Oscar Jewell Harvey.

A history of Wilkes-Barré, Luzerne County, Pennsylvania, from its first beginnings to the present time; online

. (page 73 of 107)
Online LibraryOscar Jewell HarveyA history of Wilkes-Barré, Luzerne County, Pennsylvania, from its first beginnings to the present time; → online text (page 73 of 107)
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night before we got there, who came from a town about ten miles above Wehaloosing,
and brought news that some Indian warriors from distant parts came to that town with
two English scalps, and told the people that it was 'War with the English ! '

"Our guides took us to the house of a very antient man,* and soon after we had put
in our baggage there came a man from another Indian house some distance off, and I,
perceiving there was a man near the door, went out; and he, having a tomahawk
wrapped under his matchcoat, out of sight, as I approached him took it in his hand. I,
however, went forward, and speaking to him in a friendly way, perceived he understood
some English. My companion then coming out, we had some talk with him concerning
the nature of our visit in these parts ; and then he going into the house with us, and
talking with our guides, soon appeared friendly and sat down and smoaked his pipe.
Tho' his taking his hatchet in his hand at the instant I drew near to him had a disagree-
able appearance, I believe he had no other intent than to be in readiness in case any
violence was offered to him.

"Hearing the news brought by these Indian runners, and being told by the Indians
where we lodged that what Indians were about Wioming expected, in a few days, to
move to some larger towns, I thought that, to all outward appearance, it was dangerous
traveling at this time. * * * In this great distress I grew jealous of myself, lest the
desire of reputation — as a man firmly settled to persevere through dangers — or the fear
of disgrace arising on my returning without performing the visit, might have some place
in me. Thus I lay, full of thoughts, the great part of the night, while my beloved com-
panion lay and slept by me. * * * On the fourteenth we sought out and visited all
the Indians hereabouts that we could meet with — they being chiefly in one place, f about
a mile from where we lodged — in all, perhaps twenty. Here I expressed the care I had
on my mind for their good, and told them that true love had made me willing thus to
leave my family to come and see the Indians and speak with them in their houses. Some
of them appeared kind and friendly.

"So we took our leave of these Indians, and went up the river Susquehannah about
three miles to the house of an Indian called * Jacob January, 'J who had killed his hog,
and the women were making a store of bread and preparing to move up the river. Here
our pilots had left their canoe when they came down in the Spring, which, lying dry,
was leaky, so that we, being detained some hours, had a good deal of friendly conversa-
tion with the family ; and, eating dinner with them, we made them some small presents.
Then putting our baggage in the canoe, some of them pulled slowly up the stream, and
the rest of us rode our horses, and, swimming them over a creek called Lahawahamunk
[Lackawanna River], we pitched our tent a little above it, On the 15th day of the
month we proceeded forward till the afternoon, when a storm appearing, we met our
canoe at an appointed place, and the rain continuing we stayed all night. * * We
seldom saw our canoe but at appointed places, by reason of the path going off from the
river. This afternoon [June ltithj Job Chillaway,§ an Indian from Wehaloosing, who
talks good English, and is acquainted with several people in and about Philadelphia,
met our people on the river, and, understanding where we expected to lodge, pushed
back about six miles and came to us after night ; and in a while our own canoe came, it
being hard work pushing up stream. Job told us that an Indian came in haste to their
town yesterday and told them that three warriors, coming from some distance, lodged in
a town above Wehaloosing a few nights past, and that these three men were going
against the English at Juniata. Job was going down the river to the Province store at

Woolman and his companions arrived at Wyalusing in the after-
noon of June 17th, and Woolman and Parvin remained there, teaching
and preaching, until the 21st, when they set out on their homeward
journey. Woolman wrote in his journal :

14 We expected only two Indiaus to be our company, but when we were ready to go
we found many of them were going to Bethlehem with skins and furs, who chose to go
in company with us. So they loaded two canoes, which they desired us to go in, telling
us that the waters were so raised with the rains that the horses should be taken by such
as were better acquainted with the fording places. So we, with several Indians, went in
the canoes, and others went on the horses — there being seven besides ours. * * On the
22d day [of June] we reached Wioming before night, and understood the Indians were
mostly gone from this place. Here we went up a small creek |l into the woods with our
canoes, and, pitching our tent, carried out our baggage. Before dark our horses came
to us. On the 23d day, in the morning, our horses were loaded and we prepared our
baggage, and so set forward, being in all fourteen ; and with diligent traveling were

* Presumably this was old Moses, the Mohegan, who lived about a mile below the village of Wyo-
ming, near the mouth of what was at one time known as Moses' Creek, and is now Solomon's, or Button-
wood, Creek. See pages 312 and 373.

f The village of Wyoming— Teedyuscung's old town.

% This was the Indian from whom "Jacob's Plains," previously described, received their name.

$ See page 3ft4. p Either Buttonwood Creek or Sugar Notch Creek.

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favored to get near half way to Fort Allen — the land on this road from Wioming to onr
frontier being mostly poor, and good grass scarce. On the 24th day we passed Fort
Allen, and lodged near it in the woocU. * * Between the English inhabitants [at
Bethlehem and thereabout] and Wehaloosing, we had only a narrow path, which in
many places is much grown up with bushes and interrupted by abundance of trees lying
across it. These, together with the mountains, swamps and rough stones make it a diffi-
cult road to travel ; and the more so for that rattlesnakes abound there— of which we
killed four."

June 23, 1763, Governor Hamilton at Philadelphia wrote to Timothy

Horsfield (previously mentioned) at Bethlehem :

"Understanding that David Zeisberger is now, or hath been lately, in the Indian
country on the Susquehanna, I should be obliged to you for communicating to me any
intelligence he has brought or may bring from there."

June 27th Justice Horsfield forwarded to the Governor an extract

from a letter just brought by an Indian messenger to the Brethren at

Bethlehem from Zeisberger, who had written the letter at Wyalusing

on June 18th. The extract was, in part, as follows*:

"This is to let you know that I and my companion arrived here safe on the 16th of
this month. At Wyomick we found the Indians in motion to leave the flace, for the
same night we arrived there they received many frightful relations concerning war being
begun again, viz. : That the western Indians, together with the Six Nations, had taken
Fort Detroit and several other forts. * * They have planted there [at Wyoming], but
leave everything behind them." * * *

With the departure of the Indians from Wyoming, as noted by
Woolman and Zeisberger, the red men's occupancy of the valley came
to an end. From time to time during the ensuing nineteen years
Indians of various tribes, in large companies, in small bands or singly,
came into the valley in the course of their journeys to other sections of
the country, or with the object of trading or holding conferences with
the white inhabitants of Wyoming, or for the purpose of destroying life
and property here ; but never again was there a village established or
occupied by Indians in this locality. From the close of Pontiac's War
until 1775 — a period of about eleven years — there were several Indians
who, at different times, singly or with their families, occupied cabins in
various parts of the valley. After the whites had gained a settlement
here these Indians lived on peaceable and friendly terms with them.f

Although the proprietors of The Susquehanna Company heard of
u wars and rumors of wars" in the Spring and Summer of 1763, yet,
seemingly, they were not dismayed ; nor did they appear to be much
cast down by the announcement that King George, on an ex parte state-

* For a copy of this letter see "The Horsfield Papers," mentioned in the note on page 238.

t With the exception of those De la wares who (like Papoonhank and his people) were under the peace-
inspiring influence of the Moravian Brethren, all the members of that tribe who had been living for some
time along the North Branch of the Susquehanna departed for the Ohio region by the middle of July,
1768, when Pontiac's War was well under way. They emigrated with embittered feelings against the
English colonists generally, and they lost no time in making preparations to go out on the war-path. In
November. 1768, Sir William Johnson made to the Board of Trade in England a carefully prepared report
— based on statistics gathered some months earlier— on the then "present state of the northern Indians."
Relative to the Delawares he stated that it was estimated that they numbered 600 warriors (which would
indicate a total of 8,000 persons), dwelling "in several villages on and about the Susquehanna, Muskin-

Sim, etc., and thence to Lake Erie. These people are greatly influenced by the Senecas, and reside on
nd allotted them by the permission of the Six Nations. They are now at war with the English." (See
"Documentary History of the State of New York," 1 : 26.)

In 1764 the Delawares "accepted the treaty of peace offered them, in rather a vaunting spirit, by
Colonel Bradstreet, on Lake Erie ; but subsequently renewed their hostile inroads, and, in the Autumn of
the same year, on the banks of the Muskingum, again submitted to the army (under Colonel Bouquet),
delivering up, as a test of their sincerity, a very large number of prisoners— men, women and children.
The surrender of these prisoners forms the most remarkable instance of the kind on record, both on
account of the number of persons liberated, and the affecting circumstances attending it." (Schoolcraft's
"History of the Indian Tribes of the United States," VI : 298.)

"The years 1765-1795 are the true period of the power and importance of the Delawares," wrote Albert
Gallatin in 1886. In January, 1772, Sir William Johnson wrote to Governor Penn of Pennsylvania : "The
Delawares, Munsees. etc., have been and are to be considered as dependents on the Five Nations, and
having nothing to do with the western Indians further than in an intercourse common with all Indians
in time of peace." At that period the Monsey, or Minsi. clan of the Delaware tribe bad come to be con-
sidered and treated as a distinct tribe, known as the "Munsee." (In this connection see note |, on page
825.) This distinction is preserved to this day. At the beginning of the Revolution there were no Dela-
wares east of the Alleghenies. "Although a portion of the nation adhered to the Americans during the

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War of Independence, the main body, together with' all the western nations, made common cause with
the British." The Delawares were cruel enemies during the war. As noted on page 156, the first formal
treaty made by the United States with Indians was entered into with the Delawares in 1778. After the .
short truce which followed the treaty of 1788 the Delawares were again at the head of the western con-
federacy in their last struggle for independence. The decisive victory of General Wayne in 1794 dissolved
that confederacy, and the Delawares were the greatest sufferers by the Greenville treaty of 1796.

In 1800, and later, numbers of Delawares were living among the Senecas on the reservations of the
latter at Cattaraugus and Tonawanda. New York, while a band of Delawares was located near Cape
Girardeau (mentioned on page 888); but since 1789 the greater part of the nation had been settled in what
is now Ohio— between the rivers Miami and Cuyahoga, and on the Muskingum. In 1811 many Delawares
went from Ohio to Indiana and joined the Shawanese in the battle of Tippecanoe, mentioned on page
882. In 1816 there were about 1,700 Delawares living on White River in Indiana, in five villages, within a
compass of thirty-six miles. In 1818 these Delawares ceded all their lands to the United States Govern-
ment and, to the number of 1,800, removed to south-eastern Missouri, where they settled between Current
River and the bend of White River. At that time the only Delawares (about 80 in number) living in Ohio
were located at Upper Sandusky on the Sandusky River. Those who went to Missouri joined a band of

Cherokees there and overcame the Osages, who were on the west-
ern boundaries of Arkansas and Indian Territory. In 1829 the
Missouri Delawares sold their lands and made a treaty for lands in
what is now north-eastern Kansas ; but some of the tribe did not
want to go there, saying that the junction of the rivers Kaw (now
the Kansas) and Missouri— near which the new lands were located
— reminded them too forcibly of a white man's trousers !

In 1831-'32 George Catlin visited the Delawares at their reserva-
tion on the Kaw, and wrote that they numbered only 824 persons-
many having died from small-pox. While there he painted the
portraits of several of their principal chiefs, and the illustrations on
this page are reduced facsimiles of drawings made by Catlin him-
self from two of the portraits which he then painted. Nicdman,

admired very much ; and to whom, for his gentlemanly attentions
to me, I became very much attached. Their [Nicdman's and JVon-
onddgon's] dresses were principally of stuffs of civilised manufac-
ture, and their heads were bound with vari-colored handkerchiefs
or shawls, which were tastefully put on like a Turkish turban."
About that time Catlin wrote concerning the Delawares as follows :
"The very sound of this name (Delawares) has carried terror
wherever it has been heard in the Indian wilderness ; and it has
traveled and been known, as well as the people, over a very great
part of the continent. No other tribe has been so much moved and
jostled about by civilized invasions ; and none have retreated so far,
\J i rn'\iAK or f° u K nt their way so desperately, as they have honorably and

m-lu-ma« bravely contended for every foot of the ground they have passed

("The Answer"). over. From the banks of the Delaware to the lovely Susquehanna

and my native valley— ^to the base of and over the Allegheny Moun-
tains—to the Ohio River— to the Illinois and the Mississippi— and at last to the west of the Missouri, they
have been moved by treaties after treaties with the Government, who have now assigned to the mere
handful that are left a tract of land (as has been done a dozen times before) in fee simple, forever! In
every move the poor fellows have made they have been thrust against their wills from the graves of their
fathers and their children and planted, as they now are, on the borders of new enemies, where their first
occupation has been to take up their weapons in self-defense, and fight for the ground they have been
planted on. There is no tribe, perhaps, amongst which greater and
more continued exertions have been made for their conversion to
Christianity— and that, ever since the zealous efforts of the Moravian
missionaries, who first began with them ; nor any amongst whom
those pious and zealous efforts have been squandered more in .vain
—which has, probablv, been owing to the bad faith with which
they have so often and so continually been treated by white people,
which has excited prejudices that have stood in the way of their
mental improvement.

"This scattered and reduced tribe, which once contained some
10,000 or 15,000. numbers at this time but 824 ; and the greater part

of them have been, for the past fifty or sixty years, residing in Ohio I

and Indiana. In those States their reservations became surrounded !

by white people (whom_they dislike for neighbors) and their lands

too valuable tor Indians, and the certain consequence has been that j

they have sold out and taken lands west of the Mississippi, to '

which they have moved and on which it is and always will be |

almost impossible to find them, owing to their desperate disposition

for roaming about and indulging in the chase and in wars with '

their enemies. The wild frontier on which they are now placed
affords them so fine an opportunity to indulge both of these pro

Sensities, that they will be continually wandering in little and
esperate parties over the vast buffalo plains, exposed to their
enemies, till at last the new country, which is given to them in "fee ,

simple, forever," and which is destitute of game, will be deserted, j

and they, like the most of the removed remnants of tribes, will J

be destroyed.

"In my travels on the Upper Missouri and in the Rocky Moun-
tains I learned, to my utter astonishment, that little parties— of only NON-ON-DA-GON.

six or eight in number— of these adventurous Delawares had visited

those remote tribes, at 2,000 miles distance, and in several instances— after having cajoled a whole tribe,
having been feasted in their villages, having solemnized articles of everlasting peace with them and
received many presents at their hands and taken affectionate leave — have brought awav six or eight
scalps with them and, moreover, braved their way and defended themselves as they retreated in safety
out of their enemies' country and through the regions of other hostile tribes, where they managed to receive
the same honors and come off with similar trophies. Amongst this tribe there are some renowned chiefs
whose lives, if correctly written, would be matter of the most extraordinary kind for the reading world."
(See "Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution," 188J), Part II, page 188.)

When the Delawares got to Kansas they had trouble with the Pawnees. Comanchees, Sioux and other
tribes. Their war with the Pawnees and Sioux began in 1836 and lasted till 1887. They were led in most
of their battles by a Delaware brave named Thomas Hill, who was also noted for his bravery in the
Mexican War, in which he served as Captain of a company of United States soldiers. In 1858 the Kansas

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ment of the situation of affairs made to his Ministers, had formally dis-
approved of the project of The Susquehanna Company to establish a
colony of its members at Wyoming. The dozen families of settlers
who had arrived in the valley about the middle of May, 1763, were
joined here in the course of two or three weeks by other families ; but
early in July — after it had become pretty generally known throughout
Connecticut that The Susquehanna Company had procured from certain
chiefs of the Six Nations a new deed for the Wyoming lands* (confirm-
ing the original sale made in 1754), and that, at about the same time,
the Indians had forsaken the valley, and that Colonel Dyer was soon to
make a voyage to England in order to fix up matters with the King —
a large number of settlers arrived on the ground. Stone,t referring to
these settlers of 1763, says : u The pioneers, who in the Summer of 1762
had commenced their operations in Wyoming, returned to the valley to
resume their labors early in the ensuing- Spring, accompanied by their
families, and with augmented numbers of settlers. They were fur-
nished with an adequate supply of provisions, and took with them a
quantity of live stock — black cattle, J horses and pigs. Thus provided,
and calculating to draw largely from the teeming soil in the course of
the season, they resumed their labors with light hearts and vigorous
arms. The forests rapidly retreated before their well-directed blows,
and in the course of the Summer they commenced bringing the lands
into cultivation on the west side of the river." Parshall Terry, refer-
ring to these settlers (of whom he was one) in his affidavit previously
mentioned, deposed :

"That they were soon joined by a large number, being mostly those who had been
on the preceding year; that they took on with them horses, oxen, cows and farming
utensils ; that they proceeded to plowing, planting corn and sowing grain of different
kinds, building houses and fences and [doing] all kinds of farmer's business ; that they

Dela wares numbered 1,182, they having been joined some years previously by the small band of their
nation from Upper Sandusky, Ohio. In 1854 the Hon. Andrew H. Reeder (for many years a resident of
Easton, Pennsylvania, in the "Forksof the Delaware," but then serving as the first Governor of the newly
organized Territory ot Kansas) visited the Delawares at their reservation on the Kansas River. Their
Chief at that time was "Captain Ketchum," considerably more than eighty years of age, who told the
Governor that he was born in Wyoming Valley, but, being very young when his people removed to
the West, he remembered nothing of the valley. In the American Civil War the Delawares, out of an
able-bodied male population of 201, furnished 170 soldiers to the Union cause. In 1866 the Delawares sold
their lands in Kansas to the Union Pacific Railroad Company, and 1,064 of them bought lands and citizen-
ship in the Cherokee Nation (mentioned on pages 168 and 165) under a contract executed with that Nation
in April, 1867. The remainder of the Kansas Delawares (114 in number), forming a part of "Black
Beaver's" band, moved south to Red River, where they settled among the Kiowas and Wichitas in what
was formerly Indian Territory and is now Oklahoma. "Black Beaver" was a leader among all western
Indians from 1857 till his death, and was an orator as well as a statesman. He was a Captain in a Kansas
regiment during the American Civil War, and served with honor and distinction. As a guide he had few
equals, and was much sought for by array officers. His memory was tenacious and his word as good as a
bond. The Oklahoma Delawares numbered forty-one in 1885 and ninety-five in 1800.

According to the "Report on Indians in the United States at the Eleventh Census" (1890) there were
then 754 Delawares in the Cherokee Nation. About 175 of these were full-blooded— 95 of whom did not
speak English. All were, and are, citizens of the Nation. They reside in a compact body by themselves
in two districts, and "are in much better circumstances than many of the white people in several adjoin-
ing States. Among the Delawares nearly every farmer of any pretensions has an orchard. Among them
we find some of the best merchants, and there are mills of various kinds owned by them in the different
settlements. Their houses are for the most part well built and substantial. No one who has visited the
Delaware settlements could fail to note that they are among the most thrifty and intelligent Indians in the
entire Indian country. The Delawares are the traders and business men of the North American Indians.
The census of 1890 showed that some of them were in almost all of the western tribes, and that all of them
were men of shrewdness and ability."

The Delawares in the Cherokee Nation have no separate government, but send representatives to
the Cherokee National Council However, they preserve their autonomy and are largely governed by
their own tribal laws and traditions. They have a Chief, who either inherits his chieftancy or is elected
by the tribe for some act of bravery he has done, and who serves for life. In 1890 the Rev. Charles
Journeycake was their Chief. In December, 1862, while living in Kansas, the Delawares adopted a code
of laws by which, in many particulars, they are still controlled— the criminal sections, and some other
details, being now superseded by the Cherokee laws. This code, written by a full-blooded Delaware,
was formerly administered by the chiefs and councilors.

In 1858 there were small numbers of Monseys, or Munsees, living with the Stockbridge Indians on
their reservations in Indian Territory and Wisconsin • and there are now a few settled with the Stock-
bridges at the Green Bay Agency in Wisconsin, and with the Chippewas in Brown County, Kansas. In
1890 there were 558 Delawares, including 136 Munsees on the River Thames, living in Canada.

* See page 417. f In "The Poetry and History of Wyoming," page 144.

\ Oxen and their congeners, of whatever color.

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made large improvements in Wilkes-Barre', Kingston, Plymouth and Hanover (as they

Online LibraryOscar Jewell HarveyA history of Wilkes-Barré, Luzerne County, Pennsylvania, from its first beginnings to the present time; → online text (page 73 of 107)