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William Johnson lost no time in repeating his former recommenda-
tion, but not until 1767 did Shuckburgh receive the place. This
appointment explains why not Dr. Richard Shuckburgh, but a
Thomas White, appears as surgeon in the 17th regiment from May
9, 1768, on.

Shuckburgh was not to enjoy his new office for many years. On
December 26, 1772, Sir William Johnson wrote of him to the Earl
of Dartmouth as "aged and of late very infirm," and on August
26, 1773, the New York Gazetter printed this obituary notice:

Died, at Schenectady, last Monday, Dr. Richard Shuckburgh, a gentleman of
very genteel family, and of infinite jest and humour.

Sir William Johnson was greatly shocked by this news, and from
Johnson Hall, September 30, 1773, wrote to Mrs. Shuckburgh to
assure her of his concern at her loss and of his great friendship for
her husband. That he should, in the same letter, have called her

152 Yankee Doodle.

attention to the fact that her husband had borrowed $100 from him
shortly before his death was at least not tactful, and the fact is
mentioned here merely to show that Shuckburgh, though quite a
property holder in the colony, was frequently in financial trouble.
However, he had at least the satisfaction of seeing his daughter well
married to a British officer.

The obituary notice mentions Shuckburgh's "infinite jest and
humour." His correspondence with Sir William Johnson would not
permit this inference. It is of a serious turn and mainly expressive
of his disappointment at not having received the secretaryship of
Indian affairs. Yet one or two letters contain a few humorous
remarks, and that Shuckburgh was conscious of his humorous talents
appears from a letter to Sir William Johnson under date of April 18,

I am apt to say somewhat like Scarron, when he was dying, that I may have
made more People laugh in my lifetime in this World of America than will cry at
my departure out of it ...

When Dr. Richard Shuckburgh was born I am unable to tell, but
it is fairly safe to conjecture that he was born in England about 1705.
That Shuckburgh is a well-known Warwickshire name would not be
conclusive, since there exist also Shuckburghs from Limerick,
Ireland, but Sir William Johnson, in 1752, made some complimentary
remarks to "Mr. Shuckburgh, stationer, in London," about his
brother, the doctor. The latter, in one of his letters, speaks about
his friends in England, and, indeed, in 1767 spends a few months in
London. In view of this circumstantial evidence, O'Callaghan'a
statement in his New York Colonial Documents (vol. 8, p. 244,
footnote) that Shuckburgh was of German origin may safely be said
to be incorrect.

Farmer and Moore reprinted their article on the origin of Yankee
Doodle from " an old file of the Albany Statesman, edited by N. H.
Carter, Esq." Such a paper never existed. The facts are these:
The "Albany Register" ran from 1788 to 1819, or the first months
of 1820. In 1819, Nathaniel Hazeltine Carter had become the editor,
and he became the sole proprietor of the Albany Register early in
1820. He changed its name into the New York Statesman for
reasons given in the first issue, May 16, 1820. Since the New York
Statesman was practically a continuation of the Albany Register
some people, exactly as happens to-day in libraries in similar cases,
would carelessly speak of the Albany Statesman, meaning either the
Albany Register or the New York Statesman (printed at Albany).
Farmer and Moore took their article from an old file of the "Albany
Statesman, ' ' and the word old would suggest the Albany Register rather
than the New York Statesman. The same account, as Mr. Matthews

Yankee Doodle. 153

discovered, appeared in H.Niles's" Principles and Acts of the Revolu-
tion in America" (1822, p. 372), and there, too, the article was
attributed to the "Albany Statesman." This would prove nothing,
since the incorrect term "Albany Statesman" might have been
the current one for the then defunct Albany Register, but in Niles's
Register, November 11, 1826, the same story is actually attributed to
the New York Statesman. This would suggest the inference that
the story was printed at Albany in the New York Statesman between
1820 and 1822, but as a matter of fact the copy at the Library of
Congress proves that the paper was not published between May,
1820, and end of November, 1821, and by 1822 the offices of the
New York Statesman had been removed to New York City. There-
fore, we have every reason to prefer the older Albany Register as
source of the story. So did Mary L. D. Ferris in her article
on "Our National Songs," New England Magazine, 1890 (vol 2,
p. 483), but her statement that N. H. Carter himself wrote the
article in 1797 for the "Albany Statesman" is woefully absurd, since
Carter (1787-1830!) was then only 10 years of age. Furthermore,
Mr. Frank L. Tolman, the reference librarian of the New York State
Library, had the Albany Register for 1797 examined and reexamined
for me without finding any article on the origin of Yankee Doodle.
Finally, internal evidence absolutely forbids to date the article in
question so early, because the author of the article distinctly writes
of a "lapse of sixty years" since 1755, which would fix the date of
publication of the article about 1815, and incidentally its source as
the Albany Register. At any rate, two generations had passed
before the tradition that Doctor Shuckburgh "composed the tune"
of "Yankee Doodle" found its way into print. If such a tradition
is to be accepted as history, its details must be above suspicion.
The practical joke of composing a tune and then recommending it
gravely as one of the most celebrated martial airs is at least plausible,
since even great composers for instance, Hector Berlioz are known
to have played such jokes on the unsuspecting. It is not plausible,
however, that Shuckburgh would have blunted the point of his joke
by calling the tune "Yankee Doodle." This name it can only have
received after the novelty of the subterfuge had worn off, and the
puzzle is, why just "Yankee Doodle?" Such impossibilities in the
story, as General Amhert's presence at Albany in 1755 instead of 1758,
may be here disregarded as pardonable historical inaccuracies, but the
sine gua non is the presence of Dr. Richard Shuckburgh at Albany,
N. Y., in the summer of 1755 on the Van Rensselaer estate. Now, it
is a matter of history that in that year Doctor Shuckburgh was surgeon
in the "Four Independent Companies of Foot" at New York, and it
is also a matter of easily verified history (see f. i., Sargent's "History

154 Yankee Doodle.

of an expedition against Fort Duquesne," Philadelphia, 1855) that at
least two of these companies were ordered by Governor Dinwiddie in
1754 from New York to garrison the fort at Wills Creek, Va., where
they still were in 1755, and exactly these troops George Washington
had been so anxiously expecting. When the preparations for General
Braddock's ill-fated expedition against Fort Duquesne had been com-
pleted, these companies, and more specifically Capt. Horatio Gates's
company, to which Shuckburgh was attached as surgeon, participated
in the campaign, and after Braddock's famous defeat, July 9, 1755,
did not until well into October, 1755, reach the vicinity of Albany on
their retreat. Now, it is of course possible that Shuckburgh was
detailed to Albany and that only Alexander Colhoun, the other sur-
geon of the independents, was in the wilderness of Virginia in 1755,
hundreds of miles away from Albany, but this possibility is far-
fetched, and the burden of proof is on him who asserts Doctor Shuck-
burgh to have been at Albany in the summer of 1755. It may be well
to add here that the only positive reference to Shuckburgh's where-
abouts in 1755 is contained in one of his letters written from New
York on November 27, 1755, to Sir William Johnson about the critical
condition of Baron Dieskau, who had been taken prisoner by Johnson
at the battle of Lake George.

Doctor Shuckburgh's case as composer of "Yankee Doodle" at
Albany, N. Y., in the summer of 1755 is further weakened by the
tradition in the very family on whose estate he is reported to have
exercised his musical imagination. A granddaughter of Gen. Robert
Van Rensselaer wrote to Mr. Albert Matthews (see Elson's National
Music of America, p. 140):

The etory of "Yankee Doodle" is an authentic tradition in my family. My
grandfather, Brig. Gen. Robert Van Rensselaer, born in the Green Bush Manor
House, was a boy of seventeen at the time when Doctor Shackbergh, the writer oj
the verses, and General Abercrombie were guests of his father, Col. Johannes Van
Rensselaer, in June 1758.

We have a picture of the old well, with the high stone curb and well-sweep,
which has always been associated with the lines written while the British surgeon
sat upon the curb . . .

The contradiction between this tradition, which leaves us in the
dark as to which verses are meant, and the account in Farmer &
Moore is striking, and the confusion increases by a quotation of
what a J. F. said in a note on Mrs. Volkert P. Douw in the Magazine
of American History, 1884, v. 11, p. 176:

... It was on the farm of the Douw family that the English army, and the six-
teen Colonial regiments, were encamped in 1755, under General Abercrombie,
previous to the attack on Fort Ticonderoga in the French and Indian war. And
it was at this historical spot where "Yankee Doodle" was composed by Dr.
Shackleferd, and sung in derision of the four Connecticut regiments, under the
command of Col. Thomas Fitch, of Connecticut . . .

Yankee Doodle. 155

This belated tradition has been quoted merely as a matter of rec-
ord. It is clumsily incorrect, because General Abercrombie's ill-
advised attack on Fort Ticonderoga did not take place until 1758,
because the general did not set foot on American soil until 1756,
etc., etc. On the other hand, the Van Rensselaer tradition deserves
serious attention, as General Abercrombie actually was at and near
Albany in 1758 supervising the preparations for the attack on Fort
Ticonderoga, as Doctor Shuckburgh had no known reason for being
hundreds of miles away from Albany, and as it is much more plausible
that a witty army surgeon from New York should have written
humorous "Yankee Doodle" verses to an existing familiar and there-
fore effective tune, than to have composed such a tune himself.

Should the music of the old English tune "Doodle, doodle, doo"
be discovered and found to be identical with our "Yankee Doodle,"
we might conjecture that the old tune, like so many other old English
tunes, was well known in the colonies, and we might then feel inclined
not to doubt the Van Rensselaer tradition that Dr. Richard Shuck-
burgh, in June, 1758, used this tune as an understructure for a humor-
ous ballad on the Yankees. But the main problem would still remain
unsolved, What verses did he write? Certainly not the verses,
"Father and I went down to camp," certainly not the "Yankee
Doodle came to town" verses with "Macaroni," "Madam Hancock,"
"John Hancock," certainly not any verses that allude to General
Amherst's victory at Cape Breton on July 26, 1758, certainly not the
"Doctor Warren" verse, and most assuredly not any verse full of
insulting ill-humored satire against Americans or even New England-
ers, since he would have a difficult task indeed who attempted to
falsify history by asserting that about 1758 ill feeling beyond the
proverbial, but harmless jealousy between regulars and militia,
existed among the British and American troops fighting a common
foe. These considerations narrow the possibilities of the Shuck-
burgh's authorship down either to verses unknown to us or to such
"neutral" ones as

Brother Ephraim sold his cow

And bought him a Commission
And then he went to Canada

To fight for the Nation.
But when Ephraim he came home

He prov'd an arrant coward,
He wou'dn't fight the Frenchmen there,

For fear of being devour'd.

But these belong to "Yankee Doodle, or (as now christened by the
Saints of New England) the Lexington March," and were not pub-
lished until anywhere from 1777 to 1799, and surely will be admitted
to bear the earmarks of an origin later, at any rate, than June, 1758,

156 Yankee Doodle.

and probably after 1770 rather than before. Thus, to sum up, Dr.
Richard Shuckburgh's connection with "Yankee Doodle" becomes
doubtful again, and indeed the origin of "Yankee Doodle" remains
as mysterious as ever, unless it be deemed a positive result to have
eliminated definitely almost every theory thus far advanced and thus
by the process of elimination to have paved the way for an eventual
solution of the puzzle.



BANKS, Lours ALBERT: Immortal songs of camp and field; the story of their inspira-
tion, together with striking anecdotes connected with their history . . . Cleve-
land, The Burrows bros. co., 1899 [1898]. 298 p. illus. 8.

BRINTON, HOWARD FUTHEY: Patriotic songs of the American people. New Haven,
The Tuttle, Morehouse & Taylor co., 1900. Ill p. 12.

BROWN, JAMES DUFF: Characteristic songs and dances of all nations. London,
Beyley & Ferguson, c 1901. 276 p. 4.

BUTTERWORTH, HszEKiAH: The great composers. Rev. and enl. Boston, Lothrop
publishing company, 1894. 5 p. 1., 195 p. incl. plates. 18| cm. pp. 124-160.

9, p. 9.

DANIELL, CARL A.: National airs and who wrote them. Current literature, 1896,
vol. 20, pp. 453-454.

ELSON, Louis CHARLES: Folk songs of many nations, collected and ed., with preface
and annotations. Cincinnati, Chicago [etc.] The J. Church company [1905],
1 p. 1., 171 p. 28 cm.

ELSON, Louis CHARLES: The national music of America and its sources. Boston,
L. C. Page and company, 1900 [1899]. vi, v-viii, 9-326 p. 4 port. (incl. front.).
17 cm. (See also his Hist, of Am. Music, 1904, pp. 140-164.)

FERRIS, MARY L. D.: Our national songs [illus. fac-similes, especially of letter by
Rev. S. F. Smith, dated 1889 and narrating origin of "America"]. New England
magazine, 1890. new ser. vol. 2, pp. 483-504.

FITZ-GERALD, S. J. AoAiR: Stories of famous songs. London, 1898.

JOHNSON, HELEN (KENDRICK) "Mrs. Rossiter Johnson:" Our familiar songs and those
who made them . More than three hundred standard songs of the English-speaking
race, arranged with piano accompaniment, and preceded by sketches of the writers
and histories of the songs. New York, H. Holt and co. 1881. xiii, 660 p. 4.

JOHNSON, HELEN (KENDRICK) "Mrs. Rossiter Johnson:" Our familiar songs and those
who made them; three hundred standard songs of the English speaking race,
arranged with piano accompaniment, and preceded by sketches of the writers and
histories of the songs. New York, H. Holt and company, 1889. xiii, 660 p.
25^ cm.

made them . . . New York, Bryan, Taylor &co. 1895. 2 v. 4. [The American
national songs here treated are contained in the first volume.]

KOBBE, GUSTAV.: Famous American songs. New York, T. Y. Crowell & co. [1906].
xvii, [1], 168, [1] p. incl. front, plates, ports., facsims. 20 cm.

MCCARTY, WILLIAM: Songs, odes, and other poems on national subjects. Philadel-
phia, 1842. 3v.


158 Literature Used for this Report.

MBAD, LEON: The songs of freedom [includes M. Keller's "The American hymn"
with music]. Chautauquan, 1900, vol. 31, p. p 574-684.

MOORE, FRANK: Songs and ballads of the American Revolution. New York. D.
Appleton & co., 1856.

NASON, ELIAS: A monogram on our national song. Albany, J. Munsell, 1869. 69 p. 8.

NATIONAL MELODIES OF AMERICA: The poetry by George P. Morris, eeq., adapted
and arranged byChas. . Horn. Part I. New York, 1839. [Review of the col-
lection which does not deal with national melodies but rather with folk melodies
with a leaning towards negro songs.] Southern literary messenger, 1839. vol. 5,
pp. 770-773.

NATIONAL BONOS [merely reprint of two prize poems "Sons of America" and "Old
Glory"]. Iowa historical record, 1895, vol. 11, pp. 329-331.

OUR NATIONAL SONGS; with numerous original illustrations by G. T. Tobin. New
York, F. A. Stokes co. [1898]. 128 p. illust. 24 [words only.]

PREBLE, HENRY GEORGE: History of the flag of the United States of America. Sec-
ond revised edition. Boston, A. Williams and co. 1880. 3 p. 715-768. [Chapter
on "National and patriotic songs," also first edition, 1872, used.]

REDDALL, HENRY FREDERIC: Songs that never die . . . enriched with valuable his-
torical and biographical sketches . . . Philadelphia National Publishing co.
[c!892]. 615 p. 8.

RIMBAULT, EDWARD F.: American national songs [with music]. Leisure hour,1876,
vol. 25, pp. 90-92.

SAPFELL, W. T. R.: Hail Columbia, the Flagand Yankee Doodle Dandy. Baltimore,
T. Newton Kurtz, 1864. 123 p. 8.

SMITH, NICHOLAS: Stories of great national songs. Milwaukee, The Young church-
man co. [etc. etc., 1899]. 238 p. 2 pi., 18 port. (incl. front.). 19$ cm.

SONNECK, O. G.: Bibliography of early secular American music. Washington, D. C.
Printed for the author by H. L. McQueen, 1905. x, 194 p. 29 cm.

SPOFFORD, AINSWORTH R.: The lyric element in American history. Columbia His-
torical Society, Records, 1904, vol. 7. (Same printed separately.)

SOUSA, JOHN PHILIP: National, patriotic, and typical airs of all lands, with copious
notes. Philadelphia, H. Coleman [c!890]. 283 p. 4. [Compiled by authority
of the Secretary of the Navy, 1889, for the use of the department.]

STEVENSON, E. IRENAEUS: Our "national" songs. Independent, 1897, vol. 49,
nos. 2526-2561.

WAYNE, FLYNN: Our national songs and their writers. National magazine, 1899/1900,
vol. 11, pp. 284-296.

WHITE, RICHARD GRANT: National hymns. How they are written and how they are
not written. A lyric and national study for the times. New York, Rudd <fe
Carleton [etc.], 1861. x, [11J-152 p. incl. front. 23 cm.


THE AUTHOR OF "AMERICA": American notes and queries, 1889/90, vol. 4, pp. 283-


BATEMAN, STRINGER: The national anthem: A Jacobite hymn and rebel song [con-
tains also references to earlier articles]. Gentleman's magazine, 1893, vol. 275,
pp. 33-45.

BENSON, L. F.: America [and the Episcopal hymnal]. Independent, 1897, vol. 49,
p. 51.

Literature Used for this Report. 159

BOULT, S. H.: God save the Queen. Good words, 1895, vol. 36, pp. 813-815.
BROWNE, C. A.: The story of "My country, 'tis of thee." Musician, 1908, vol. 13,

p. 309.
CHAPPELL, WILLIAM : Old English popular music. A new ed. with a preface and notes

and the earlier examples entirely revised by H. Ellis Wooldridge. London,

Chappell & co. [etc.]; New York, Novello, Ewer & co., 1893. 2 v. front.

(facsim.) 27 cm. First pub. 1838-40 as "A collection of national English airs"

which was afterwards expanded into his "Popular music of the olden time."

(1859. 2 v.) Part of the latter ed. was pub. under title "The ballad literature

and popular music of the olden time." [God save our lord the King, vol. 2,

pp. 194-200.]
CHRYSANDER, FRIEDRICH: Henry Carey und der Ursprung des Konigsgesanges God

save the King. Jahrbucher fur musikalische Wissenschaft, 1863, vol. 1, pp.

CLARK, RICHARD, comp. and ed.: An account of the national anthem entitled God

save the king! . . . Selected, edited, and arranged. London, Printed for W.

Wright, 1822. 1 p. 1., [vi-xxviii, 208 p. plates, ports. 23 cm. "Glees:"

pp. 137-203.
C[RAWFORD], G. A. : God save the King [excellent summing up in favor of the Jacobite

origin]. Julian's dictionary of hymnology, 2d. ed., 1907, pp. 437-440.
CUMMINGS, WILLIAM H[AYMAN]: God save the king; the origin and history of the

music and words of the national anthem. London, Novello and company, limited;

New York, Novello, Ewer and co., 1902. v, 126 p.. incl. music, front., port.

ENGEL, CARL: An introduction to the study of national music; comprising researches

into popular songs, traditions, and customs. London, Longmans, Green, Reader,

and Dyer, 1866. [Pp. 13-18, instructive remarks on the origin, etc., of "God

save the King."]

GAUNTLETT, H. J.: God save the King, a hymn of the Chapels Royal. Notes and

queries, Id ser., 1859, vol. 7, pp. 63-64.
GOD SAVE THE KING. Gentleman's magazine, 1814, vol. 84, 2, p. 42, 99-100, 323-324,

339, 430, 552.

GOD SAVE THE KING [on the origin]. Gentleman's magazine, 1836, new ser., vol. 6,
pp. 141-142.

"GoD SAVE THE KING," its authorship [communication from A. W. Thayer, John
Moore, B. D. A., and editorial comment]. Dwight's journal of music, 1877,
vol. 37, nos. 7, 9, 10.

GOD SAVE THE QUEEN [origin of the words]. Chambers's journal, 1867, 4th ser., no.
206, pp. 775-778.

GOD SAVE THE QUEEN. American notes and queries, 1889, vol. 3, pp. 1-3.
GOULD, S. BARING: God save our gracious queen [Notes to songs, English Minstrelsie,

vol. 1, pp. xxv-xxvii].
[GROVE, SIR GEORGE AND KIDSON, FRANK]: God save the King [resum6 of the whole

controversy]. Grove's dictionary of music and musicians, 2d. ed., 1906, vol. '2,

pp. 188-191.

HADDEN, J. CUTHBERT.: The "God save the Queen myths." Argosy (Lond.), 1900,
vol. 72, pp. 93-100.


and facsimile by Rev. S. F. Smith, 1893 of "America"]. Outlook, 1898, vol.
59, pp. 563-565.

160 Literature Used for this Report.

MEAD, EDWIN D.: The hymn "America." Boston Evening Transcript, October 19,

1908, p. 10.
MOORE, AUBERTINE WOODWARD: Popular hymn claimed by all nations. Musical

leader and concert goer, 1904, vol. 8, No. 8, pp. 6-8.
"Mr COUNTRY, 'TIS OP THEE " [reprint of an account of ita origin in the words of Rev.

S. F. Smith]. Music, 1898, vol. 14, p. 107.
MYERS, A. WALUS: God save the Queen. The story of our national hymn. The

Ludgate, 1900/01, vol. 11, pp. 148-154.
N., J. G.: The history of "God save the King." Gentleman's magazine, 1836, new

ser. vol. 6, pp. 369-374.
THE NATIONAL HYMN [inconsequential note on the origin of "God save the King"].

Atlantic monthly, 1896. vol. 77, p. 720.
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Sunday Jan. 20, 1895]. The Critic, 1895, vol. 26, p. 69.
TAPPERT, WILHELM: Wandernde melodien. Eine musikalische Studie, 2. verm.

und verb. aufl. Berlin, Brachvogel & Ranft, 1889 [contains interesting remarks

on "God save the King"]. 2 p.l., 95, [1] p. 22$ cm.
W., J. R.: Origin of "God save the King." Gentleman's magazine, 1836, new ser.

vol. 5. pp. 594-595.
WHAT is OUR CLAIM TO "Goo SAVE THE KINO?" Musical news, 1908, vol. 35, nos.

WHERE "AMERICA" WAS FIRST SUNG [two communications from William Copley

Winslow and Edwin D. Mead]. Boston Evening Transcript, 1908, Oct. 27, p. 11.


Henkels' Catalogue of autograph letters, etc., no. 738, p. 48.

HAIL COLUMBIA: Moore's complete encyclopaedia of music [1880], pp. 358-359.

HAIL COLUMBIA: American notes and queries, 1888/89, vol. 2, p. 18.

[KIDSON, FRANK]: Hail Columbia. Grove's dictionary of music and musicians, 2d.
ed., 1906, vol. 2, pp. 271-272.

[McKoY, WILLIAM]: Origin of "Hail Columbia" [reprint from Poulson's Daily Adver-
tiser, Phila., 1829, where article appeared under pseudonym "Lang Syne."
(Dawson's) Historical magazine, 1861, vol. 5, pp. 280-282.

SONNECK, O. G.: Critical notes on the origin of "Hail Columbia." Sammelbande
d. I. M. G. 1901, vol. 3, pp. 139-166.


APPLETON, NATHAN: The Star Spangled Banner. An address delivered at the Old
South Meeting House, Boston ... on June 14, 1877. Boston, Lockwood,
Brooks & Co., 1877. 8. 34p. [on the history of the flag, the song, etc.]

BROWNE, C. A.: The story of "The Star-Spangled Banner." Musician, 1907, v. 12,
p. 541.

CARPENTER, JOHN C.: "The Star Spangled Banner" [with port, and facsimile].
Century magazine, 1894, vol. 48, pp. 358-363.

CHAPPELL, WM.: "The Star-Spangled Banner" and "To Anacreon in Heaven" [on
the authorship of John Stafford Smith]. Notes and Queries (London), 1873,
4th ser., vol. 11, pp. 50-51.

Literature Used for this Report. 161

DORSET, MRS. ANNA H. Origin of the Star Spangled Banner [reprinted from Wash-
ington Sunday Morning Chronicle]. (Dawson's) Historical magazine, 1861, vol. 5

pp. 282-283.

FOR A NEW NATIONAL HYMN. North American review., 1906, vol. 183, pp. 947-948.
THE FRANCIS SCOTT KEY MEMORIAL. Munsey's magazine, 1898, vol. 20, pp. 325-326
HIQGINS, EDWIN.: The national anthem "The Star Spangled Banner," Francis Scott

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