Owen Biddle.

An improved and enlarged edition of Biddle's young carpenter's assistant : being a complete system of architecture for carpenters, joiners, and workmen in general, adapted to the style of building in the United States ; revised and corrected, with several additional articles, and forty-eight new des online

. (page 7 of 7)
Online LibraryOwen BiddleAn improved and enlarged edition of Biddle's young carpenter's assistant : being a complete system of architecture for carpenters, joiners, and workmen in general, adapted to the style of building in the United States ; revised and corrected, with several additional articles, and forty-eight new des → online text (page 7 of 7)
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placed.

Pediment, a low triangular ornament in the front of
buildings, and over doors, windows, &c.

Pier, a kind of pilaster or buttress, to support,
strengthen, or ornament. The pier of a bridge, is
the foot or support of the arch. The wall between
windows or doors. Also, square pillars of stone or
brick, to which gates are hung.

Perystylium, a range of columns or colonnade,
within a court or building like a cloister.

Piazza, a continued archway or vaulting, under
which to walk, &c.

Pilaster, a square pillar or column, usually placed
against a wall.

Pillar. This word is generally used in Architecture,
in common with Column ; though, strictly speaking,
they are different : thus, the supporters in Gothic
Architecture are pillars ; but can never be properly
termed columns, varying in shape and every par-
ticular from the latter.

Planceer, a reversed plan of a cornice or other
moulding ; or a view of the same from below.

Plat-band, any flat square moulding with little pro-
jection. The different fascias of an architrave are
called plat-bands ; the same is applied to the list
between flulings, &c.

Plinth, the lower member of a base.

Portico, a continued range of columns covered at
top, to shelter from the weather ; also, a common
name to buildings which have covered walks sup-
ported by pillars.

Prince-post, a post placed upright, in framing of
principal rafters, between the king-post and the
end of the tie-boam, giving additional support to the
tie-beam.



52



TERMS USED IN ARCHITECTURE.



PRI— SOF

Pbincipal rafters. Large roofs are supported by
sets of framing placed at from 8 to 10 feet apart:
these frames are generally composed of tie-beams,
king-posts, prince-posts, braces or trusses, and
rafters.

Profile, the outline or contour of any building, &c.

PiTRLiNEs, square pieces of timber laid from one set
of principal rafters to another ; on these are laid
the jack-rafters or small rafters to receive the
covering.

Pyramid, a structure which, from a square, triangu-
lar, or other base, rises gradually to a point.

Q.
Quarter-round, a moulding. See Ovolo.
Quoins, stones or other materials, put in the angles
of buildings, to strengthen them.

R.

Relievo, signifies the projection of any carved orna-
ment.

Rotunda, a building which is round, both within and
without.

Rustic. The term is applied to those stones in a
building which are hatched or picked in holes, re-
sembling ajiatural rough appearance.
S.

Saloon, a lofty, vaulted, spacious hall or apartment.

Scotia, a hollow moulding used in bases to columns.

Section of a building, represents it as if cut per-
pendicularly trom the roof downwards, and serves
to show the internal decorations and distribution.

Shaft, the trunk or body of a column, between the
base and the capital.

Soffit, the under part or ceiling of a cornice, which
is usually ornamented. The under part of the
corona is called the soffit. The word is also applied
to the ceiling of an arch, the under side of an
architrave, &c.



TEN— ZOC



T^NiA, the upper member of the Doric architrave ; a
kind of listel.

Tie-beams, large timbers forming the base-line of a
set of principal rafters.

Torus, or Tore, a large semicircular moulding, used
in the base of columns.

Transom, a piece placed over a door, when there is
to be an opening for light immediately over the door.
When the opening over is circular, it is generally
called an impost.

Triglyph, an ornament peculiar to the Doric frieze.

Truss, or Brace, pieces of timber used in framing, to
support the middle of any great span.

Tuscan order, one of the four orders of Archi-
tecture.

Tympanum, the flat surface or space within a pedi-
ment.



Vase, the body of a Corinthian capital ; also, an or-
nament used in Architecture, &c.

Vault, an arched roof, the stones or materials of
which are so placed as to support each other.

Volute, the scroll or spiral horn, used in Ionic
capitals.

W.

Wall-plate, a piece of timber laid on the top of a
wall, on which are laid the joists and framing of the
roof.

Z.

ZocLE, or Soccolo, a low square member, which
serves to elevate a statue, vase, &c. ; also, when a
range of columns is erected on one continued high
plinth, it is called a Zocle. It differs from a pedes-
tal, being without base or cornice.



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Online LibraryOwen BiddleAn improved and enlarged edition of Biddle's young carpenter's assistant : being a complete system of architecture for carpenters, joiners, and workmen in general, adapted to the style of building in the United States ; revised and corrected, with several additional articles, and forty-eight new des → online text (page 7 of 7)