Oscar Jewell Harvey.

A history of Wilkes-Barré, Luzerne County, Pennsylvania, from its first beginnings to the present time; online

. (page 62 of 107)
Online LibraryOscar Jewell HarveyA history of Wilkes-Barré, Luzerne County, Pennsylvania, from its first beginnings to the present time; → online text (page 62 of 107)
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claimed, the Rocky Mountains and "the white Indians" (the Mandans, perhaps, described on page 94).
For a considerable time he and his family dwelt in a wigwam on a part of James Logan's place — later
called "Indian Field" — near Philadelphia, and in the meautime Isaac's only son, Joshua Still, was edu-
cated in a school at C.ennantown.

In May, 1760. Isaac Still took possession of a 200-acre tract of land on the flats at Sheshequin (on the
Susquehanna, about twenty- four miles north of Friedenshiitten mentioned in the note on page 220). This

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there was not to be a public treaty, but simply a private conference,
"and none have ever been admitted into private conferences between
the Governor and Indians, but the wise men and counselors on both
sides." Tatemy and Still were called in, and this reply was given to
them to carry to the King. It was then after one o'clock. In about
half an hour Tatemy returned "with a most insolent answer from Tee-
dyuscung, to the effect that he was tired of waiting, was at his dinner,
would bring his clerk to the interview or else not speak to the Governor
at all." Tatemy was told that the Governor would let Teedyuscung
know what he would do and when the latter should come.

The question was again brought before the Council for considera-
tion, and Secretary Peters u was desired to set the matter in its true light
to the Indians in private conversation ; and Mr. [William] Logan, who
had arrived in town, was desired to assist in it, as he was better acquainted
with these Indians." It was unanimously decided that Teedyuscung's
clerk should not be permitted to sit in Council. If the King desired a
public conference, he might be indulged with one in the Council-chamber
at the State House, when his clerk might come, as well as any other
person.* Teedyuscung refusing to recede from his demand, the only
way out of the difficulty was to decide to hold a public conference, and
it took place at the State House on March 15th. Governor Denny,
several members of the Council, the Speaker and various members of the
Assembly, a large number of citizens, Teedyuscung, his half-brothers
Captain Harris and Sam Evans, his counselor Tapescawen, his interpre-
ters Moses Tatemy and. Isaac Still, Willamegicken,f a messenger from
the western Indians, and several other Indians were present. Isaac
Still interpreted for the King, and Charles Thomson acted as his clerk
— not only on this particular occasion, but at each of the succeeding
conferences which took place between the Governor and Teedyuscung
at Philadelphia in the Spring of 1758.

Early in the conference Teedyuscung produced a large calumet

pipe, and, having filled it with tobacco, rose up and said to the Governor :

"At the treaty at Eastern you desired me to hear you, and publish what passed there
to all the Indian nations. I promised you to do it. I gave the halloo, and published it
to all the Indian nations in this part of the world — even the most distant have heard me.
The nations to whom I published what passed between us have let me know that they
had heard and approved it, and, as I was about so good a work, they sent me this pipe —
the same that their grandfathers used on such good occasions — and desired it might be
filled with the same good tobacco, and that I, with my brother the Governor, would
smoke it. They further assured me that if at any time I should perceive any dark clouds
arise, and would smoke but two or three whiffs out of this pipe, those clouds would im-
mediately disappear. ' '

The King having lighted the pipe first smoked it himself ; then

giving it to the Governor the latter and each member of the Council

and Assembly present smoked it in turn. Then the King took up a

wampum belt of ten rows, having in the middle figures of two men

land was donated to him by the Proprietary Government for services rendered in the capacity of runner
and interpreter during the Indian wars. But, evidently, he did not long remain at Sheshequin, for Watson
says that in 1771 he moved into Buckingham Township in Bucks County, "purposing there to collect his
scattered tribe and move them off to the Wabash, 'far away.' as he said, 'from war and rum.' " This he
effected in the Autumn of 1775, having in his company about forty persons, mostly women and children ;
as the men — particularly the young^ and active — numbering about twenty, had gone on before. Years
afterwardsa gentleman who had witnessed their departure referred to Still as having been a fine-looking
man, wearing a hat ornamented with feathers. The women of the band were all bareheaded, and each
was loaded with a large pack on her back, supported by a broad strap across her forehead.

* See "Pennsylvania Colonial Records," VIII : 30, 31.

fThe name of this Indian was sometimes written "Willemegihany" and sometimes "Willemeghi-
kink." He was known to the whites as "James," and was a prominent brave of the Allegheny Dela-
wares. See page 374, post ; also, " Pennsylvania Archives," First Series, III: 415, and "Pennsylvania
Colonial Records," VIII : 148.

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grasping one another by the hand, which Teedyuscung said represented
himself and the Governor. At each end of the belt were two figures rep-
resenting the sun rising and the sun setting, and between these figures
were eight figures in white wampum representing eight Indian nations
who had "taken hold" of the belt. Proceeding with his speech Tee-
dyuscung said* :

4 'I promised I would give a halloo. I have done it, and all the nations you see
represented by this belt which I now hold in my hand have heard whatever you and I
have talked together when we were promoting the good work. I have made all these
nations as one man. All the Indian nations from the sunrise to those beyond the lakes,
as far as the sun sets, have heard what has passed between you and me, and are pleased
with it ; and they have said to me, 'Now, Brother Teedyuscung, we see that you and your
brothers the English have been talking about what is good. We therefore send you this
belt to let you know that we have taken hold at the two ends of this belt, and we desire
you and your brothers the English to take hold of the middle ; and always, when you
are consulting about what is good, to hold it fast, as our lives and safety will entirely
depend upon it. As ten nations joined before, and now eight moref have taken hold of
the Covenant Chain, we make in all now eighteen nations who have hold of this belt. * *

•*I am heard now by all the Indians, and they are pleased and have said to me :
'Brother Teedyuscung, you are now promoting what is good. We have looked and
inquired who has been the cause of the darkness. There are three [parties] concerned
—English, French and Indian. We have found one of these three has been the cause of
it, and he shall die. The man is a Frenchman.' There is a good deal of news going
backwards and forwards; but, though it be so, I, Teedyuscung, have stopped his ears and
blinded his eyes, so that, though the news runs right before his breast, he shall hear
nothing of it. That is, though the Indians who have joined me live behind the French
and must pass them to come to us, yet they ( the French ) shall know nothing of what
passes between us. Now, Brothers, as I have blinded the eyes of the French and stopped
their ears, I hope you will do the same. * * The Indians who live back encourage you
and me. They have said to me : 'Do you, Teedyuscung, and your brothers press on and
don't be discouraged. It is a work of great moment which you have undertaken. "When
you begin a great work you can't expect to finish it all at once. Therefore, do you and
your brothers press on and let nothing discourage you till you have entirely finished
what you have begun.' Now, Brother, as for me, I assure you I will press on, and the
contrary winds may blow strong in my face, yet I will go forward and never will turn
back, but continue to press forward until I have finished ; and I would have you do the
same. * * Though you may hear birds singing .on this side and that side, you must
not take notice of that, but hear me when I speak to you and lay it to heart, for you may
always depend that what I say shall be true. ' '

Just at this time there was a feeling of unrest and insecurity through-
out the country. On the northern confines a powerful French force
threatened the New England Colonies, as noted on page 297. Further-
more, news had been received only a short time previously to the effect
that the King had issued his commands for a large force to be raised in
Pennsylvania and the Colonies to the south, to take the field under the
command of Brig. Gen. John Forbes as soon after the 1st of May as pos-
sible. Therefore, two days after Teedyuscung's conference with the
Governor the Assembly sent to the latter a notification in part as followsj :

"We find that far distant tribes of Indians have freely entered into our alliance,
and wait for nothing — but the faithful performance of the Articles of Peace stipulated on
vour part at the treaty held at Easton — to join heartily in the British interest. On this
important occasion, when the peace of this and the neighboring Colonies and the success
of His Majesty's arms in the ensuing campaign seem deeply interested in your delibera-
tions, we do assure you that, to effectuate these good purposes and strengthen your hands,
we will cheerfully contribute everything which can be reasonably expected from us to
confirm the Indians in their good dispositions toward us."

A week after this conference the Governor and Council met to con-
sider a proper reply to Teedyuscung's speech. This having been care-

*See "Pennsylvania Colonial Records," VIII : 82.

t The Secretary of the Council noted on the minutes of the conference that the eight nations, then
referred to by Teedyuscung, were : "The Ottawas, who live north-west of Fort Detroit ; the Twightwees ;
the Chippewas; the Toawaws, living south of l,ake Erie ; the Caughnawagas ; the Mahoowas, living on
an island in one of the lakes ; the Pietoatomaws, living westward of Detroit, and the Nalashawawnas,
living north of New England."

X See "Pennsylvania Colonial Records." VIII : .S9.

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fully prepared it was publicly spoken the same day (March 22d) at the
State House by the Governor, who, at the same time, delivered to Tee-
dyuscung "the great Peace Belt." The King responded with some
general remarks, and then presented to the Governor and had read aloud
a paper which had been written by Charles Thomson and signed by the
King. It was as follows* :

"Brothers : We formerly told you that we desired to be instructed in the prin-
ciples of the Christian religion, and requested that we might have ministers and school-
masters supported among us for that purpose. We now renew our request, and, as many
of our brethren are ready to lay hold on the Chain of Peace, we think it necessary to in-
form you that less than two ministers besides schoolmasters will be insufficient for that
purpose ; and though we expect our brethren the English will support them, yet as they
are designed for the benefit of us and our children, we judge it both reasonable and neces-
sary that we should have liberty to choose them ourselves, after having made the best
inquiries we are able into the characters of those who are to watch for our souls, and to
whose care our eternal interests are under God to be committed. This, brothers, is an
affair that deserves your most serious attention, and we hope it will be seriously considered
by our brethren, the English.

"Brothers, you are wise men. You tell us the Christian religion is good, and we
believe it to be so — partly upon the credit of your words and partly because we see that
some of our brother Indians who were wicked before they became Christians, live better
lives now than they formerly did. But, brothers, we have got bodies as well as souls,
and though our time in this world is short, it is nevertheless necessary to provide for our-
selves and families while we are in it. This is what our own reason and experience
teacheth us, and we are confirmed in our sentiments by the universal practise of Christ-
ians as well as Indians. And, since we see that our brethren the English manage the
affairs which concern their worldly estates and interests with more wisdom than the Indi-
ans do, our next request is that our brethren will support two honest men amongst us to
be our counselors and instructors in temporal affairs, and at the same time to be the
guardians of our interests. And that we may be the more certain that we are not deceived
by our counselors, we think it necessary to have the choice of them ourselves. We desire
to have two, that if one of them should prove a dishonest man the other may prevent
his imposing on us. And we hope our brethren, the English, will put the support of our
counselors on such a foundation as will leave them under no temptations to betray our
interests for the sake of their own temporal gain ; and as an additional security for their
acting honestly we shall judge it necessary, before admitting them into our service, that
they solemnly swear after the English manner that they will conscientiously perform
the trusts reposed in them, according to the best of their skill and understanding.

"Brothers, these are things that appear to us so just and reasonable that we hope
our brethren, the English, who profess to have a sincere regard both for our temporal
and eternal interests, will readily agree to them. A friendship that is founded on justice
and equity, where a proper regard is had to the interests of both parties, may reasonably
be expected to prove durable ; and such we desire may be the friendship between us and
our brethren the English. But a peace that is founded on injustice and deceit must end
whenever the fraud is discovered.

"Brothers, these are things that lie heavy on our hearts. Let them sink deep into
the hearts of our brothers ; and if they act conformably to these sentiments both they
and their children, as well as we and our children, will feel the good effects of them till
the sun ceases to shine and the rivers to run."


[Signed] "Tkedy S tjscung."

On March 25th the Governor held a final conference with Tee-
dyuscung and his retinue, during which he stated that the matter of
providing schoolmasters and ministers for the benefit of the Indians
under Teedyuscung, when they should be settled at Wyoming, had been
laid before the Assembly and would be acted upon in due time. Con-
tinuing, the Governor saidf :

"I think proper that our Peace Belt that I gave you the other day should be sent
with the greatest despatch, and in the safest manner you can, to the Indian towns on the
Ohio, and the other towns which have not entered into our alliance. Take with you this,
my calumet pipe, for our friendly Indians to smoke out of. It is the pipe our old Pro-
prietor, William Penn, smoked in (on his first arrival in this country) with all the Indi-
ans that then entered into a covenant chain with him, and has been preserved by his

* Sec "Pennsylvania Colonial Records," VIII : 47.
tSee "Pennsylvania Colonial Records," VIII : 54.

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order to this day for that good purpose. I recommend it particularly to the Delawares,
our brethren, and their grandchildren, the Shawanese, to smoke out of it heartily, as
it has now been filled with the same good tobacco; and they, the Delawares and Shaw-
anese. will then remember their mother country — for the ground in Pennsylvania is the
ground they came out of. * * * You may remember that at first, when the clouds

to open a great road ; that is, from Diahoga and the heads of the Susquehanna down to
Fort Augusta, called by the Indians Shamokin."

Teedyuscung having expressed some dissatisfaction with this sug-
gestion respecting a road, the Governor stated that it was intended to
be only in the nature of "a proposal for him to consult the Indians at
Wyoming upon." A day or two later Teedyuscung and his Indian
companions left Philadelphia for Bethlehem ; but on the 10th of April
the King, his 50ns Amos and John Jacob, one of his nephews, his
counselor Tapescawen, Isaac Still, Essowyonalund, or "Daniel" (a mes-
senger from the Wanamies), and other Indians made their appearance in
Philadelphia. Two days later, accompanied by Charles Thomson as
clerk, they met the Governor and Council in conference at the State
House. Teedyuscung, having talked for some time concerning the
Easton Treaty of 1757, the recent Philadelphia conference and the news
lately received regarding the disturbances among the Indians in the
West, said :

"I desire you and the rest of the English not to trouble yourselves to go against the
Ohios. I will do it myself. They are all within my dish. Leave them for me. I will
give them one blow, and if any escape that I will drive them to the sea for you. * * *
I will take notice of all those that pretend to join us, and if they do not do right I will
run my hand down their throats and bring up their hearts and lay them before you, for
may be it was they that did this mischief. * * * The next time we meet I shall talk
freely about our private affairs — namely, about our building and settling at Wyoming."

This conference was continued the next day, when Teedyuscung
was informed that an army had been raised by the English, and that it
would not be possible to send him and his Indians alone to fight the
hostile Indians on the Ohio. However, Teedyuscung could accompany
the soldiers ; but, as some of the enemy had been murdering certain
white settlers on Swatara Creek in Lancaster County and carrying off
others into captivity, he was pressed to return to Bethlehem, where a
number of his young braves were loitering, and send a party of them out
to scour the frontiers. He was urgecjl, also, to take steps to have
delivered up all prisoners who had been taken and were still held cap-
tive. The King agreed to use his utmost endeavors to collect as many
of the prisoners in the Indian country as he could and bring them in.
As to going "to the front" with the English soldiers he said : "I will
not enlist under your Captains and officers, but I will have Captains of
my own. My son [John Jacob], here, is one of my Captains. We
will join with you, but we will have Captains of our own."*

Teedyuscung and his Indians again returned to Bethlehem, and on
the 17th of April the King sent a number of Delawares from Bethlehem
to Fort Allen to join Captain Arndt's soldiers in ranging the frontiers.
At the same time he despatched, by way of Fort Allen, his son John
Jacob, as Captain, accompanied by his (Teedyuscung's) son Amos, Paul
and John, brothers, and Isaac — all Delawares — "to the three Indian
nations over Allegheny, viz.: the Delaware, Shawanese and Quahano-
quesie — of which last Castareega is Chief." Teedyuscung delivered to

♦See "Pennsylvania Colonial Records," VIII : Stf.

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these messengers : First, four strings of wampum, to acquaint the said
nations that he had twice received good news from them, and had lately
heard that they inclined to be at peace with the English. Second, a
large black belt, with five strokes across it made of white wampum.
Third, a white belt, with black strokes across, set with black wam-
pum. Fourth, a white belt, set with black wampum across.

Teedyuscung remained at Bethlehem, and Justice Horsfield wrote
on April 18th : "I never before was so much convinced of Teedyus-
cung's zeal for the English cause." Five days later, however, a soldier
came to Bethlehem from Fort Allen with a letter from Captain Arndt
in which he stated that he was having trouble with the Indians sent to
the fort by Teedyuscung — the messengers (who were still there) as well
as those who were to range being continually drunk, having brought
with them some casks of rum from Easton. When the casks had been
emptied, the five messengers continued their journey to the West.

On the 1st of May Teedyuscung appeared once more in Philadel-
phia, accompanied by his seemingly inseparable companions — Tapes-
cawen and Isaac Still — and the next day they were received by the
Governor. The chief object of this visit was that the King might say
to the Governor* : u The Indians want to see the houses built at Wyo-
ming, and then they will remove there. All the Indians expect that
the houses will be built this Spring ; and if they be not, they will blame
me much, and say it is my fault." In reply to this the Governor
reminded Teedyuscung that the escort that attended the Wyoming Com-
missioners in the previous Fall had consisted of three of the Provincial
companies, and the soldiers were employed in erecting the houses. He
then asked the King how much time it would take, with the same
number of men, to complete the work begun, and the King replied,
u Three weeks." Brig. Gen. John Forbes, in command of His Majesty's
troops in Pennsylvania, being then in Philadelphia, Governor Denny
immediately communicated with him in reference to this subject. On
the following day General Forbes replied as follows :

"I really think Teedyuscung's demands ought to be agreed with, as he has the
public faith for the making such a settlement ; although I would parry off all convoy of
trooi>s y as ax-men and carpenters will answer all his purposes. I think he and his tribes
ought to be our guards for those back settlements this Summer, as we shall want all the
troops somewhere else. ' '

Upon receipt of this communication Governor Denny forwarded it
to the Provincial Assembly, accompanied by the information that he pur-
posed to send to Wyoming the same gentlemen who were appointed in
1757 to erect the houses there. The same day (May 3d) the Speaker of
the Assembly replied to the Governor as follows :

"We much approve of your designs in sending the same gentlemen that were
appointed last year, to finish the houses begun at Wioming at Teedyuscung's request ;
and as the more expeditiously this measure is executed, the sooner we shall have an
Indian barrier in that quarter, we hope no time will be lost in despatching them."

The next day (May 4, 1758) the Governor addressed to Messrs. John
Hughes, Edward Shippen, James Galbraith and Francis Tomlin the
following communicationf :

"Gentlemen : Teedyuscung having demanded the performance of the engage-
ments made by this Government in building houses, clearing ground and making some
other improvements at Wyoming, and having fixed the time for doing it to be within
three weeks after this date, and the Assembly having very much approved of my inten-

* See "Pennsylvania Colonial Records," VIII : 101. f See "The Shippen Papers,'' page 117.

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tion to employ the gentlemen already commission a ted, and recommended it to me to use
the utmost despatch in forwarding this work, I make you acquainted therewith, and desire
you would once more undertake the journey to Wyoming and superintend the finishing
of the buildings and other works to be done there in consequence of my promises.

"I must particularly desire of Mr. Hughes, as he is in town and one of the Pro-
vincial Commissioners, to settle everything with them [the Provincial Indian Commis-
sioners] respecting the number of carpenters and workmen, as well as the sums of money
necessary to be engaged and provided for this service ; and further, that he will confer
with Teedyuscung, and fix with him such matters as he shall think proper should be pre-
viously agreed upon, and to give notice thereof to the other Commissioners, that they may
conform thereto, so as not to miss of one another, or to suffer anything necessary for the
work to be left behind. I understand that the provisions for the Commissioners and their
company must be sent from Fort Augusta, together with the tools and many other things
which were left there. The Commissioners who go by Augusta will take them with
them. And if no Commissioners go by the way of Fort Augusta, they are nevertheless
to give directions that the provisions be sent in bateaux to Wyoming ; and the command-
ing officer at that fort is hereby ordered to yield obedience to the directions of the Com-
missioners, and send them up with a proper escort, to consist of an officer and twenty
men, which is to return to the garrison immediately on delivering the provisions, etc., to
the Commissioners at Wyoming.

"You are to act agreeable to my commission of the 5th day of October last. If it

Online LibraryOscar Jewell HarveyA history of Wilkes-Barré, Luzerne County, Pennsylvania, from its first beginnings to the present time; → online text (page 62 of 107)