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P. J. (Pierre Juste) Cadiot.

A treatise on surgical therapeutics of domestic animals online

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Ik C 1 1-



OIRTiglll X°_



rOl^liK'in IHIKISTT.



A TREATISE



OM



Surgical Therapeutics



DOMESTIC ANIMALS



p. J. CADIOT, Prof., and J. ALMY, Adjunct

IN THE VETERINARY SCHOOL OF ALPORT

TRANSLATED BY

A. LIAUTARD, M.D.. V.M.

Dean and Professor of Anatomy, Surgery, Sanitary Medicme and ftirisprtidettce

in the New York American Veterinary College ; Officier dii Merite

Agricole de Fra7tce ; Member of the Societe Centrale de JMedecine

Vetirinaire (Paris) ; Honorary Fellow of the Royal College

of Veterinary Surgeons {London); Corresponding

Member of the Academy of Medecine of Brux-

elles ; Honorary JMember of the Societe

Veterinaire d' Alsace-Lorraine, etc.

Author of'Vade Mecum of Equine Anatomy,'" "How to Tell the Age of
Domestic Animals,''' ''Animal Castration," ''Lameness of Horses,^*
Translator of "Bouley on Hydrophobia,'"' of " Zundel on
Diseases of the Foof'; Editor of the "Ameri-
can Veterinary Review,'''' etc., etc.




New York
WILLIAM K. JENKINS

VETERINARY PUBLISHER AND BOOKSELLER ,

851-853 Sixth Avenue

1906



LIBRARY of CONGRFSS/

Two Conies Received

JUN 25 1906

'1 CMyrielit Entry
( jSLASS Ck!. he. No.
\' COPY b;



n






Copyright, 1898, 1900, 1902, 1906, by William R. Jenkins



A/l Rights Reserved



printed by the
Press of William R. Jenkins

NEW YORK



PREFACE



When the Traite de T]lh^ape^ctiq^le Generate Veterinaire of
Professor Cadiot was issued, it appeared to me that the English-
reading practitioner, as well as the students of our veterinary-
colleges, would be benefited by its perusal, and for that purpose I
obtained from the author permission to translate it.

It is thought by the translator that in undertaking to present
the work in its English form, he should add a contribution which
lie hopes will prove valuable, especially to the branch of General
Surgery, which is perhaps still deficient in English veterinary liter-
ature ; but, as no reference to American work is made in the original
text, the translator will take the liberty to add notes, whenever in
his estimation due credit can be inserted, in relation to what contri-
bution he can gather from American works.

It is possible, however, that in adding these notes some omis-
sion may occur ; in which case it is hoped that the indulgence of
the reader will not be refused to the author, who will have then,
sinned without intention.

My principal desire is to have the English-speaking profession
benefited, and give its members an opportunity to be well acquainted
with all the progress made in Veterinary Surgery up to this day.

A. EIAUTARD.



TABLE OF CONTENTS



I.— GENERAL SURGERY

PAGE

Means of Restraint of Animals i

Securing of Solipeds 2

Restraint in the Standing Position 2

Restraint While Lying Down 9

Casting with Hobbles 9

Casting Without Hobbles 17

Restraint of Cattle 20

Restraint of Cattle Standing 20

Restraint of Cattle in a Recumbent Position 23

Restraint of Small Animals 25

"General Anaesthesia 28

Anaesthesia of the Horse 30

Anaesthesia with Ether 30

Anaesthesia with Chloroform 33

Anaesthesia with Chloral 36

Anaesthesia with Morphine 38

Anaesthesia of Ruminants and Swine 39

Anaesthesia of the Dog and Cat 39

Anaesthesia of the Monkey 4r

Anaesthesia of Birds 42

Local Anesthesia 43

Anaesthesia by cold 43

Anaesthesia by cocaine 44

Surgical Antisepsis and Asepsis 46

Antiseptic Agents 52

Instruments-^— Dressing Material 56

Technic of Antisepsy and Asepsy 57

Hemostasis 69

Preventive Hemostasis 69

Hemostasis During and After Operation 71

Cauterization — Firing 77

Cauterization of Solipeds 79

Cauterization of Bovines 92



Vi TABLE OF CONTENTS

IL— DISEASES COMMON TO ALL TISSUES

PAGE

Inflammation 97

Abscess loi

Gangrene m

Ulcers "5

Fistula 117

Foreign Bodies t2o

Traumatic Lesions 125

Wounds from Sharp Instruments 130

Incised Wounds i3t>

Wounds from Pricking Instruments 132

Punctured Wounds 132

Contused Wounds i34

Wounds by Fire-arms i37

Gun-shot Wounds 1 37

^ Torn Wounds 141

Wounds from Bites 142

Poisoned or Virulent Wounds 143

Granular Wounds 148

Subcutaneous wounds 149

Contusions — Bruises 150

Traumatic Effusions of Serosity or Oily Substances 152

Chilblains — Frost-Bites — Congelations i54

Burns i57

Insolation — Sunstroke — Overheat 161

Accidents from Lightning 163

Complications ok Traumatic Lesions 166

Syncope — Shock — Local Stupor 166

Hemorrhage and Traumatic Anaemia 167

Traumatic Emphysema 168

Thrombosis and Traumatic Venous Embolism 170

Traumatic Fever 171

Traumatic Erysipelas i73

Purulent Infections — Pyohemia i75

Surgical Septicaemia. 178

Traumatic Gangrene 178

Putrid Infection — Chronic Septicaemia 183

Tetanus 184

Granulations— Cicatrices 194

Mycosis 200

Actinomycosis 200

, Botryomycosis 204



} TABLE OF CONTENTS



vn



PAGE

Virulent Diseases 207

Bacterian Anthrax 207

Bacteridian Anthrax 208

Farcy 209

Tuberculosis 210

Tumors 213

III— DISEASES SPECIAL TO ALL TISSUES AND AFFECTIONS
OF THE EXTREMITIES

Diseases of the Skin and Cellular Tissue 225

Traumatic Lesions 225

Excoriations — Cores — Stickfasts 225

Erythema 227

Dermatitis 229

Elephantiasis 237

Acne 239

Furuncle — Anthrax 240

Sebaceous Cysts 24 r

Cutaneous Horns 242

Tumors 243

Parasitic Affections 245

Diseases of Serous Burs^ 24S

Traumatic Lesions 248

Hygromas — Bursitis 248

Hygroma of the Elbow (Capped Elbow) 251

„ Knee 255

„ Stifle 257

,, Hock (Capped Hock) 257

,, Fetlock 259

,, Cannon 259

,, Withers 260

Poll 260

Tumors 260

Diseases of Muscles 261

Traumatic Lesions 261

Ruptures 263

Hernias — Luxations 266

Luxation of the Long Vastus 267

Myositis 269

Amyotrophies 273

Parasites — Tumors 275

Spasms— Contractures — Cramps 276

Springhalt 277

Diseases of Tendons 2S4

Contusions 2S4



viii TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE

Diseases of Tendons {coni.)

Wounds c 284

Wounds of the Tendo Achillis , 287

,, Extensors of the Phalanges , 289

,, Flexors of the Phalanges 289

Suppurative Tenosilis 292

Tendinous Quittor 292

Ruptures 295

Rupture of the Tendon of the Infra-Spinatus 296

„ Cord of the Flexor Metatarsi 297

,, Tendo Achillis 300

,, Anterior Extensor of the Phalanges 301

„ Flexors of the Phalanges 301

,, Suspensory Ligament 303

Tendinous Luxations 304

Sprains of Tendons — Nerf Ferrure — Tenositis 306

Knuckling 316

Sprung Knees 320

Tendinous Helminthiasis 322

Diseases of Tendinous Synovial Sacs 324

Traumatic Lesions , 324

Traumatic Synovitis 326

Closed Acute Synovitis 327

Infectious Synovitis 328

Chronic Synovitis and Dropsies 330

Synovitis of the Sheath of the Coraco-Radialis 335

,, Sub-Spinatus 337

Knee 337

Large Gluteus 33S

Hock 339

Sesamoid Sheaths 341

Sheath of Anterior Extensor of the Phalanges.. 343

Diseases of Aponeurosis 345

Diseases of Arteries 347

Wounds 347

Ruptures . . , 351

Aneurisms ' 353

Arterio-Venous Aneurisms 355

Arteritis and Thrombosis 357

Diseases of Veins 361

Traumatic Lesions 361

Thrombus 363

Phlebitis and Thrombosis 364

Varices 367



TABLE OF CONTENTS ix

PAGE

Diseases of Lymphatics 369

Contusions — Wounds — Fistulas 369

Lymphangitis 370

Traumatic Lymphangitis 37r

Specific Lymphangitis 375

Adenitis 377

Tumors 379

Lymphangiectasis 380

Diseases of Nerves 382

Traumatic Lesions 382

Neuritis 390

Neuromas 392

Neuralgias 395

Paralysis 396

Paralysis of the Sus-scapular Nerve 401

,, Brachial Plexus 402

, , Radial Nerve 403

, , Obturator Nerve 407

„ Femoral Nerve 407

,, Great Sciatic Nerve 410

,, External Sciatic Popliteal 410

Diseases of Bones 412

Contusions 412

Wounds 413

Fractures 414

Incomplete Fractures 414.

Complete Fractures 415

Open Fractures 429

Fracture of the Scapula 432

Humerus 435

Radius 437

Cubitus 440

Carpus 441

Ossa Innominata 442

Femur 444

Patella 446

Tibia and Fibula 447

Tarsus 449

Metacarpus and Metatarsus 450

Phalanges 452

Sesamoids 454

Periostitis— Osteitis — Osteomyelitis 455

Caries — Suppurative Osteomyelitis 4';9

Necrosis 461

Exostosis 465

Osselets 468

Spavin — Tarsal Osteo-arthritis 469

Jarde 474



X TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE

Diseases of Bones {cont.)

Curbe ■« 475

Splints 476

Ringbones — Sidebones — Phalangeal Exostosis 478

Rachitism 484

Osteomalacia — Osteoclastia — Osteoporosis 487

Tumors 489

Hydatids 490

Diseases of Articulations 491

Contusions 491

Sprains 491

Sprain of the Scapulo-humeral Joint 494

„ Shoulders 494

Knee 497

,, Coxo-femoral Joint 497

Stifle 498

,, Hock 498

,, Fetlock 499

,, Phalanges 502

Luxations 503

Luxation of the Shoulder 506

„ Elbow 508

,, Knee 510

„ Pelvis 510

,, Coxo-femoral Joint 511

„ Femoro-tibial Joint 514

,, Femoro-patellar Joint 515

„ Hock Joint 516

„ Fetlock Joint 517

„ Phalangeal Articulations 520

Pseudo-luxation of the Patella 520

Wounds of Articulations 523

Peri-articular Wounds 523

Penetrating Wounds 524

Traumatic Arthritis 533

Articular Wounds and Traumatic Arthritis of Extremities 535

Wounds of the Scapulo-Humeral Joint ; 535

Humero-Radio-Cubital Joint 536

Knee Joint 537

Femoro-Tibial Joint 539

Hock Joint 540

Fetlock Joint 541

Phalangeal Joint 542

Closed Idiopathic Arthritis 545

Infectious Arthritis 546

Articular Rheumatism 548

Arthritis of Milch Cows 549

Post-Partum Arthritis 549^

Arthritis of New-Boms 552



TABLE OF CONTENTS xi

PAGE

Diseases of Articulations ( cont. )

Hydarthrosis 554

Hydarthrosis of the Scapulo-Humeral Joint 561

,, Elbow Joint 561

,, Carpal Joint 562

Articular Thoroughpin ot the Knee 562

Hydarthrosis of the Coxo-Femoral Joint 563

,, Femoro-Tibio-Patellar Joint — Patellar Thor-
oughpin 563

,, Tarsal Joints — Articular Thoroughpin of the

Hock 565

„ Articulations of the Fetlock and Foot —

Articular Windgalls 566

Dry Arthritis — Arthritis Deformans 567

Arthropathies in Nervous Afiections 569

Foreign Bodies 570

Ankylosis 572



TABLE OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



FIG. ^ PAGE

1 Foot raiser (Trasbot) 4

2 Hind limb lifted and carried forward by means of the kicking strap. . 5

3 Contention of the hind limbs 6

4 Hippo-strap 7

5 Place's volta-faradic apparatus - 8

6 Vinsot's apparatus 9

7 Throwing of a horse 10

8 Throwing of a horse at the Berlin College 1 1

9 Throwing of a horse with foot-lift 12

10 Right fore limb carried upon corresponding hind limb 13

11 Right hind limb carried upon correspondmg fore limb 13

12 BracyClark hobble 14

13 English hobbles 14

14 Denenbourg improvised hobble 15

15 Suykerbuyck's hobbles 16

16 Throwing by the Russian process 17

17 Throwing with two side lines 19

18 Daviau's apparatus • 19

19 Contention of a fore limb (cattle) 20

20 Hind limb fastened at a bar 21

21 Hind limb fastened at a bar held by two assistants 22

22 Fastening of one fore and one hind limb 22

23 Throwing of an ox 23

24 Snuffer nippers 24

25 Nasal ring 24

26 Leading stick (Roland) 25

27 Inhaler for etherization or chloroforming 32

28 Richardson's atomizer 44

29 Bistouries with metallic handles 59

30 Reverdin's needle 60

31 Larger's needle 60

32 Lamblin's needle 60

33 Lucas-Championniere's atomizer 68

34 Preventive hemostasis. Rubber ties applied above the knee and

hock 70

35 Chassaignac's ecraseur 72

36 Forceps 75

37 Lines, dots and sharp pointed firing irons 80

38 Bourguet's cautery 8r

39 Paquelin's cautery 82

40 Zoocautery 83

41 Paquelin de Place's cautery 84



XIV TABLE OF ILLUSTRATIONS

FIG. PAGE

Eolipiles 85

Cauterization of the principal regions where firing is generally applied 86

Subcutaneous cauterization 91

Bead firing irons 92

Horny cheloid of the left fore leg 196

Autoplasty of the broken knee 198

48 Actinomycosis of lower maxillary 201

/^9 Actinomycosis of the tongue 201

50 Actinomycosis bovis, magnified 203

51 Botryomycosis of the shoulder and chest 205

52 Botryomycosis of the tail 205

53 Discomyces equi 206

54 Tuberculous tumor of the periocular regions 210

55 Tuberculous tumor of the wing 211

56 Horny growth on a tuberculous surface of the cheek 211

57 Shoeboil 252

58 Hygroma of the knee 255

59 Hygroma of the knee in a cow 256

60 Hygroma of the knee, partly ossified and covered with horny growth 256

61 Capped hock 258

62 Fascia 'ata and long vastus in bovines 268

63 Horse affected with springhalt 277

64)

65 y Tendinous sutures , 286

66 J

67 Section of the Tendo Achillis 288

68 Fibrous tumor developed after a contused wound of the flexor

tendons of the phalanges 290

69 Apparatus to support the fetlock in cases of section of the flexor

tendons of the foot 291

70 Rupture of the cord of the flexor metatarsi 298

71 Rupture of the tendons of the flexors of the phalanges 302

72 Suspensory ligaments, carpal band, perforans and perforatus 308

73 Median neurotomy 313

74 Neurotomy of the sciatic 314

75 Colt affected with knuckling on both fore legs 315

76 Orthosome of Brogniez 317

77 Knuckling and phalangeal periostitis 318

78 Part of the fore arm and knee (posterior face) 32 r

79 Dieulafoy's aspirator 332

80 Potain's aspirator 333

81 Horse aflfected with bicipital synovitis 336

82 Tarsal thoroughpin 339

83 Windgall of the great sesamoids 342

84 Anterior windgall of the fetlock 343



85)



86 } Wounds of arteries 348

87)

88 )

g y Torsion of arteries 350

90 Direct suture 389



TABLE OF ILLUSTRATIONS XV

FIG. PAGE

91 Perineurotic suture _ 389

92 Paralysis of the sus-scapular nerve 401

93 Complete paralysis of the radial 404

94 Paralysis of the radial, recovering 406

95 Paralysis of the femoral nerve 409

96 Paralysis of the external popliteal sciatic nerve 411

97 Apparatus of Relier 424

98 Bandage for fractures of the scapula and for those of the humerus . . 433

99 Dog suflfering with osteoporosis of the legs . » 457

100 Necrosis of the scapula 463

loi Spavin seen from forward, left leg 470

102 Spavin seen from behind, right leg 470

103 Spavin ; front view of dissected hock 471

104 Vertical transverse section of a spavined hock 471

105 Cunean tenotomy 473

106 Jarde 475

107 Curb 475

108 Phalangeal ringbone , 479

109 Side bone with atrophy of the third phalanx 479

no High neurotomy , 482

111 Rachitic goat 485

112 Stifle joint 521

1 13 Femoro-tibio-patellar arthritis 550

114 Hydarthrosis of the elbow 561

115 Hydarthrosis of the knee 562

116 Hydarthrosis of the fetlock 566

117 Dry arthritis of the stifle joint , 568

iiS Dry arthritis of the stifle joint * = ....,.. 571



FIRST PART



TREATISE

ON

VETERINARY SURGICxiL THERAPEUTICS



FIRST PART

GENERAL SURGERY.



MEANS FOR THE RESTRAINT OF ANIMALS.

Since all tissues, with the exception of those of epidermic or epi-
thelial nature, are provided with sensitive nerves, almost all opera-
tions are painful, and give rise on the part of the animal to reactions
which are dangerous for the operator, his assistants, or the patient
itself. Under the influence of the pain produced by the instrument
no animal will remain quiet. It will resist and try to defend itself,
so that the surgeon who wishes to act with safety must take precau-
tions against injury. The horse with his feet or teeth, the steer with
his horns or his legs, the dog and the pig with their teeth, the cat
with its claws and canines, may inflict dangerous wounds.

A number of veterinarians have paid with their life for their neg-
ligence and lack of precaution in providing nieans for the control of
large animals. Generally means of restraint must be employed.
Yet, with kindness, caresses, and patience, one may succeed in con-
trolling an animal, which threats and pain would only exasperate
and possibly render more dangerous. Rough handling and inflic-
tion of great pain have often caused serious accidents. It is on
account of such treatment that a great many horses hurt, disable, or
kill themselves, and that too many men become victims of their own
unskilfulness and their own brutality. (Bourgelat. )

It is preferable to fasten the animal standing, even if the restraint
of a recumbent position allows an easier surgical operation. Such a

T



2 VETERINARY SURGICAL THERAPEUTICS.

position also suggests the possibility of strong reactions, which may-
be the cause of fractures of the vertebral column or of a bone of the
extremities, of paralysis or various other accidents of a serious
nature. The victims of a "forced recumbent position are not now
taken into account.

Only slightly painful operations, or those required for internal dis-
eases, should be performed in the stable. Not only is this place,
ordinarily, badly lighted, but there is danger of the operators being
squeezed against the wall or the partitions of the stall. It is better
to select, close by, a convenient place (grass or soft ground), which
should be covered with straw. On pavement, or on a hard and slip-
pery surface, the horse is liable to slip and injure its knees.

As it is important to see well what one is doing, operations should
be performed by daylight. Bothersome, curious, and useless wit-
nesses would better be kept away. One should take a good posi-
tion for avoiding injuries from the patient. At night lamps are used
to lig-ht the place used for the operation.

I.

SECURING OF SOLIPEDS.
Restraint in the Standing Position.

When a horse is to be held in hand it should have on a bridle or a
halter. If the latter is used, better control is obtained if a rope passed in
his mouth rests upon the bars. In some cases the cavesson is use-
ful. At times, for operations performed in certain regions, the ani-
mal is tied to a ring or a post with an ordinary halter or one still
stronger. The rope of this should never be left in the mouth or over
the animal's nose, as the horse, pulling backwards, may injure its
tongue or fracture its jaw. The bit or the bridle should not be used,
since they are likely to give rise to the same accidents.

After the animal has been thus prepared it may be possible, by
kind treatment, as well as by these means of restraint, to obtain a suf-
ficient submission on the part of the animal to perform a compara-
tively painless operation. But many horses are so restless that vio-
lent measures must be resorted to. Often applying the old aphorism,
"that of two simultaneous pains, not in the same spot, the more
severe renders the other less apparent," the " hvilch " is used. Is it
for a simple incision, a free counter-opening, the lancing of an
abscess, the exploration of a fistula, or the removal of a small neo-
plasm, the "twitch" is applied to the upper lip, and the pain
resulting from its t wistings is such that the animal does not react under
that produced by the instrument. Applied to the ear, or to the lower
lip, this revulsive does not act so well. The assistant who holds the



SECURING OF SOLIPEDS. 3

"twitch" places liimself in front of the patient, a httle towards the side,
to avoid kicks from the fore legs. A "twitch" can be made readily
with a piece of rope and a small stick. " Bar?iacles " are used for
the same purpose. Two rods of iron or of wood, fastened together
at one end with a hinge or a rope, are placed on the upper lip,
embracing it ; then they are brought together and secured by a ring
or a cord at the other end. The " Polish barnacle," also called " Ger-
man bit," is advised when the application of the twitch is difficult,
because the horse resists, kicks, or bites. It is made of a cord some three
or four meters long, having at one end a small loop or a ring. A large
loop is made in passing the cord into the mouth, over the poll, and
again through the ring. A more or less vigorous pull on the cord will
proportionately distend the commissure of the lips, compress the
cheeks, and produce much pain. The cord can also be made tight
by twisting it with a piece of stick. Some authors advise inserting
the finger or a bullet of lead in the ear. Gohier relates the case of a
celebrated stallion which could not be shod without having in his ears
bullets held together with a string. Many dangerous animals be-
come quiet when they are temporarily blinded with a ' ' cap " made of
cloth or leather, or by simply having the head covered with an apron.
To the horse that bites or defends himself with his teeth the
"muzzle" is appHed. This may be replaced by a cord round the
lower part of the head, passing over the nose, and twisting round the
neck of the inferior maxillary bone ; this is an excellent device.
The ''^cradle'' or "side bar" is advantageous in preventing an ani-
mal from biting the lateral parts of the trunk, the chest, or the fore
legs.

In some cases, when one operates on the fore legs, the anterior
regions of the trunk, or the head, it is prudent to have this last held
downwards by one or two assistants. A cord or a leather strap fas-
tened to a halter is sometimes used, passing it between the fore legs,
through a ring of the surcingle and then back again to the ring of the
halter, where it is secured. The head should be held upwards, if one
operates on the hind quarters of the animal.

Raising one leg of an animal reduces his base of sustentation and
renders it difficult for him to strike or kick. To raise a front foot,
one takes hold of the canon, flexes it on the forearm, and keejis it
in that position with both hands round the coronet — or holds it
simply by grasping the toe with one hand, the thumb resting on the
sole or the arch of the shoe and the lingers on the wall of the foot.
Ordinarily, a strong assistant can easily do this, especially if the
twitch is used. But if the horse resists, moves constantly, or if the
operation lasts some time, the strap or the plaie-longe \s employed.
The use of the former is common to all blacksmith shops ; its advan-
tages are well known. With the plate-longe, the foot may be



VETERINARY SURGICAL THERAPEUTICS.



secured in various ways : ist, fixed round the pasterns, it is carriecj
up to the withers, round the thorax, back under the canon of thf,-
foot, raisedj and pulled on horizontally ; 2d, fixed on the coronet
and the canon flexed on the forearm, it is rolled round both of these
and its extremity held by an assistant.

Instead of the plate-longe, one may use the foot-raiser. It is
made of a wide strap some 0.60 centimeters long, having a
buckle at one of its ends and a number of holes at the other, thus
making firm the knee flexed on the forearm and rendering them im-
movable, so that the animal cannot strike with his foreleg. A long
leather strap or a single rope may replace the foot-raiser. The one
invented by Trasbot consists of a leather strap about i meter 20 cen-
timeters long, pierced with holes, having at one of its ends a flat
ring and on one side, at about 25 centimeters from the ring, a buckle.

The strap running through the ring-
^ y — -T \ /^JHP'''''"^^i^ forms a loop fixed on the coronet;

f j £S^ ^m . then is wound around the forearm,

passing from the inner to the outer
surface, where it is secured by the
buckle (fig. i). With the foot-raiser,
horses soon get tired of struggling,
and can be easily approached.

To raise a hind leg, more streno-th
and skill are necessary. The as-
sistant, placed on the side of the
leg to be raised, passes his hand
from the back forwards on the in-
ner face of the canon ; by a gradual
traction upon the leg he raises it
from the floor, then resting it on his
thigh holds it with both his hands
around the coronet. To hold the
foot, sometimes a rope tied to the
tail and passed vmder the flexed
coronet is used in preference. For
the anterior legs, a strap or the
plate-longe is used. The former,
placed around the neck, secured by
a straight knot, and carried backwards along the spine, is twisted
around the base of the tail, then round the coronet, when by a back-
wards traction the leg is raised. It is preferable, in using this last
mode (the plate-longe), to place a hobble round the coronet, and to-
•pass the rope through the ring of the hobble.

It is also with the assistance of the plate-longe that one of the hind'
legs may be carried forward. Fixed to the canon or to the coronet




Fig. I — Foot raiser (Trasbot.)



SECURING OF SOLIPEDS.



5



"by a slip knot, it is carried forward between the forearms, passed
round the opposite shoulder, brought to the withers along- the ribs
to the elbow, where, made to cross itself from within outwards, it



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