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Philip Doddridge.

The family expositor, or, A paraphrase and version of the New Testament : with critical notes, and a practical improvement of each section ... disposed in the order of an harmony (Volume 4) online

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tbeycome? one will perhaps be ready petulantly to object ^ ^°^*

and say. How are the dead raised up, when their
bodies are quite dissolved, and the particles of
which they consisted scattered abroad, and per-
haps become parts of other bodies.^ and if they
are raised, with what [kind of^ bodies do they
come out of their graves, and what alteration is
made in their constitution and organization, to
fit them for a future life in so many respects
different from this ?

36 Thou fool, that Thou thoughtless creature, who pei'haps pridest 3^

which thou sowest is ji ^£' • .1 -x r>i.i-* !_• a.' -n-A

not quickened ex- ^^^If m the sagacity of this objection, as if it
cept it die. were some mighty effort of penetration, how

easily mightest thou find an answer to it from
what passes every day in the works of nature?
That seed which thou sowest in thy field is not
quickened to new life and verdure, except it ap-
pear to die:^ before it springs up to the future
vegetable, whatever it be, it is macerated, de-
cayed, and at length consumed in the earth.

37 And that which ^^^^ r^^ ^^^-i ^|^^^ which thou sowest, thou sowest 37
thou sowest, thou , w 1 7 7 • t / m 7 1 in 1

sowest not that body not the body which shall be produced from that
that shall be, but seed which is committed to the ground, but bare
bare grain, u may g^(i{j2^ perhaps of wheat, or of any other kind of
of some other grain, [grain,] in which there is no appearance of root

* Except it die.'] To this it hath been up into new life, and is fed by the death

objected, " that if the seed die, it never and corruption of the rest. So that

•* bears fruit." But it is certain that these wise philosophers of our own talk

the seed in general does consume away just as foolishly as the Corinthian free-

in the ground, though a little germen /AiwArerj, whom they vindicate, SeeJobn

or bud which makes a part of it springs xii. 24,



S56 The apostle, by the similitude of seed sown in the earth,

SECT, or of stalk, of blade or of ear. But God^ in 38 But God givcth
XXX. the course of his natural operations, by certain '\ ^ ^fj. ^' !^ ^f}

, .. , ,. .,, r. I ,1 -^ ..1 pleased him, knd to

Jaws 01 vegetation, with wliich thou art entirely every seed his own
XV. 38. unacquainted, gives it a body as he pleases^ and i>ody«
such a variety of parts as he hath thought fit
to determine for that particular species, and to
each of the seeds its own proper body:^ not only
a body of the same sort, but that which, by
virtue of some connexion it had with this or
that individual grain, may properly be called
its own, though in its form much different and
much more beautiful.
59 There is an immense variety in the works of , ^" "^'^ ^^^^ " "°*

/-> J • xu !_• 1 i« 11 J a\ • the same fleslj: but

trod, even m those which tall under the mspec- ihcre is one hind of
tion of our senses, feeble and limited as they flesh of men, another
are, while we dwell in flesh and blood. All ^^f" °^- '^J^^^s* ano-
flesh, you know, 2*;? not the same kind o£ flesh, another of birds. ^'^
but the flesh of men, and of cattle,'^ of fishes, and
of fowls, is different each, from the other, in its
form, qualities, and manner of being subsisted.

40[ J'Aere are] aho celestial bodies and terrestrial ^^ '^^^''^ "''^ also
bodies; but the glory of the celestial and the ter. {'^^^^^ 'tres'triaf:
restrial are apparently different, and the bright- but the glory of the
est lustre the latter can have, is but a faint re- celestial is one, and
flection of what is received from the former. rtLilTllot'her"

41 And even in the glory of the celestial bodies 41 There is one
there is also a wonderful variety: There is one g^ory of the sun, and
superior and incomparable glory of the sun, Zlt' '''^'^nXl
which often shmes with a lustre scarce to be giory of the stars;
endured; and another reflected and milder g-Zorj/ f""" one star differeth
of the moon; and another glory of the stars, ^^'^^^^^^^^^^^r star in
which, as they appear to us, are far inferior to
either of the two great luminaries, ^wrf again,
[one] star differeth from another star in glory, '^

*» lis OTJon proper body.} The apostle " ns to understand all the process of

seems more directly to speak of that as " the Divine works.'*
its proper body, which is peculiar to « Cattle.] So xa1>?ycov signifies; but it

that species of grain; yet undoubtedly seems to be put for beasts in general,
each ear has a peculiar reference to one * And one star differeth, &c.] It is in

individual as its proper seed, in such the original ya^y that is, for; but I con-

a manner as another of the same spe- elude that particle is here used only as

cies has not; and what follows, plainly a copulative; else we must suppose the

suits such 3 view. — God is said to give apostle to argue more philosophically

it this body as he pleasesy because we know than he probably intended, and to assert

not how it is produced; and the apos- that the sun and moon were i^nr^. He

tle*s leading thought is, "That it is ab- plainly speaks of the lustre which these

" surd to argue against a resurrection, celestial luminaries exhibit to us, not of

*' on a principle which is so palpably what they have in themselves, without

** false as that mustbe^ which supposes any regard to their aspects on us.



illustrates the truth and glory of the resurrection, 357

according to their respective magnitudes, in sect.

reference to which they are ranged by astrono- xxx.
mers under different classes.



42 So also f.y the So [shall be^ also the resurrection of the pious "^A
lZ':tZ s:t„t dead:' another kind of glory shall appear than ' "
corruption, it is rais- human nature has known in its purest state,

ed in incorruption : in any beauty of form or ornaments of dress.
There shall indeed, as I intimated but now, be
some difference in the degree of that glory, cor-
^ respondent to the different excellencies in the
characters of good men, on whom it is to pass:
but all shall experience a most illustrious and
happy change ; so that it may be said concerning
the body of them all in general, It is sown or
committed, like seed to the ground, in corrupt
tion, just ready to putrify, and through various
forms of putrefaction to be reduced to the dust:
but it is raised in incorruption, so that no acci-
dent or disorder whatsoever shall be able to
dissolve it again, or to threaten it in the least

43 It is sown in degree. It is sown in dishonour, in a poor con- 43
dishonour, it is rais- te^j^ptij^je gtate, and under a kind of infamy

ed in glory: it is r ' /• r^ r ^ ^

sown in weakness, it p»t upon it by the execution 01 God s first sen-
is raised in power: tence against sin : but it is raised in glory ^^
every part and trace of the curse being abolish-
ed, and itself being formed in such a manner as
to make it appear that the King of heaven de-
lights to honour the happy spirit on which he
bestows such a dress. It is sown in weakness,
absolutely incapable of any even the lowest
degree of action or sensation, and deprived of
those limited abilities which it possessed in this
its mortal life: but it is raised in power, endow-
ed with almost angelic degrees of strength, vi-

44 It is sown a na. prQur and activity. It is sown an animal bodvA't

tural body. It is rais- n j x at. r • i tx« • .li •

ed a spiritual body, formed to the purposes of animal life in this
present world; but it is raised a spiritual hodi/,
formed to a noble superiority to the mean grati-
fications of this imperfect state, and fitted to be

« TTie resurrection of the pious dead.} refers to the garment of light which the

Of them it is evident the apostle here body shall put on at tlie resurrection;

speaks, and not of the dead in general, on which Dr. Whitby ha? a remarkable

Compare verses 23,43, 49, and 57, with note here, (compare Mat. xvii. 2; Acts

1 Thess. iv. 16, 17, and verse 54. St. ix. 3; Rev. i. 14, 15; Dan. xii. 3; Wisd.

Paul (Phil. iii. 11,) and our Lord (Mat. iii. 7; Mat. xiii. 43; and Mark ix. 3.)

xxii. 30; Luke xx. 35,) mean the same and which he thinks remarkably to il-

thing by the resurrection. lustrate the matter ex adverse.

* It is raised in ghnj.} Some think this



S58 As zve have here borne the image of the earthy Adam,
SECT, the instrument of the soul, in the most exalted There is a natural

body, and ther
spiritual Oody.



XXX. services of the spiritual and divine life. For it ^^^f^fj, ^"^ '^"'^ '' ^



is certain, that as there is an animal bodi/, with
^ ^°^- which w^e are now bj daily ctw(i frequently by ^
unhappy experience acquainted, so there is
also a spiritual body: God can exalt and refine
matter to a degree of parity and excellence to
us unknown ; and there are many bodies now "

existing so pure and active, as that in compa-
45 risen they may be called spirits. And so it is *^ ^"'^ ^^ '^^ '^

<.% ^ A. A. i.v, r /-n •• o- \ written. The first

written with respect to the former, (Gen. ii. 7.) ^^^ Adam was made
that the first man Adam^ when God had breath- a living soul, the last
ed into his nostrils the breath of life, was made ^^.^"^ «'«* ^.""^^ ^
a living soul;^ so that even in the original state ^""^ emng^^pint.
of rectitude and felicity in which man was
created, he was made capable of, and fitted to,
an animal life here upon earth : whereas the
Lord Jesus Christ, who by virtue of the in-
fluence he has upon all his seed, as their spiri-
tual Head and great federal Representative, may
well be called the second or latter Adam, [is]
for an enlivening spirit ^ to those who are united
to him, and will not only purify their souls by
the operation of his Spirit^ communicated to
them, but at last spiritualise their very bodies.
46 Nevertheless, the spiritual Adam [was] not first, 46 Howbeit, that
but the animal, and afterward the spiritual ; and "'''* ^^\ ^l^\ ""^'"^

' ."^ 1 I /> A>n » . i 's spiritual, but that

as the first Adam existed before Christ was sent which is natural: and
to become our Saviour, so must we first wear afterward that whicii
that animal body which we derive from the one, '* spiritual,
before we put on that spiritual body which we
47 derive from the other. The first man [was] of^JJga.fh '^3"^" "f
from the earth, and so earthy: he was created ° ^ ^ '
out of the dust of the earth, and his body was
only a mass of animated clay, in reference ta

g Made a living soul.] This is a quo- is not a quotation frona scripture, as some

tation from Moses; and there seems to have thought, but what the apostle adds

be a peculiar emphasis in the original, on occasion of the quotation brought

which I know not how to preserve in the above; as if he had said, Christ is the last

translation, in the reference of ^'^X'^ *o Adam, as an illustrious antitype of the

•jpi/^tjcov, in the former verse, as distin- first, (Rom. v. 14.) and he hath in bim-

guished from x;TV£-jjOca7ncov ; and refers to self a spirit, with which he quickeneth

such a difference between ■^V)^'^, the whom he pleases, and in v/hat decree he

anijnal soul, and 'Ttviv^aj the rational spirit, pleases, John i. 4j and verses 21, 26.

as is more clearly expressed, (1 Thess. The words living and enlivening have

V. 23.) and is also very agreeable to such a correspondence to each other, as

the import of -TH U;DJ, the word which ^wc-av and ^woriiav. I therefore pre-

Moses uses. ferred the latter of them to guickemng,

h The second-^an enlivening spirit.] This though the sense be entirely the same.



we shall hereafter bear the image of the heavenly : 359

the second man w the which it was said, Dust thou art, (Gen. iii. 19 ; ) sect.

Lord from heaven, ^/^g second man, of whom we speak, [is] the xxx^
Lord from heaven: he came originally from the ^^^
heavenly world, to which he is returned; and xv.^'T.
whatever of earth there was in the composition
of the body he condescended to wear, it is now
completely purified and refined into the most

48 As fy the earthy, glorious form. And siich as the earthy [z^as, 48
stich are they also Q^gi i^^y also that are earthy : they all de-
T:':^:TI:X ^^^n^ed from him, and have no higher original
such are they also are mean, mortal, corruptible creatures ; and
that are heavenly. ^^^A as the heavenly [is, are] they also that are

heavenly: they who are, as it were, born of
Christ by the regenerating influences of his
Spirit, and therefore are to live with him in
heaven, shall at last have such glorious bodies as

49 And as we have he hath. And it is delightful beyond all ex- 49
borne the image of pression, to think of it with self-application,

the earthy, we shall Ti ^ • x* i i i j j

also bear the image that as we m particular have borne and do now
of the heavenly. bear the image of the earthy; as assuredly as we
are now sinful, afflicted, and mortal men, like
the first Adam ; so surely shall we also bear the
image of the heavenly ; so surely shall we be
brought to resemble Christ in purity, glory, and
immortality.

50 Now this I say, But when I spake of bearing the image of 50

and b^oodcanLfin*^ ^^® ^^^^ "^^^^ ^" mortality, I would not be
berit the kingdom of Understood as asserting that every one of the
God ; neither doih descendants of Adam shall, in fact, go through
corruption inherit ^Yiq^o pangs of death, and that dissolution in the

iticorruption. ^u'laji • j mi - r

grave, which Adam has experienced. J his I
say, brethren, I affirm it as a constant and im-
portant truth, that flesh and blood, such weak
and crazy systems of it as those in which we
now lodge, cannot inherit the kingdom of God ;
neither doth a body impregnated with the seeds
of corruption inherit incorruption : it is utterly
unfit for the pure ethereal regions of the blessed,
and indeed incapable of subsisting in them.

51 Behold, t shoiv This is universally true ; yet, behold ! I tell you5\
Thali^n^/lT^siee"^^ ^ '^y^^^^y-> that is, a doctrine hitherto unknown,
but we shall all be and which you cannot now be able fully to com-
changed. prehend : for we Christians shall not ali sleep, ^

shall not all submit to the stroke of death, so
that our bodies should all lie mouldering in the
grave, which is their general doom; but we
shall all, the living as well as the dead, at the
VOL. IV. 2 A



S60 For this corruptible must put dk ihcorrupfion,

SECT, appearance of Christ to the final judgment, be
XXX. changed in a most glorious and happy manner

'into the image of our descending Lord. And 52 In a moment,



^ ^°^- this change, great and illustrious as it is, th^ '" *^^ ^'''"Vk"^ °f
Divme power shall effect m less time than we tramp. Forthetrum-
have been speaking of it : for it shall pass in a pet shall sound, and
moment, in an imperceptible point of time, and '^? ^^^^ ^^^iL^*^

. ' * 1 • I I . /• * . . Ai • raised incorruptible,

even m the twinkling of an eye^ just at the in- and we shall be
stant when the last trumpet is blown bj the Di- changed.
vine command, to awaken all the millions of
saints who are sleeping in the dust : for the
trumpet shall then sound, the voice of the arch-
angel, and attending celestial legions, shall fill
the whole earth and heaVen with an astonishing
noise, and the dead shall immediately, as upon
its summons, be raised incorruptible, and we^
that is, those of us Christians who are living,
shall be changed^ as Enoch and Elijah were in
the day of their translation : that body which
but a moment before appeared just as ours now
do, shall, quick as thought, be transformed into
an imagie of that worn by our triumphant Lord,
and fitted for all the most active services, and all
thepurest sensations and delights, of the celestial

53 state. For in order to that, as I have just ob- 53 For this cor-
served, it is 'necessary that t^is corruptible put \^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
on incorruption, and that this mortal put on im- this mortal must put
mortaliti/, so as to be no longer subject to dis- «« immortality.

54 eases or death. j5w? when this glorious and long 54 so when this
expected eveht shall be accomplished, when this corruptible shall
corruptible part of our frame shall have put on ^^^f. P"' '"V^'T'

* 'ii* t 1 11 1 ruption, and this

tncorrupttdn, and this mortal shall have put on mortal shall have

immortality^ then shall the saying be brought to put on immortality,
pass which is written, (Isa. xxv. 8,) Death js then shall be brought
-* It J . . 1 r> Vt 1 1 1 to pass the saying

swallowed up in victory, and perfectly subdued that is written,
and destroyed, and so happy a state introduced. Death is swallowed
that it would not be known that death had ever "p ^» victory.
had any place or power among Chrisfs subjects

55 at all ; And in the assured view of this, may the 55 O death, where
Christian, even noW, with the greatest pleasure,

» We, that is, those of us Christians that he should he raised from the dead,

who are living, shall be ckanged.l As the and continue upon earth some time before

phrase will admit of the looser sense the that great event happened : Thoujfh I con<»

paraphrase gives, I cannot allow of the fess the argument which Mr. Fleming

argument drawn from hence, to prove draws from hence, in favour of the last

eitherthattheapostle expected he should of these opinions, is very plausible,

lire till Christ appeared to judgment, or Compare 1 Thess. ir. 15.



Christians should be sfedfasty theii^ labour not being in vain, , 361

is thy sting? o take Up his song of triumph: Where [is] thy sect»
victo^r p'^'"'^ *' '^^ pointed and destructive sting, O death? Where xxx.
[is] thy victory^ O grave ?^ How little hurt ^ ^^^Z
canst thou do me? For how little awhile shalt xv. 55,

56 The sting of thoU be able to triumph over me! The very 56
ft^ren^fhof sir^th^ ^^^^S ^nd torture of death, that which arms it
law. ^ * with its greatest terrors, [is] the consideration

of its being the punishment of sin, and conse-
quently its foreboding future misery as the ef-
fect of the Divine displeasure: and the power of
sin, that which constitutes its malignity, and
gives it these killing weapons, [is,] that it is a

57 But thanks 5e transgression of the Divine law: But thanks 57

iTs^^thJ^^'^v ctof^ f^^l ^^ ^^^' ^^^"* ^^^ infinite mercy hath taken
through our Lord a Way the sting and terror of death, and giveth
Jesus Christ. tis the prospects and the joys of a complete i;2c-

tory over it, by the displays of his pardoning
grace, through our Lord Jesus Christ. May
we ever remain under those grateful impres-
sions that suit so important an obligation !

58 Therefore, my Therefore, my beloved brethren, be ye fixed on 58
beloved brethren, be ^j^j^ ^^ ^j,^ ^^^^ foundation of vour souls, and

ye sieuizisty unmo^e- , _ , ," • » • • •

able, always abound- immoveable \n J Q\iY regards to it, though strong-
ingin theworkofthe ly bome and pressed upon by a variety of
^"^ knor^h"t ^^ T- temptations and dangers ; be abounding always
labour is not in vain i^ ^^*^ work of the Lord, in every service you are
in the Lord. capable of performing, which may be accep-

table to this your great and compassionate Re-
deemer; as well knowing that your labour in the
service of such a Lord is not, on the whole, in
vain, but that whatsoever you may at present
suffer for his sake, you shall receive a most
glorious reward in that happy day of the resur-
rection concerning which I have beea speaking
60 largely.

IMPROVEMENT.

Let us learn from this incomparable discourse of the apostle, Ver. 35.
to curb that vain curiosity which is so ready in matters of di-

^ Where is thy sting? Sac] The original one of his stanzas; grave j where is thy

has a kind of poetical turn which seems victory? death, where is thy sting f It

in some measure to suit the sublinuty of is generally thought that these words

the sentiment; for the first of the clauses are borrowed from Hos. xiii. 10, 14,

is an ioniCf and the second a trochaic which we render, *' O death, I mill be thy

verse, n» o-«, ^av«7i, to x£v75ov • ma an, «< plague, &c. ;" and some urge that 'Ht^

ah, TO vme^; and Mr. Pope has only i^^^ been read for *^^^^; but I do not see

transposed them to make them, as they ^here is any certain evidence that the

stand in our version, the conclusion of apostle intended any quotation at all.



362 Reflections on the glory of the resurrectmt,

s^cT. vine revelation to break out into an unbecoming petulance; and
XXX. where we are sure that God declares the thing, let us leave it

to him to overcome every difficulty that may seem to attend the

manner in w^hich it shall be effected. Nothing may be more
useful in order to the conquering such a weakness, than to ob-
serve the operations of God in the works of nature, where he
Ver. 38. gives to every seed, whether animal or vegetable, such a body as
shall please him. Each is proper for its sphere, and beautiful
in its connection and order, though the degree of their glory be
39, 40 different. And thus all the diversity of glory which shall at
last be apparent among the children of God, even the children
of the resurrection, shall serve to illustrate the divine wisdom,
and goodness, and faithfulness.

The alterations made in every instance will indeed be won-
53d«rful, when this mortal puts on immortality, and this corrupti-
47> &c.ble puts on incorruption. Let us for ever adore the Divine
goodness, that when, by our relation to the first Adam, we
were under a sentence of condemnation and death, he was pleas-
ed in his infinite mercy to appoint that we should stand related
to Christ, as the second Adam, in so happy a bond, that by him
we might recover what we had lost in the former; yea, and far
4*9 more: so that as we have borne the image of the earthy, we
might as surely bear the image of the heavenly. O let us ear-
nestly aspire after this blessedness; and remember that our
bearing the image of his holiness is inseparably connected with
the hope of so glorious a privilege !

Let us endeavour, therefore, by cultivating holiness in all its

branches, to maintain this hope in all it« spirit and energy ;

longing for that glorious day when, in the utmost extent of the

54 prophetic expression, death shall be swallowed up in victory,

and millions of voices, after the long silence of the grave, shall

55 burst out at once into that triumphant song, O death, where is

56 thy sting ? O grave, where is thy victory .^ And when we see

57 death disarmed, and the terrors of the law silenced, let us bless

God for Jesus Christ, by whom the precepts of _ the law were

perfectly fulfilled and its penalty endured; that so we might

not only be delivered from the curse, but called to inherit the

18, 19blessing. Let it be considered as an engagement to universal

obedience; and. in the assurance that whatever other labours

^^may be frustrated, those in the Lord shall never be vain, let

gratitude and interest concur to render us stedfast, immoveables

and continually active in his service.



The Apostle proposes a collectmifor the saints in Judea, 363

SECT. XXXI.

*rhe Apostle gives some.ndvices relating to the proposed collection for the
poor saijits in Judca. 1 Cor. xvi. 1 — 12.



SECT,
XXXI,



1 Cor. XVI. 1. 1 CORINTHIANS XVI. 1.

JJJow concwumg T3EF0RE I conclude this epistle, I must add
the collection -U g, word Of two concerning the collection which
^ave glvfn'^ordeTtJ X^" P^opose making for the poor saints^ which 7^
the churches of Ga- are in Judea, who are in such gr^at straits both xvi. 1
iatia, even so do ye. on account of the famine and the persecution
to which they are exposed. And here I would
only say this ; as I have given it in charge to
the chu'ches of Galatia^ so also do ye proceed:
for nothing occurs to my thoughts at present,
which can be more subservient to that generous
2 Upon the first and good design. When you hold your 2
^ay of the week, let Christian assemblies on the first day of the week^"^
?ay*bv himin •^tore^ ^^ Commemoration of the resurrection of our
as God hath prosper- Lord, which has made that day sacred amongst
edhim, that there be us, let every one of you lay something by, in
1 coL'.^^""^* ''^'" proportion to the degree in which, by the Divine ~
blessing, he hath been |?ro5pcrerf in his affairs ;
and let him bring it with him to the place
where you meet for your public worship; then.
treasuring it up ^ in the common sto-ck, that so
it may be ready in one sum, and there be no
necessity of making any particular collections
when I come. This will save us some trouble,
at a time when we sliall necessarily have so



Online LibraryPhilip DoddridgeThe family expositor, or, A paraphrase and version of the New Testament : with critical notes, and a practical improvement of each section ... disposed in the order of an harmony (Volume 4) → online text (page 44 of 59)