221.

Mr. Bornstein

336 Neuropsychology

Advanced discussion of the topics included in
Psychology 236 as well as an in-depth treatment of
brain development and the neurological basis of
behavior. Prerequisites: Psychology 236 and 305 or
permission of the instructor. Three class hours and
three laboratory hours.

Mr. Lorenz

341 History of Experimental Psychology

A review of the development of experimental
psychology to the present. Emphasis is on the role of
the reference, or defining, experiment in setting the
course of major programs of research in psychology



134



PSYCHOLOGY / RELIGION



over the past century. Two demonstration experiments
are required.

Mr. Mudd

400 Seminar

An opportunity to work on a selected topic in a small
group under the guidance of a member of the stall
Not offered every semester. The topic for a given
semester is announced well in advance. Enrollment by
permission of the instructor. May be repeated.

Staff

Individualized Reading

Opportunity to do intensive and critical reading and
to write a term paper on a topic of special interest.
Student will be expected to become thoroughly
familiar with reference books, microfilms, and scientific
journals available for library research in the field of
psychology. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor.
Mav be repeated.

Staff

Individualized Empirical Research

Design and execution of an empirical study involving
the collection and analysis of data in relation to some
psychological problem under the supervision of a staff
member. Students are required to present an
acceptable research proposal no later than four weeks
following the beginning of the semester or to withdraw
from the course. Research culminates in a paper.
Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. May be
repeated.

Staff

Honors Thesis

Designed to meet the needs of the clearly superior
student. During the senior year each participant will
engage in an original program of research under the
direction of a thesis committee. In addition to
completing a formal thesis, each student will present
and discuss his or her research before the entire staff.
Successful completion of the program entitles the
student to receive credit for two courses which can be
applied towards a Psychology major. Prerequisite: By
invitation of the Department only.

Staff

Religion

Professors Hammann and Moore {Chairperson)
Associate Professor Trone
Assistant Professors McTighe, C. Myers
and Gentes



Overview

Essential to an understanding of the past and the
present Ls a study of the varied religious experiences,
beliefs, and institutions of humankind. The
Department offers courses in the areas of biblical
studies, history of religions, and religious thought, all of
which investigate the complex phenomenon of religion.

Requirements and Recommendations

A major consists of 10 courses, 8 within the
Department and 2 outside of it. Acceptable courses
outside the Department include:

Greek 204 New Testament Greek

Latin 306 St. Augustine

IDS 206 Byzantine Civilization

21 1 Perspectives on Death and Dying

227 Civilization of India

237 Literature of India

Hist. 31 1. 312 Medieval Europe

313 Renaissance and Reformation

Music 108 Church Music of J.S. Bach

Phil. 203 Classical Greek and Roman Philosophy

Soc. 205 Sociology of Religion

With the permission of the Department of Religion, a
student may substitute for the above list one or even
two courses from other departments. Of the 8 courses
taken within the Department of Religion, at least 3
must be at the 300-level; and one must be Religion 460
or 470; and no more than one 1 00-level may be
included. The Department encourages qualified
students to consider internships and/or overseas study,
including the junior year abroad.

The Department's rationale behind course numbering
is as follows:

100-level courses are essentially topical and thematic.

200-level courses are surveys which usually take a
historical approach. The 200-level courses are
especially appropriate for an introduction to the major.
Neither 100- or 200-level courses have a prerequisite.

300-level courses are more narrowly focused or
specialized, often examining in greater detail some
issue or area treated more generally in a previous
course.



RELIGION



135



Since some upper-level courses are not offered every
year, students should consult with individual
instructors when planning their programs. Those
planning to attend seminary or a graduate school in
religion should consider either a major or a minor in
the Department.

A minor consists of 6 courses, one of which may be an
approved course outside the Department but not in
the student's major. Nor may there be more than two
100-level courses.

Distribution Requirements

Any one of the 100- or 200-level courses will fulfill the
one-course distribution requirement in religion, the
difference between 100- and 200-level courses being a
matter of emphasis rather than degree of difficulty or
advanced character. The following courses meet the
distribution requirement in Non- Western culture: 108
and 242.

100- and 200-Level

105 The Bible and Modern Moral Issues

An investigation of the relevance of the Bible for life in
the twentieth century. Some issues studied from
biblical perspective include sex roles and sexual
relations, economic inequities and legal injustices.
Among topics to be covered are marriage and divorce,
homosexuality, women's rights, poverty, war and
peace. Three class hours. No prerequisites. Open to
freshmen and sophomores only. Offered every year.

Mr. C. Myers

108 Wisdom Literature

A comparative study of Job, Psalms, Proverbs,
Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Songs with the wisdom
literature of the Sumerians, Egyptians, Babylonians,
and other contemporaries and predecessors of the
Israelites. Fulfills the distribution requirement in Non-
Western culture.

Mr. Moore

113 Women in the Ancient World

An investigation of the role/s of woman as reflected in
the myths, legends, epics, law codes, customs, and
historical records of the Sumerians, Babylonians,
Egyptians, Hebrews, Greeks, and Romans. The
relevance of some of this for contemporary roles and
problems is also examined. May be counted in the
eight-course.

Mr. Moore



117 Topics in Biblical Studies

An intensive study of a religious topic, problem, writer,
or theme in the field of Biblical Studies. Offered at the
discretion of the Department.

Staff

127 Topics in History of Religions

An intensive study of a religious topic, problem, writer,
or theme in the field of History of Religions. Offered at
the discretion of the Department.

Staff

135 Religion in Fiction

An examination of the fictional representation of
religious stories. The works of Lewis, Malamud, Olson,
Kazantzakis, MacLeish, Lagerkvist, and others will be
read.

Mr. Hammann

137 Topics in Religious Thought

An intensive study of a religious topic, problem, writer,
or theme in the field of Religious Thought. Offered at
the discretion of the Department.

Staff

138 Christian Humanism

A review of Christian ideas about human dignity,
potential, and responsibilities by examining Christian
classics from the Bible to the present in order to define
the uniqueness of Christian humanism.

Mr. Trone

139 Catholics, Protestants, and Jews

A study of mainline religious groups in the U.S. The
course will consider the particular history and
distinctive character of the Roman Catholic Church,
Conservative Judaism, and other groups such as the
Baptists, Mennonites, and TV evangelists. Insofar as
possible, the religious bodies studied will be
represented by participants in the life and governance
of the group.

Mr. Hammann and Mr. McTighe

140 Religion and Politics in the Twentieth

Century U.S.

A survey of the relationship between religion and
public life since 1900. Emphasis will be on the
constitutional framework which guides the church-
state debate, and on efforts to use religion to influence
political policies and social values. Supreme Court
decisions, Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Civil
Rights Movement, the Catholic Worker Movement,
and the Moral Majority will be included.

Mr. McTighe



136



RELIGION



151 Images and Lives of Women in Hinduism

Reflects on and discusses the characterization and
depiction oi the female principle and women in
Hinduism using iconographic, mythological, literary
and social scientific evidence. We will look at the
cultural and individual definitions of the goddess as she
appears in literature and ritual and compare and
contrast these images with our own cultural
understandings of the female. How do iconographic
and mythological images of the goddess and epic
heroines relate to the lives of individual women in
Hinduism? Are there culturally permissible roles for
Hindu women? What kinds of lives and goals do
Hindu women lead? How do presuppositions about
gender influence sense of self, options, burdens, value,
belonging and wholeness? What is the role of women
in Hinduism? Fulfills distribution requirement in non-
western culture.

Ms. Gentes

204 History, Literature, and Religion of the
Old Testament

A study of the history, literature, and religion of the
Hebrews from the age of Abraham to about 500 B.C.
The history and culture of Israel are related to those of
surrounding nations, with special emphasis on the
relevancy of archeological data.

Mr. Moore

205 History, Literature, and Religion of the
New Testament

An introduction to the writings of the New Testament
as they originated in their Greco-Roman milieu.
Emphasis is on the distinctive purposes and main
content of each writing. The use of source, form, and
redaction criticism as tools for the academic study of
the New Testament is demonstrated.

Mr. C. Myers

220 Church History: To the Eighth Century

A historical study of all groups who claimed to be
Christian from Pentecost to the eighth century.
Theologies, liturgies, councils, heresies, and the
outstanding participants are examined with the aid of
primary documents.

Mr. Trone

221 History of the Medieval Church

A historical study that continues Religion 121 up to
the fifteenth century. The Latin, Orthodox, and the
heretical traditions and institutions will be included.
Religion 121 is not a prerequisite for this course.

Mr. Trone



222 Church History: Fifteenth to Twentieth
Century

A historical overview of the development of Christian
beliefs and practices from the fifteenth century to the
present. This course will examine the variety of ways
in which individual believers, congregations, and
ecclesiastical authorities have articulated what it means
to be a Christian during different historical periods and
in different social contexts from pre-Reformation
Germany to modern-day Latin America.

Mr. McTighe

223 Religions in U.S.

An investigation of the religious history of the
American people from the seventeenth century to the
present. This course will focus upon the varieties of
American religious experience. It will explore the
Protestant, Roman Catholic, and Jewish traditions
along with indigenous movements such as Mormonism
and Christian Science.

Mr. McTighe

224 The Religions of Black Americans

An examination of the religious traditions of black
Americans from slave religion to the present. The
course will concentrate on the religious beliefs of black
Americans and the ways those beliefs have been used
to develop strategies to achieve freedom and justice.
The general approach of the course will be historical.
Among the subjects to be covered will be the influence
of African religion, black religious nationalism,
pentecostalism, spirituals and gospel music, and the
civil rights movement. To be offered in alternate years.

Mr. McTighe

236 Religions from the Center to the Fringe

A historical and critical study of recent unconventional
religious movements primarily in the West.
Movements such as Baha'i, Jehovah's Witnesses,
Latter-day Saints, Unification Church, ISKCON,
Scientology, Ahmadi Islam, and others will be
considered. The study will aim at understanding
religious characteristics as well as social effects of these
movements.

Air. Hammann

242 The Religions of East Asia and West Asia

Primarily an examination of the varieties of historical
and contemporary Buddhism and Islam. The class will
also study some other religious traditions from east or
west Asia that can be contrasted with Buddhism and
Islam. Insofar as possible, original sources in translation



RELIGION



137



will be used. Fulfills the distribution requirement in
Non- Western culture.

Ms. Gentes

245 Chinese and Japanese Religions

A general introduction to the major religious traditions
of China and Japan. We will explore the historical and
social contexts of Confucianism, Taoism, Chinese and
Japanese Buddhism, and Shinto, looking at ideologies,
major figures, rituals and festivals, and the place of
traditional religious beliefs and practices in East Asia
today. We will discuss various ways "religion" is
characterized and the kinds of questions asked and
evidence available for these traditions. Fulfills the
distribution requirement in Non-Western culture.

Ms. Gentes

301 The Prophets of the Old Testament

A historical and sociological study of the life and times
of Israel's prophets as drawn from the Old Testament
and extra-Biblical sources, with special emphasis given
to both the importance of prophetic interpretations for
their own day and to their lasting effect upon Judeo-
Christian thought. Prerequisite: Religion 204 or 205 or
permission of instructor.

Mr. Moore

311 Jesus in the First Three Gospels

An examination of the Jesus tradition as interpreted in
the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke using the
techniques of source, form, redaction, and literary
criticism. Special attention is given to the distinctive
perspective of each Gospel. Prerequisite: Religion 205 or
permission of instructor.

Mr. C. Myers

312 The Gospel of John

An exploration of the thought and content of the
Fourth Gospel. An effort is made to determine the
background, purposes for writing, and community
addressed by John's Gospel. The question of its
relationship to the Synoptic Gospels and to the Epistles
of John is also included. Prerequisite: Religion 205 or
permission of instructor.

Mr. C. Myers

314 The Apostle Paul

A study of the life, letters, and legacy of this early
Christian through a careful consideration of primary



Online LibraryOrville J. (Orville James) VictorGettysburg College Catalog (Volume 1987/88-1991/92) → online text (page 68 of 133)