Oskar von Kirchner.

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finiah auoh a dreadful aentenoe.

Where would he get hia new
atook from? Oaman inquiredi
looking away.

Alezandria, of oeurae — or
Malta. There were wholeaale
depeta at eaoh of thoae plaoea.
From both perhapa.

Send the money f Of oourae
he would aend the money when
he had it to aend. . . . There
waa no oredit in thia aoouraed
War. Beoauae of the aub-
marinea one had to aend
ohequea in duplioate.

What waa a ehequef

Oh ... a ohequoi of oourae.

But what waa the uae of
talking? There would be no
buaineaa for montha and
montha. Salonioa — everybody
waa ruined. ... It all de-
pended on the Inanranoe
Oompaniea. He waa a Venize-
liat. They were all YenuBeliata
ainoe the fire. Theae Inanranoe



Companiea were Allied oon-
oema.

With a geaturo of deapair
the dejeoted dealer paaaed on.

Oaman flioked aome more
perapiration from hia fore-
head.

He had learned aomethingi
but the myateriea among whioh
hia mind waa moving appalled
him. Allah grant him under-
atandingl What waa thia
thing — thia oheque?

All elae waa eaay . He knew
the name of theae foreign mer-
ohanta who made the oameraa
and the filma — who did not?
He knew now their addreaa.
. . . Alexandria and Malta.
But he had no ohequea to aend
them— only notea. • • .

From whom oould he buy a
oheque ? To whom dare he go
and explain hia diffioulty and
find out what a oheque waa?

Nobody. ... Ho would
only be robbed.

Diamay aeized him. He waa
baffled. That real Ford, that
high poaition, thoae great
riohea would neyer be his
. . • beoauae he had no
ohequeai and knew not what
they were I

''Allah have pity I" he
groaiied.

But the leaven of ambition
waa fermenting in hia baggy
breeohea. He oould feel that
thiok bundle of notea, moatly
twenty -fiveoi eaoh time he
moved.

Deaperation aeised him. De-
oiaion gripped him— a Turkl
Something outaide of himaalf
made up hia mind, out through
the barbed- wire entanglement
of hia ignoranoe.

"Money ia money. • • • I



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will send the notes 1 " he] mat-
tered ermlj. << When thej see
mj monej thej will not be
able to retnse to send the
goods 1"

The ught of the eash is
always the bargainer's trump
oard in the Balkans. Yon talk
tor an hour : then jou dangle
jenr final ofifer before tike
Tender's ejes.

It was settled 1 Bj the
medium of the post the monej
should be dangled before the
Company's ejesl

Bitterly, for the first time,
Osman cursed the U-boats.
Then, strangely pale, and for
onoe without eyen a glance for
the women, ocvered or un-
ooyered, he walked slowly
through the heat towards the
outskirts of the town. Paus-
ing at a dingy shop well away
from the region of the fire, he
purchased pen, ink, notepaper
and envelepes, and then walked
on again into the hills.

Supposing the men who
opened his letters stele the
money? And swore that the
letters had never reached
them?

Supposing the post office
stole it?

Or the ship's captain?

These thoughts made him
perspire again.

With a groan he was about
to tear the notes out of the
cnyelopes and stuff them back
in his pockets, when — click 1
went a camera 1

Two nurses, rambling in the
hills during their weekly after-
noon off, after having inspected
the fire, had snapshotted the
<< young Turkish shepherd,"
who locked so sweet and



picturesque, watching his dis-
tant flock with such big sad
eyes.

How were they to know
that the mixed flock of sheep
and goats grazing half a mile
away belonged to a Spanish
Jew, and were in charge of a
Macedonian youth fast asleep
under the shade of a tree?

'< Kismet 1 It is written 1''
said Osman.

That oUck settled it once
and for all. Evidently Allah
willed that the letters should
go. Wlic could doubt it ?

They went — unregistered
because he knew not of such
things. And what is more —
they both arrived.

Apparently the sight of the
money was, as he had calcu-
lated, too much for the Cem-
pany. Three weeks later the
goods came to hand from
Alexandria, and these from
Malta followed within another
week.

During that three weeks
Osman had lived at his ease,
augmenting the free rations of
a penniless refugee from the
thriae hundred drachmae he
still had in hand. He cleaned
no shoes. His box had been
burned in the fire. Instead, he
sought the company of photo-
graphic dealers, and by sym-
pathy and humility picked up
considerable information about
their trade. His father he had
continued to avoid, and he
knew not whether his mother
and sister were alive or dead.

Mentally he had lived dur-
ing this period in a state of
suspended animation rather
than anxiety. Where a Briton
would have alternated daily



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between expeotation of aaooess
and dieaBter, Osman, being a
Tark, shragged his shooldera
and Mdd'* Kismet"

The arrival of tbe first
packing -ease galvanised him
into aotivity. There was a
little difflonltj about delivery,
bat twenty-five drachmae to
a port offioial smoothed that
away.

He engaged a hammal to
oarryit to a shed he had rented
with three other ^'merchants "
as a home and warehouse
oombined.

As a result of the fire
Salonioa had become a city
of street hawkers. Pending
the erection of new 'buildings,
such goods as had been saved
from the flames were now ex-
posed on the pavements or
hung upon the railings. Shop-
keeping had become very
simple, and much more profit-
able than ever before for those
lucky enough to haye anything
tosdil.

The goods offered for sale
were mostly tin- ware, drapery,
particularly gaudy handker-
chiefs and table centres of the
^' souvenir " variety, and haber-
dashery. Boot-laces were one-
twenty — a shilling — a pair 1
The photographic dealers were
still out of business. The few
films saved here and there had
long ago been snapped up.
All, in short, was ripe tor
Oaman's enterprise.

The packing-case was his
stalL He covered it with a
bright yellow printed table-
cloth of astounding pattern
and vividity, and arranged on
it a selection of the cheap
cameras, and samples of the



various sizes of films that had
been sent to him.

He loved his new profession
from the first. It was even
less arduous than boot-shining !
One just lolled there and
looked at the women, . . . and
took money, . . . and learned
English.

<*Have you any vest-pocket
films?" asked a Nursing Sister.

*< Yes' pock'? Yes 1" answered
the linguist.

" How much? Combeeong?'*

Both hands were raised with
all the fingers spread out, in-
cluding the thumbs.

'<Ten drachmae! But that
is very dear!"

<< Ten 1 " said Osman, learning
the word.

""Troh share! Too muohl"
said the Sister bilingually.

^< Ten drachmae I " replied
the Camera King.

And the Sister paid. There
was nothing else to be done,
for the passion for snapshots
in a city of so many types
and interests was strong npmi
her.

^'Numbare ther-ee? Yes,
Johnny 1" This to a British
officer.

Both hands went up, and
then the right hand followed
alone

"Fifteen I" cried the <^cer
indignantly. '<Boehl"

'' Fifteen, Johnny 1 " said
Osman, learning another w(»d.
"Finish, Johnny?"

"No I ru try somewhere
else I"

He stalked off — and came
back in half an hour and paid
fifteen drachmae for an article
that should have been two and
a half. There waa^ nowhere



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else. A camera without films
in so tempting a plaoe was an
unthinkable proposition. If
the films had not been there,
one oeuld hare gone without.
But to see them there . . .
waiting in the sunshine . . .
it was onlj a very strong-
minded er a very poor man
who oonld walk away from
Oaman's stalL

His friends the dealers eame
and cursed him. But what
did that matter ? By the time
the first oonsignment had been
exhausted, the second had
arrived. He did not order
a third. Allah was great
and had granted him Under-
standing!

Films would come pouring
in. Seeing his success, all the
others would hurry to minister
to this weakness of the Allies.
The bottom would be knocked
out of the market.

The main principles of suc-
cessful commerce, you pereeiTe,
are not so very abstruse.
Bven a Turkish boot- black
can deduce them fer himself,
once Fate has started him en
the right road. The great
thing is that there must be
n# manual labour attached.
Work that did itself was the
kind of work that Osman
could do very well.

One day when his stock was
almost exhausted his sister
Fatima appeared before the
stall, stared, and recognised
him.

«< You were not killed then,"
she said stolidly.

" Nor you ? " he answered.

She shook her head — a
leggy child, almost a woman,
yery dirty, but not without



good lo^s that would soon
be veiled from the sight of
men.

^'Our father made much
money in the fire," she an-
nounced. " We have two beds
now. He forgot the face of
the man who gave them to
him to carry."

'' They will be taken away ! "
said Osman scornfully. ^*A11
that was stolen must be given
back. It is written on the
papers on the walls 1"

Fatima fidgeted with her
feet on the pavement.

'< My box was burned," said
her brother.

** Ah 1 So was your blanket
and my cloak."

^^I am very poor. . . . See
what I have to do for a bare
living 1" he whined. ''Stay
here all day and take mcmey
for my master!"

''Who is your master?" she
inquired.

"A Jew ... a hard man,"
he lied.

"It is as Allah wills," said
Fatima.

"He is All-wise and All-
bountiful 1 " replied her brother.
" But stand back while I speak
with this Unbeliever 1 "

By the time he had served
his customer Fatima had dis-
appeared.

"To-morrow my father will
come I " thought Osman. " He
will make me go back. • . .
He will beat me and empty
my pockets, ... if I am still
here I"

But he did not intend to
be there. There was only one
camera left and a few odd films.
These he would sell cheap that
very day before the Muezzin



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called the Faithful te eyening
prayer. • • •

And after that • . • what
Allah willed 1

Paeked about his person in
hundred drachmae notes was
a som of four hundred and
fifty ponnds — eleven thousand
two hundred and fifty drach-
mae! This was what he had
made of his ninety-two pounds
— ^f our hundred and fifty 1

He was rioh. • . . The world
lay at his feet. • . . With four
hundred and fifty pounds one
oould make oontraets with the
Armies 1 One oould be a Con-
traotor^ — the easiest and most
profitable oeoupation of alll

He had learned muoh sinee
the day of the fire. It was
easy for the Faithful to make
money. One offered to supply
yegetables — potatoes, toma-
toes, cabbages — or cheese or
wood<^— or wine (to the French).
Always they were buying, buy-
ing, buying ... at prices that
made one's mouth water. . . .

One signed a paper — one
deposited a hundred pounds to
show one was a man of sub-
stance. Then one paid another



two thousand fire hundred
drachmae to the man who was
really to supply the goods to
complete the bargain. After
that the money came of itself.
. . . These Unbelievers paid as
regularly as the Call to Prayer*
and the difference between
their cheque (Yes, he knew
what a cheque was now, Allah
be praised !) — the difference
between their cheque and the
money one paid to the man who
did all the work and supplied
the goods was the contractor's
profit.

A splendid occupation — bet-
ter than blacking shoes, better
even than keeping a stalL • • .

He rolled a cigarette and
placed it in a long carved
silver holder.

''Finish, Johnny 1" he said
haughtily to a British oiBoer
who wanted some vest-pocket
films.

Allah was great and all was
well. His feet were now firm-
ly planted on the ladder of
wealth that led to a real Ford
and two wives. He did not
want more than two— to begin
with. • • •



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791



C0UBT8-MABTIAL IN FBANCB.



Fbom time to time daring
the war an eatery hae been
raised against the injastioe
whioh, it is asserted, has been
inflicted by military tribanals
at the front npon persons who
hare been broaght within
their jarisdiction. Sometimes
the oemplaint has been direct-
ed against the system itself,
sometimes against the methods
adopted in carrying it oat.
And now that a eommittee
of inquiry has been set np
by the War Office to deal with
the qaestion, and the existing
Army — composed almost en-
tirely of "civilian helpers" —
is to a large extent disbanded,
the whole system nnder which
jastioe is administered in the
Army will be snbjeoted to
farther and rigeroas soratiny.

Now, in these days of nni-
▼ersal snffirage, in whioh think-
ing has beeeme anpepalar and
rndeness nationalised, criticism
is seldom f onnd to be either in-
gennoas or instrnoted; and, as
in the tarmoil of reconstrnotion
many an institation will be
marked for felling whioh needs
only lopping and prnning, a
description of how the ooart-
martial system in France has
worked in practice may not be
withont Tslae and interest.

I shall never forget my feel-
ings when I first arrived at
Army Headqnarters to take
ap daty as a ooart-martial
officer. I had had no leave
for neariy eleven months, and
oar battery had been contina-
oasly in action; the never-



eeasing gnn fire was beginning
te affisot my hearing, and it
had become imperative that I
shonld rest my ears for a time.
I had been threatened with a
rest hospital by the sea, bat I
was lacky enongh to escape
with the lesser banishment
which was involved in attach-
ment to H.Q. for a few months,
nntil I had recovered soffici-
ently to retnm to regimental
dnty in the line.

And so, with my gear and
servant, I was whirled off to
the Army. What an amaz-
ing change it was I Instead
of living in the mad of the
Ypres salient nnder a sheet
of oerrngated iron or a tar-
paalin, with a prospect of
being blown to smithereens
at any moment, I found that
my quarters were a comfort-
able wooden hut in the beau-
tiful grounds of a luxurious
chateau. No mud or discom-
fort was allowed within the
sacred precincts which these
*^who sit behind and think
for you " were pleased for the
moment to oocupy. Double
rows of duck-boards, usually
quite unobtainable in the front
areas, enabled the H.Q. staff
to pass in comfort from their
offices or billets to and from
the mess, with its electrie
lights and warm fire, where
the only thing one could be
said to lack was the sweet
companionship of the fairer
sex. And, to make assurance
doubly sure, I found a body
of stalwarts, the "Area Em-



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CaurtB-Mariial m France.



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ployment Campanj " — joon-
larlj termed the "Area
Bnjoymeiit Company*' — whose
sole businesa in life it was,
with hammer and pick and
■hoTel, to keep the Olympians
safe, and free from the disoom-
torts and realities of war.

For two or three nights I
found the silenoe too oppres-
sive for sleep, and I laj awake
listening to the drip of the
dank leaves of the trees over-
head, and wondmng at mj
good fortune in finding thn
genial habitation far from the
madding Boohe.

Nevertheless, even at Armj
H.Q. some work must oooa-
donally be done, and for a
week er two I was sent out
to attend oourts-martial as a
"learner" in oompanj with an
expert oonrt - martial offioer.
All that I need say about
my time as a "learner " is that
these oourts-martial were in-
variably held well behind the
line; that I lunobed with a
different unit eaoh day; and
that, as I was only detailed
to listen to what went on, I
found it both a pleasant and
an interesting experienoe.

Some time before I reached
Army H.Q^ the serviees of
CIM.O.'b had beoome so muoh
in request that it had been
decided that a C.M.O. should
be allotted to each Army Corps,
and, while remaining an Army
officer, should live at Corps
H.Q. and attend courts-martial
held in its area. And so it was
not long before I was attached
as Clio, to a Corps in the line ;
and I am glad to say that, as all
the threeCorps to which I was at
diflbrent times attaelrad during



the next few months were in-
variably "in the line," I wsi
aUe to carry on my work
under the most interesting,
and sometimes even thrilling
surroundings.

But what is a C.M.O., and
why is he appointed 7 Well, a
C.M.O. is an officer with legal
training, — almost invariably a
practising barrister, — who is
appointed as Judge Advooats
to keep a O.C.M. straight oo
points of law and procedure,
and in Field General Genrto-
Martial combines with tke
duties of Judge Advocate the
responsibility of a sitting and
voting member of the tribnnsL

Few people, I think, ap-
preciate the importance or
the difficulties of his peei-
tion. He is not, as a gen-
eral rule, de jure president of
the Court, and yet, in prac-
tice, his view deminates Uie
tribunal, and it is his decision
which determines both the
finding and any sentence that
may be awarded. It is easy to
imagine under these cironm-
stances how necessary it is
for him to exwoise discretion,
and the heavy weight of re-
sponsibility which he bears in
the serious oases which oome
up for trial. To add to his
difficulties, the C.M.O., in his
official capacity, is usually not
a pereona grata with the Corps
Staff, and their dislike of the
"legal expert" is not dimin-
ished by the fttot that the ap-
pointment of trained lawyers
as C.M.O.'s was, I understandi
necessitated te prevent w^
takes being made by military
tribunals in their ettortB to
administer justice.



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CourtB'Martial in France.



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And yet the poeition of a
O.M.O. to a Corps is, I think,
one of the most delightful jobs
in the Army* As an Army
offioer attaohed to a Corps, he
reoeives respeot und oonsidera-
tion as belonging t# a higher
formation, and as a spedalist
there is no one to supervise
his work; with the happy
result that, so long as he at-
tends his oourts, the C.M.O.
is his own master in a sense
seldom realisable in the service.

Now, the C.M.O. has to be
present at as many oourts-
martial held in the Corps
area as he finds praotieable.
Some ddLO/s used to seleet
definite plaees where they sat
on specified days, but the
system I adopted was, I
think, a more practical one;
certainly it gave me much
more interesting experiences.
I used to allot to each Division,
the Corps troops, and the
Artillery, one day a week in
which I was ready to attend
oourts - martial held at any
place chosen by the convening
authority ; with the result that
I covered in my '^drouit" the
whole ambit of the Corps area ;
became acquainted with the
work and personnel of every
sort of military unit, and en-
joyed the hospitality, on one
day of a division, on another
of a battery, or a supply
column, or an infantry brig-
ade, often of battalions im
support or reserve, and some-
times of battalions in the
actual fighting lino.

In the morning I used to
drive or ride as near as I could
to the place selected for the
court-martial, and on arrival

VOL, CCV.— NO. MCCXLIV



at the camp, or nissen hut,
or dug-out, I found sometimes
as many as a hundred people
awaiting me — accused, escort,
witnesses, and the other mem-
bers of the Court. I am speak-
ing, of course, of F.O.C.M. A
general court-martial is a
much more formal affair, about
which I will say something in
a moment. A table with a
blanket over it, and some up-
turned sugar boxes, usually
did service for the court equip-
ment; and, as I entered, I
invariably received what is
perhaps the best thing that
can come one's way*-a genuine
welcome. The President-»as a
rule a lieutenant • colonel or
major, sometimes a captain —
would say, <^Ahl here you
are I The C.M.O. aren't you 7
I am glad to see you. What
do you do?'' ^I do every-
thing there is to do, ex-
cept, I hope, get at cross
purposes with you, sir." " By
Jove, that is splendid ! Here,
take this old chair — you will
find it more comfortable for
writing." For, strange to say,
the soldier has a very whole-
some fear of oourts -martial,
and, especially in the case of
a regular offioer, is profoundly
relieved when the weight of
responsibility for the course of
the trial is taken off his
shoulders.

And here I should like to
say something of the source
of this trepidation, which
militates so greatly against
the capacity of a soldier to
administer justioe. It arises,
so far as I have been able
to learn, in this way. After
a young officer has received
3g



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[June



a oommiasion in the regtilar
Army he is detailed to attend
a number of ooorts- martial
for instrnotion, and ia expeoted
to loam the prooedore of a
ooort of joatioe, and to make
himself familiar with the prin-
ciples of ndlitary law. He is
afterwards himself appointed
a member of a ooort-martiaL

In nine oases oat of ten he
is found to be quite unfitted to
disoharge the duty for which
he has been detailed. His
opinion as to whether the
aooused is guilty or not has
by military law to be taken
first, and, although the mem-
bers of the tribunal sit both
as judges and jury, I have
found that in the great majority
of oases the President wishes
the members to answer the
question of '^guilty or not
guilty," and later of the sen-
tence, without any previous
discussion whatever as to what
the right answer should be.
What chanoe has a young
offioer, or the President for
that matter (himself a soldier
without legal training), of giv-
ing an opinion deserving of
any weight? I remember once
laving down that the accused
might be sentenced to field
punishment up to ninety days,
or to imprisonment for not
more than two years. ^* What
do you say?" said the Presi-
dent to the junior member.
<<Ohl two years imprisonment
with hard labour." I felt I
was bound to point out that
the offence was a trivial one.
'<Oh! I see," said the subal-
tern; 'Hhen I say seven days
F.P. No. 1."

Again, on the question of



guilt, many soldier members
do not come into court with
a completely independent mind.
At the very outset Mie finda
that the court is convened
by a senior o^oer, usually a
general, who by the form of
the oonveaing order states
that '^ whereas it appears to
me . . • that the psrscma
named in the annexed schedule
. . . have committed the offences
m the said echedule mentioned.**
Now it is perfectly true that,
by military law, no one is
allowed te influence the opinion
of the members of a court-
martial, and that no commeat
is to be made on an acquittal.
But there are more ways than
one of killing a sheep, and the
fact that the convening offioer
has already formally expressed
his view that the accused is
guilty, coupled with the fact
that every finding of guilty
and sentence has to be con-
firmed, probably by the con-
vening ^eer himself, who is
^ten the OLO. of the formation
to whidli the members of the
court-martial belong, cannot
be without influence on the
tribunal. Again and again
after an acquittal I have heard
a member say, ^^we shall get
into hot water for this." How
often have officers, whoee find-
ings or sentences have not
been approved by senior officers
(not themselves present, and
who did not hear or see the
witnesses), been detailed to sit
for a time on every available
court-martial for instmction?
I wonder 1 Have not lists of
suitable sentences for offences
been compiled and issued by
higher formations for ^*the



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CourU^Mariial in France.



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gnidanoe" of members ef
oonrts-martial? Is it prudent
to disregard enoh intimations ?
It is not unreasonable that,
plaoed as they are, soldiers
should find it difficult to acquire
the independence of judgment
BO essential to the administra-
tion of justice, and should be
desperately anxious that all
should "go well."

And is it, after all, such an
easy task to balance the weight
of evidence, or to draw the
right inference from facts ? Is
it true that, while a physician
must undergo years of train-
ing before he can pretend to
diagnose disease, any one is
capable of forming an un-
biassed judgment upon evi-
dence without experience, and
by the light of nature? Must
not a person be trained to be
fair in judicial matters ? " We
agree," regular officers have



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