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drastic to bring the number of this year's commercial
transits below the 1950 figures which were higher than
any year during the 1940's.

The amount of tolls collected for the first three-
quarters of this year stands at $17,S96,0O0, approxi-
mately $300,000' under the total collscted in the
comparable period last year. This decline has been
particularly noticeable since last November. The tolls
from last July through October were considerably in
excess of those in the first four months of the previous
fiscal year.

INTERCOASTAL SHIPPING DROPS

Comparative figures on the Canal traffic over the
main trade routes during January, February, and
March of this year and last year show the biggest
drop occurred in the United States intercoastal run,
the figures being 126 this year and 300 in 1950.

This heavy loss was partially overcome by increased
movements over the routes between the east coast of
the United States and the Far East, and between
Europe and the west coast of the United States and
Canada. The increase over the latter route was indi-
cated by the substantial number of British and
Norwegian vessels counted in the transit lists for the
two periods. The number of vessels flying the British
flag increased from 224 to 264, while Norwegian ships
numbered 140 last quarter as compared with only 116
in the comparable three-month period in 1950.

Other major variations occurred on the trade routes
between Europe and South America, and the east
coast of the United States and Central American
ports. Both routes showed a definite slackening of
shipping.

The decrease in the east coast United States-
Central America route was attributed primarily to a
decline in the banana trade. While the tonnage of
bananas shipped through the Canal from the Pacific
to the Atlantic was almost the same during the two
comparative quarters, the loss of Central American
ships was balanced by increased shipments from
South American ports.

The effect .of tanker traffic on Canal business was
apparent in comparative tonnage figures in the com-
modity lists of the January, February, and March
figures for 1950 and 1951. Last year these shipments
were first on the commodity list in the Pacific to
Atlantic trade with nearly 1,435,000 tons while the
tonnage reported this year was only slightly over
95,000 tons, and mineral oils were rated tenth on the
commodity list.

LOSSES PARTIALLY OVERCOME

This loss of over 1,325,009 tons was only partially
offset by increased shipments of various ores, lumber,
canned food products, wheat, and sugar from the
Pacific to the Atlantic but the total cargo tonnage of
all commodities was still nearly one million tons under
last year's figures.

There was a 500,000 ton increase in the commodity
shipments from the Atlantic to the Pacific last quarter
over the comparative period in 1950 This increase
was due to heavier shipments of mineral oils, coal,
phosphates, and manufactures of iron and steel. The
most notable decline of the commodity lists from the
Atlantic to the Pacific was in shipments of ammonium
compounds which dropped from 247,000 tons last
year to 23,000 in January, February, and March of
this year.



Decline This Fiscal Year
150,000th COMMERCIAL TRANSIT




A MILESTONE IN the steady procession of ships of all maritime nations which has moved through the
Panama Canal was set April 26th when a certificate of the 150,000th transit by an ocean-going commercial
vessel was presented to the S. S. Nevadan, 7,500-ton freighter of the American-Hawaiian Steamship Company.

The certificate was presented in a brief ceremony aboard ship in Balboa Harbor by Lieutenant Governor
Vogel to Capt. F. H. Roberts, Master of the Nevadan. The Lieutenant Governor was accompanied by Capt.
Robert M. Peacher, Marine Director.

The American-Hawaiian line is one of the Canal's oldest customers and four of its ships were waiting in
line on August 15, 1914 when the Canal was opened to commercial traffic. They transited the day after the
Canal was officially opened by the S. S. Ancon, of the Panama Railroad Company Steamship Line.



Canal statistics on the amount of cargo handled in
Balboa and Cristobal showed a substantial increase
last quarter over the first three months of last year.
The total tonnage handled and transferred in the first
three months of 1950 wa3 278,000 tons, as compared
with 329,000 tons last quarter. The increase was
principally due to the amount of transfer cargo
received.



The heavier shipments of cargo for transfer, prin-
cipally in Cristobal, and the increasingly infrequent
sailings from the Canal Zone to Central American
ports caused a congestion on the local piers which
resulted late in April of the Panama Railroad Com-
pany placing a temporary embargo on incoming
transfer cargo for Central America which was lifted
May 1.



MONTHLY COMMERCIAL TRAFFIC AND TOLLS

Vessels of 300 tons net or over

By fiscal years



Month


Transits


Tolls
(In thousands of dolhrs)




1951


1950


1938


1951


1950


1938


July


51.5


430


457


$2,373


$1,892


$2,031








453


388


505


2,093


1,733


2,195






September _. .


446


401


444


1,982


1,794


1,936


October. .. _ _ _


480


440


461


2,068


1,985


1,981




446


439


435


1,844


1,964


1,893








452


488


439


l.s.so


2,185


1,845








452


483


444


1,854


2,207


1,838








444


457


436


1,853


2,121


1,787






March. . _


474


522


506


1,943


2,327


2,016










459


487




1,959


1,961






M iv




488


465




2,169


1,887






June.. . , . . _




453


445




2,093


1,801


Totals for first nine months
of each fiscal vear


4,160


4,048


4,127


17,896


18,208


$17,521



18



THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW



May 4, 1951



Power Conversion Plans
Delayed Several Years

{Continued from page 6} electric refrigera-
tors, fans, clocks, washing machines, and
other appliances with moving or timing
devices will not be required to bear the
cost of converting such motors or equip-
ment. In cases where equipment is too
old to warrant the expense of conversion
adjustments will be made in lieu of con-
version.

Many residents have been reluctant
about buying new 25-cycle home appli-
ances in view of the proposed conversion
plan. While full details on the policies
governing conversion of privately-owned
equipment will be widely publicized in
advance, assurances have been given that
the plan proposed makes provision to
cover these costs in the overall budget.

The proposed conversion of the electric
power system in the Canal Zone from 25
to 60 cycles is not a new subject noi are
the present studies, which began about
two years ago, the fir.-.t ever made,
although they are by far the most com-
prehensive.

At the time the Madden Dam hydro-
electric plant was projected during the
early 1930's the topic was under serious
consideration but the proposal to convert
the system then was rejected for various
reasons. Plans looking to the eventual
adoption of 60-cyclc current in the Canal
Zone were incorporated in the Third
Locks project and the two large Diesel
plants, designed to furnish power for the
new locks, have 60 -cycle generating
equipment. Both plants were equipped
with converters to permit the furnishing
of either frequency.

Conversion Plans in 1947
All plans made in connection with the
Isthmian Canal Studies of 1947 contem-
plated the conversion to 60-cycle fre-
quency throughout the Zone and final
recommendations of Governor J. C. Me-
haffey contained this feature.

While the question of 25-cycle versus
60-cycle current is an old and somewhat
controversial subject, it doubtless would
not be under serious consideration even
now if new 25-cycle equipment and re-
placement parts were readily obtainable.
The key to the Canal Zone's 25-cycle
power system is the Gatun Hydroelectric
Plant and electrical engineers readily ad-
mit that the reasons for the designers of
the plant to select 25- instead of 60-cycle
equipment are as sound today as they
were more than 40 years ago.

The Canal builders understandably ex-
pected that the bulk of the power load
in the Canal Zone would be used by heavy
electrical equipment for the Locks opera-
ting machinery, industrial use? in the
shops, quarries, piers, and refrigeration
plants. Since 25-cycle current has great
advantages in driving heavy, slow-mov-
ing equipment such as the lock gates,
valves which control the water in the
locks, towing locomotives, and similar
equipment used in the industrial areas
and at the piers, the choice by the Canal
builders was a logical one. At the time
of their choice, many frequencies were in
existence, and 60-cycle power was not
standard as it is today.

Technical Reasons for 25-Cycle
Aside from this probably predominant
factor, there were other considerations of
a technical nature which probably influ-



enced the decision, among these being the
higher power losses in the transmission of
60-cycle current. In addition, it was un-
likely that anyone in 1905-06 could forsee
that their children and grandchildren
would use electricity to beat eggs, cook
food, sweep floors, keep time, heat water,
cool houses, wash clothes and dishes, chill
food, and do many other household chores
all of which have now been standardized
for 60-cycle motors.

Old Canal records reveal no arguments
on the subject of 25-cycle versus 60-cycle
current and apparently at no time during
the design of the Gatun Hydroelectric
Plant did any of the designers feel it nec-
essary to put down in writing why 25-
cycle generating equipment was selected.
Since this plant became the main power
source for the entire Canal Zone after its
completion shortly before the Canal was
opened, its design actually set the pattern
for 25-cycle electric current throughout
the Zone.

The present urgency in converting the
power system comes not from poor judg-
ment of the Canal builders but because
the Canal Zone within recent years has
become a 25-cycle island in a sea of 60-
cycle current. Manufacturers have vir-
tually ceased making 25-cycle electrical
equipment of all nature with the result
that any frequency-sensitive equipment
ordered by the Canal today comes with
almost a tailor-made price tag on it.
60-Cycle Adopted in U. S. After 1914
The standardization of 60-cycle current
throughout the United States came about
well after the Canal was completed. Dur-
ing the construction period there was no
standard frequency and the power system
in the United States today evolved from
isolated systems in all parts of the country
with power frequencies ranging from 15
up to 133 cycles. As the use of electrical
power and the requirement of interchange
of service between towns or systems in-
creased there arose a tendency to stand-
ardize on one frequency which proved to
be 60 cycbs.

The patchwork pattern of the power
systems in the United States and else-
where during the early 1900's was also
evident in the Canal Zone and the inte-
grated power system of today was not a
reality until after the Canal was com-
pleted in 1914.

Towns during the construction period
were served by individual generating
plants and generally 25-cycle current was
provided for heavy machinery and 60-
cycle current was used for lighting sys-
tems. The Cristobal-Colon area was
served for about five years during the
early construction period with 133-cycle
current. It was not until 1909 that Col-
onel Goethals, Chairman and Chief Engi-
neer of the Isthmian Canal Commission,
decided on 60-cycle instead of 25-cycle
current for that area when the 133-cycle
generating plant was closed. The change
to 25-cycle current did not occur until
after the Gatun Hydroelectric Plant was
placed in operation. As late as 1914, the
Hotel Tivoli and hou-;es in that immediate
vicinity were lighted by 60-cycle current.
The change in that area was made only
after the installation of the permanent
distribution system which connected with
the new Administration Building at Bal-
boa Heights.

Project Is Highly Technical
The conversion project is a highly com-
plex and technical undertaking which will
require a period of several years and it is



very unlikely that the average layman
will understand many of the technicali-
ties. It is not presently contemplated to
convert the operating machinery at the
Canal Locks in the program. The Locks
will continue on 25-cycle operation and
power will be supplied through large fre-
quency converters which will change the
60-cycle current from the generating
plants back to 25-cycle frequency.

While detailed estimates on the cost of
the conversion project as presently
planned are still to be made, it has been
roughly calculated that the project will
cost upwards of $10,000,000 and require
from five to ten years for completion.
Some better idea of the scope of the proj-
ect can probably be better obtained by
the average resident by the rough esti-
mate of engineers that some 35,000 fre-
quency-sensitive electric appliances and
motors in the Canal must be converted,
replaced, or discarded by the time any
and all Canal Zone housewives can buy
new 60-cycle eggbeaters in their nearest
Commissary store as standard equipment
for their kitchens.

The Problem Of

Cancer In Women



{Continued from page 2) takes over the

tissue. In this wild growth, fragments
invade the blood vessels and the lymph
channels and are carried elsewhere in the
body where they proceed to grow again.
Other cells are sloughed off and appear in
the various local secretions near the
cancer.

In women the generative organs are
readily accessible to examination and
direct visual inspection, so that early
changes in the organs may be detected far
earlier than in such organs as the stomach
or intestines. Therefore, secretions from
the generative organs are likewise more
available for laboratory study than the
abdominal organs. For instance, some of
the cells which are sloughed off from a
cancer can be collected in the discharges
from the genital tract and examined in
the so-called "cancer smear test," or a
small portion of the tissue can be pain-
lessly snipped off and examined, or the
womb may be painlessly and quickly
scraped for an even more reliable diag-
nosis than from the smear alone.

But, it always takes two persons, an
alert patient and an alert doctor to detect
and interpret the early signs and symp-
toms. These are:

1. The presence of any nodule, mass,
sore, or lump.

2. Any discharge which does not clear
up promptly with medication.

3. Any abnormal menstrual bleeding or
blood-stained discharge either in duration
or amount.

4. Any bleeding or blood-stained dis-
charge between periods especially follow-
ing douching or marital relationship.

5. Any resumption of bleeding after the
mena pause.

Should these symptoms appear, see a
doctor at once. See a doctor anyway
periodically at six-month intervals for a
regular check-up of these organs. Re-
member they are accessible to sight and
touch and any abnormality may be de-
tected promptly.

See. your doctor regularly!

{This is the second of a series of two ar-
ticles of special interest to women contributed
by Dr. Jack Stmmpf. Chief of the Obstetrics
and Gynecology Service at Gorgas Hospital.)



May 4, 1951



THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW



19



THIS YEAR



In



January - February - March



The overhaul of Atlantic Locks was
completed in record time this dry-season
and normal traffic through the Canal was
resumed March 27. The job cost about
$1,200,000.



The New Year opened with the news
that the Internal Revenue Collectors had
arrived, that the Hotel Tivoli would soon
be closed as a public hostelry, and that
Canal-Railroad employees had a new per-
formance rating system.

Of the three, the information about the
new rating system was, by far, the most
cheering news. While there was no cheer-
ing and throwing of hats into the air, the
average employee had reason to feel that
the new system with ratings only of out-
standing, satisfactory, and unsatisfactory,
was far better than the efficiency rating
with five different descriptive words for
his work. Too often, he felt, the fine dis-
tinction between a rating of, say excellent
or very good, depended too much on the
digestion of the boss on the day he made
up the ratings. Rating officers also could
breathe easiei with only three ratings to
hand out, since there would be fewer
challenges of their judgment on the work
performance of the employees they sup-
ervise.

There were ample local news items
throughout the first quarter of this year to
remir.d Zcne residents of the critical world
situation. Governor Newcomer announced
at the beginning of the year that the World
War II air raid sirens would be taken out
of mothballs and reinstalled. On the same

Canal Conducts Logging

(Continued from page 15) amarillo, Cedro

amargo, cedro espino, ceiba, espave, and
guayacan.

Report Indicates Success

An indication of the success of logging
operations in the Canal Zone was given
in a formal report of the Local Committee
on Wood Utilization at the conclusion of
the third year of operations. It read, in
part, as follows:

"Since its initiation late in 1946, The
Panama Canal has completed three sea-
sons of logging, yielding well over one-half
million board measure feet logs at an
average logging cost of $60.14 per thou-
sand feet, as compared with an average
cost of purchase under bids of $123 per
thousand. This covers all species. When
it is considered that approximately
200,000 board feet of the yield was mahog-
any selling at an average price of $175 per
thousand, the results prove even more
gratifying."

An important part of the logging opera-
tion is completed weeks after the last log
has been hauled to the mill. This is the
reforestation of the area. Several hundred
seedlings of the native hardwoods are
grown and furnished by the Canal Zone
Experiment Gardens and these are
planted on a less haphazard fashion than
nature in planting the original stand.

No decision has been reached on the
site of logging operations during the
next dry season although a large area
north of Gamboa, and another near
Gatun, are being considered. The stand
of timber at Gamboa is largely maria
trees with a substantial sprinkling of
mahogany and other varieties. Mr.
Robinson expects to cruise these areas
this year and report on the feasibility of
economical operations.



day, Melvin E. Walker, Civil Defense Ad-
visor, made public his program for first-aid
training of Zone residents by which he hoped
to have 5,000 trained first-aiders within six.
months. Late in February, Canal officials
received word that the request to establish a
draft board in the Canal Zone had been
approved. Shortly thereafter the Governor
announced his nominations for the board,
with A. C. Medinger, Deputy Marine Dir-
ector, as State Director.



Meritorious salary increases were given
to three Paraiso Clubhouse employees who
thwarted an armed robbery there early in
February. The three recipients, E. A. Rob-
ertson, Manager, Hylton E. Drew, Stew-
ard, and Ovira Jules de Holder, Attendant,
were presented the awards by Lieutenant
Governor Vogel in his office. At the same
time they were handed letters of commenda-
tion signed by the Governor.



The price of gasoline, once bought by
Zone motorists for as little as eight cents
a gallon, inched up to 15 cents a gallon
in February.



Regulations barring the importation of
live animals and meats from countries
infested with hoof-and-mouth disease be-
came effective in the Canal Zone March
15.



CANAL TRANSITS-


-TOLLS PAYING AND


FREE








January-


-February — March


1




1951


1950


1938




Atlantic

to
Pacific


Pacific

to
Atlantic


Total


Total


Total


Tolls-paying vessels:

Ocean-going


677


693


1,370


1,462


1,386






*Small


137


127


264


307


219








Total, tolls-paying. _ .


814


820


1,634


1,769


1,605


"Free transits


130


143


273


287


139








Total, tolls-paying and free..


944


963


1,907


2,056


1,744



* Vessels under 300 net tons or 500 displacement tons.
** Exclusive of Panama Canal equipment.



CARGO HANDLED OVER PIERS

(In short tons)





First Quarter,
Calendar year 1951


Average

quarter,

1950


Average

quarter,

1938




Cristobal


Balboa


Total


All piers


All piers


Local cargo received


61,719


24,745


86,464


92,898


87,968




Local cargo forwarded


13,935


7,018


20,953


25,221


9,388


Transfer cargo received


112,419


929


113,348


88,581


138,386


Total incoming cargo handled .


188,073


32,692


220,765


206,700


235,742


Rehandled cargo


3,983


218


4,201


3,021


1,584




Transfer cargo forwarded


103,129


1,026


104,155


SS.OoK


136,127


Total cargo handled and
transferred


295,185


33,936


329,121


297,789


373,453



TRAFFIC MOVEMENT OVER MAIN TRADE ROUTES

The following table show's the number of transits of large, commercial vessels (300 net
tons or over) segregated into eight main trade routes:





January-


-February— March




1951


1950


1938


L'nited States Intercoastal.


126


300


264






East Coast of U. S. and South America . ._


305


297


145






East Coast of U. S. and Central America


101


119


30






East Coast of U. S. and Far East


196


164


142






U. S./Canada east coast and Australasia


27


3i


39






Europe and west coast of U. S./Canada


192


125


271






Europe and South America


79


94


134






Europe and Australasia .


70


68


65






All other routes ..


274


262


296






Total Traffic. .


1,370


1,462


1,386





20



THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW



May 4, 1951



Regulation On Transfer

Of Quarters Is Changed



Because of the wide interest in the subject, the
recent circular amending the regulations pertaining
to the town of residence and payment for moves of
('. S.-rate employees i3 quoted below in full:

"Effective this date. Section 1.2 of Circular 627-62,
dated December 6, 1947, is amended as follows:

1.2 Town of Residence and Payment for Mores—
i own of Residence: In general employees are
required to reside in the vicinity of their work. As
exceptions to this policy, residence in towns other
than the town of employment may be authorized:

(1) When the employee presents a meritorious
case which in the judgment of the Community
Services Director warrants the exception;

(2) Upon an application by an employee who is
unable to obtain an assignment in the town where
he is employed: In such cases the application must
be approved by the head of the employee's bureau
or division, and the assignment may be made only
after all resident applicants of equal or higher
standing for quarters purposes have been tendered
quarters;

(3) When an employee is transferred within
either of the official stations designated in para-
graph 3.3 of Circular No. 733-6 and his bureau or
division head does not certify that a change of
residence is necessary and primarily for the con-
venience and benefit of The Panama Canal;

(4) In any other case determined by the Com-
munity Services Director to be in the interest of
The Panama Canal.

(b) Payment for Moves:

(1) When an employee is transferred perma-
nently to another official station within the meaning
of the regulations governing such transfers, or when
a change of residence within an official station is
ordered by the head of an employee's bureau or
division as being necessary and primarily for the
convenience and benefit of The Panama Canal, the
employee's household goods and personal effects
shall be moved by The Panama Canal at its ex-
pense, to be charged to the bureau or division
concerned.

(2) If a transfer of official station within the
meaning of the regulations governing such transfers
is not involved, but a change in residence is certified
by the Community Services Director to be pri-
marily for the convenience and benefit of the
Housing Division's quarters operations, the em-
ployee's household goods and personal effects shall
be moved by The Panama Canal at its expense, to
be charged to IT. S.-rate quarters operations."



broad issues affecting the welfare of
employees generally, they do not neglect
the small services they can perform for


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