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Gift of the Panama Canal Museum JM,

Vol. 6, No. 2


5 cents


Aw, Gee!

■ ■ i . ■:. *. :■: ■:


The Time Has Come

Next Friday will be S(for School )-Day
for a little over 7,000 Canal Zone boys
and girls.

School officials, who have been almost
clairvoyant in the past on their estimates
of expected enrollments, have their
fingers crossed this year. They believe
that the number of pupils, which has
bean increasing steadily since the war
years, is beginning to level off.

However, for the record, they venture
this prediction for the present school year:
7,058 pupils in the grades which include
kindergarten through high school in the
United States school system.

If they are right, the enrollment will
be another new record for the Canal
Zone's 15 United States schools and will
be 62 higher than the attendance last

More Teachers

Kindergarten enrollment, they are cer-
tain, will be higher than last year because
of the restoration by Congress of tuition-
free kindergartens for children of United
States citizen employees.

The teaching staff will be increased by
nine — for a total of 204 for grades one
through high school— to handle the
expected increase. Four of the increased
number will be assigned to the elementary
schools and five to the junior and senior

high schools. In addition, eight instructors
will be assigned to the Canal Zone
Junior College.

Four new elementary classrooms will
be opened this year. Three of these will
be at the Fort Kobbe elementary school
which will then be operating at its 22-
room capacity for the first time.
Kindergartens Moving

Seventeen new teachers from the United
States will join the staff of the Canal
Zone United States schools this year. Of
these, 11 will be assigned to the elemen-
tary schools, five to the secondary
schools and one to Physical Education
and Athletics

School plans this year call for increased
physical education activities in the ele-
mentary schools. Wherever it is possible
recess periods will be staggered so that
the children will have supervised physical
education rather than mass play periods.
A program of this sort has been in oper-
ation at the Ancon Elementary school.

The plan will also provide a break in
the day's activities for the elementary
school teachers who, in the past, have
supervised recess periods and have been
with their pupils continuously all day.

In line with this expanded physical
education program, kindergartens will be
moved, during the school (See page W)

Gaillard Highway, most
heavily-traveled of Canal Zone
thoroughfares, will be convert-
ed to a four-lane, boulevard-
type through way between Tiv-
oli and Diablo crossings this
fiscal year. At the same time
the highway will be relocated
slightly, modernized, and the
eight intersections in this sec-
tion improved to allow for a
better traffic flow to and from
Gaillard Highway. The pro-
ject will cost about $300,000.

The design for the improvement and
double laning of Gaillard Highway is
being done by Robert & Company Asso-
ciates of Atlanta, Ga., who recently laid
out, designed, and supervised the con-
struction of a system of throughways for
Atlanta. This firm will also prepare the
specifications for the project.

Their services were obtained under a
contract negotiated last month because
the design force of the Engineering Divi-
sion, which customarily handles work of
this nature, was so loaded with other
urgent work that they could not com-
plete the design in time to allow the
Gaillard Highway work to be started by
the beginning of the dry season.
Start In Dry Season

The design of modernized and widened
Gaillard Highway is to be completed Oct-
ober 20. The project will then be adver-
tised and the contract awarded to the
successful bidder so that wotk can begin
early in the dry season.

Gaillard Highway, as modernized, will
have two 22-foot roadways, divided by
a minimum four-foot median strip. The
road will be realigned in places but will
follow, in general, its present location.
It will be surfaced with either asphaltic
or Portland cement concrete. Plans for
the modernization will also include traffic
signals both for vehicular and pedestrian
traffic. One system of signals is to be lo-
cated at the Gaillard High way- Frangipani
Street intersection.

The surface of the new throughway
will be laid partly on the existing pave-
ment after the necessary stabilization and
levelling have been completed, and partly
on widened bases.

The work involved in the widening and
improvement of Gaillard Highway will
consist of the installation of sub-drainage,
relocation of some utilities, widening of
some cuts and fills, stabilization of exist-
ing pavement slabs, application of surface
levelling sources, revision of surface drain-
age, and widening of the bridges and cul-
verts which the highway (See page 2)


September 2, 1955

Maintenance And Paint Program Gives

Canal Zo ne A Bright And Shining Face

Migrant Moths Dot Zone Skies
On Annual Flight To Nowhere

Never before in the history of the
Canal Zone has it appeared with such a
bright face.

While this is due partly to the demoli-
tion of several hundred old buildings and
their replacement by new quarters over
a period of the past five years, the im-
provement in appearance is due largely
to an improved maintenance program for
both quarters and public buildings.

During the past fiscal year more houses
were repainted, inside and out and in
many cases both, than in any year for
the past quarter of a century. The
maintenance program for the past year
has also hcluded repainting of roofs,
refinishing of woodwork, and washing of
the exteriors of many trame houses.
Much of the program was reported in the
July issue of The Review.

This Year's Program

A large number of Canal buildings
which were not included in last fiscal
year's Zone-wide painting program will
be freshened and brightened this year.

Probably the biggest single paint job
will be the painting of the Miraflores
swingspan bridge. Other major jobs will
include painting of the high school at
Rainbow City, the water reservoirs at
Gatun and Fort Gulick, and the super-
structure of Pier 18 at Balboa.

During the present fiscal year con-
tracts will be awarded for about $250,000
worth of maintenance painting forPanama
Canal Company buildings. In addition,
the painting of Canal Zone Government
buildings will amount to about $56,000.

This year's program will include slight-
ly over $160,000 worth of painting for the
Housing Division. This will cover the ex-
teriors of 450 apartments, a barracks build-
ing, the roofs of 270 houses, the interiors of
440 apartments, 80 bachelor rooms, and
more than 300 halls and stairways.

Interior painting is done throughout
the year; exterior and roof painting is
concentrated as much as possible in the
second and third quarters of the fiscal
year in order to take advantage of dry
season weather.

Consolidated Contract

Late last month forces of the Engineer-
ing Division, which is responsible for
the annual inspection of all Canal build-
ings, were grouping the painting needs
and requests of the various departments
and divisions preparatory to taking bids
on the major part of the year's exterior
painting requests under one advertisement.

This work, which is to be subdivided
into contract schedules so that contractors
may bid on all or part of the work, is to
be advertised late this month. Bids are
to be opened in October and the con-
tracts awarded as soon as possible so that
the successful bidder or bidders can
order supplies, recruit workers, and start
work at the beginning of the dry season.

Not included in this large contract are
the so-called "short form bids" which
are used for small contracts under $2,000,
generally on such jobs as the interior
painting of a few sets of quarters.

The major advantage of these short
form bids is that they can be advertised
and awarded quickly and the interior
painting done while quarters are vacant.

Also not included in the consolidated
contract is a plan to clean the exteriors

WINGED WANDERER. This is Cydimon fulgens,
a migrating moth. Where it comes from, where it
goes, and one knows, although the moth is not
new. The photograph was taken by Robert F. Roche.

Moths were migrating again last
month, more of them than for the past
several years.

In mid-August Dr. James E. Zetek,
entomologist and local research specialist
for the Smithsonian Institution, described
the annual flight of Cydimon fulgens as
"exceptionally heavy and still increasing."

Reports of the flight of the moths,
whose dark wings are banded with a
gilded green, began to come to Dr. Zetek
about August 1, he said. As usual, more
moths flew in the early morning and
during the brief Isthmian twilight than
at other hours.

of concrete quarters such as those on the
Prado and Barneby Street in Balboa.

For some time, Maintenance Division
forces have tried to find some reasonably
economical method of cleaning concrete
exteriors. They have experimented with
wire brushes, chemicals, cement washes,
water cement paints, and just plain soap
and water. Major problems in concrete
exteriors are mildew and removal of the
bluish-green stains which are the result of
corrosion of the copper screening adjacent
to the concrete.

During the past fiscal year a large
number of frame quarters — which do not
present the problems of concrete quar-
ters — were washed successfully. By the
end of the fiscal year Maintenance Divi-
sion workmen had scrubbed the exteriors
of 113 buildings contahing 172 apart-
ments, at an average cost of less than $31
per building or $21 per family unit.

During the past fiscal year in addition
the Canal organization carried out the
largest single painting program in many
years. Ninety-three public buildings got
fresh outside paint jobs and seven had
their interiors repainted. The exteriors
of 578 sets of quarters and the interiors
of 1,117 sets of family and bachelor
quarters were spruced up with new coats
of paint.

Members of the Engineering and Con-
struction Bureau staff are especially
proud of the fact that all of the painting
and maintenance during the past fiscal
year has been done within the funds
which had been budgeted "for the previ-
ous lower standards of maintenance," as
they put it. Work was done in fiscal year
1955 with fiscal year 1955 money which
was not scheduled until fiscal year 1957.

This year the moth casualty rate was
high; the center line of most main Canal
Zone highways was littered with little
winged creatures which had blundered
blindly against the windshields or sides
of passing cars. (One Administration
Building worker reported driving behind
a woman who was unsuccessfully trying
to maneuver her car to avoid striking
the moths!)

Although the moths do not seem to be
prey for birds as long as they are in
flight, they become bird food as soon as
they fall or are knocked to the ground.
Along Diablo Road last month, grackles
made constant sorties onto the highway
to grasp a delectable mouthful of moth.

Cydimon fulgens, commonly called
Urania fulgens, is nothing new in these
parts. Its annual flights have been noted
since 1917, at least, but little more is
known of the moths now than was then.

They are found from Mexico to Ecua-
dor and their migrant flight, pellmell and
with no known purpose, is always in the
same direction, roughly from west to
east. They commonly fly only a few
feet from the ground but when they
reach large obstacles like heavily wooded
Barro Colorado Island or the Adminis-
tration Building they go up and over
rather than around.

For many years scientists thought
that the moths did not eat during their
migration but in recent years several
local residents have reported seeing the
moths feeding. But Dr. Zetek doubts
one of this year's reports— that the
migrants had stung and ruined a crop of
fine mangoes at John O. Collins' finca
at Vacamonte.

"Cydimon fulgens couldn't sting if it
wanted to," he says.

Gaillard Highway To Be Rebuilt

(Continued from page 1) crosses in the

section which is about two miles long.

Similar methods for reconstruction and
widening are used by highway depart-
ments in the United States; these cost
less than total replacement and still pro-
vide adequate traffic capacity with reason-
able maintenance.

Until Gaillard Highway was con-
structed on its present route, the road
which linked Diablo Crossing to Ancon
ran through what is now Albrook Air
Force Base. In 1932 the road was relo-
cated because of the construction of Al-
brook Field. The relocated section was
built by the United States Army under
contract and turned over to The Panama
Canal to replace the old highway between
Ancon and Diablo crossing. This original
relocation was a reinforced concrete road
18 feet wide. It has been widened and
repaved several times since 1932.

In 1951 traffic studies of the section of
Gaillard Highway betv\eei Tivoli and
Diablo crossings showed that 10,500 ve-
hicles passed over that section daily; the
hourly peak was 1,445 vehicles. Last year
further studies showed that the daily
traffic was approximately 12,000 vehicles.

September 2, 1955


Effective Dates Of New Treaty Provisions

ONE of the principal provisions of the new treaty is for the construction of a
bridge across the Canal to provide a permanent crossing for vehicular traffic
between points in the Republic of Panama. It is tentatively estimated that
such a bridge will cost in the neighborhood of $20,000,000. The type of bridge
and its location are still to be determined. Among the possible sites is one near
the present Thatcher Ferry Crossing. The picture above is an architect's
conception of how a cantilever bridge would look at that particular site. While
not in true perspective with the surrounding landscape, this bridge as sketched

would have a clearance of more than 200 feet above the Canal channel; the three
main spans would be 2,000 feet in length; and the center span, crossing the chan-
nel, would have a 1,000 foot clearance for ship traffic. A tremendous task in
engineering and design is required before the adoption of any final plan for a
bridge across the Canal. An appropriation by Congress will be required before
the design or construction is begun. When funds for surveys and design are
appropriated, the entire area from Miraflores to La Boca will be investigated
thoroughly in the selection of the final location of the bridge.

Ratifications of the New Treaty of Mutual Understanding
and Cooperation between the United States and the Republic
of Panama were exchanged in Washington August 23 by
representatives of the two nations. The exchange of ratifica-
tions concluded almost two years of formal negotiations
between the two countries.

Negotiations on the treaty were begun in Washington in
September, 1953. The new treaty was signed by President
Ricardo Arias E. for Panama and Ambassador Selden Chapin
for the United States in Panama City on January 25, 1955.

The National Assembly of Panama ratified the new treaty
on March 9, 1955. The treaty was ratified by the Senate of
the United States on July 29, 1955.

Below, The Panama Canal Review presents for the con-
venience of its readers and for reference purposes, the time
table of the dates on which the various treaty and memorandum
undertakings become effective.

The undertakings appearing below are those which concern
the Panama Canal Company and the Canal Zone Government,
their operations and their employees. The undertakings which
affect other U. S. agencies exclusively are not included.


Renunciation by the United States of its monopolies respect-
ing trans-Isthmian railroads and highways.

Abrogation of the 1903 treaty provisions which authorized
the United States to prescribe sanitary ordinances for Panama
and Colon.

Abrogation of the obsolete provision of the 1914 Boundary
Convention respecting the free landing of small vessels at the
wall constructed by the Panama Railroad in Colon Harbor.

The automatic transfer to the Government of Panama of the
landing pier situated in a small cove on the southerly side of
Manzanillo Island.

The waiver by Panama of the right to free railway trans-
portation for its employees and National Guard force.

Undertaking by the United States to afford equality of
opportunity to Panamanians in all U. S. Government positions
in the Canal Zone for which they are qualified and in which the
employment of United States citizens is not required for
security reasons. The United States will also evaluate,
classify, and title all positions in the Canal Zone without
regard to the nationality of the incumbent or proposed incum-
bent; and will afford Panamanians the opportunity to partici-

pate in training programs conducted for their employees by
United States agencies in the Canal Zone.

Exemption by the United States from the provisions of the
Buy American Act of articles and supplies that are mined,
produced, or manufactured in Panama when such articles and
supplies are purchased for use in the Canal Zone.

Establishment of a policy for agencies of the Panama Canal
Company, in making purchases of supplies, materials, and
equipment, whereby the economy of Panama will have full
opportunity to compete for such business so far as is permitted
under U. S. legislation.

Establishment of a practice under which merchandise to be
resold in Canal Zone sales stores will be acquired either from
United States or Panamanian sources unless, in certain in-
stances, it is not feasible to do so.

Reduction by Panama of 75 percent in the import duty on
alcoholic beverages sold in Panama for importation into the
Canal Zone.

The increase in the Canal annuity from $430,000 to $1,930,-
000; this begins with the first annuity payment after the
exchange of ratifications.



For taxable year beginning on or after January i , 1956 :
Taxation by Panama of certain persons in the service of the
Canal, the railroad, or auxiliary works, including non-U. S.
citizens residing in the Republic and Panamanians wherever

December 31, 1956

Exclusion from Canal Zone purchase and importation privi-
leges of heretofore eligible persons, other than citizens of the
United States and members of the Armed Forces, who do not
reside in the Canal Zone.

Authorization to Panama to impose import duties and other
charges on goods destined for or consigned to persons other
than citizens of the United State who are employed by agencies
of the United States but reside in Panama.

Withdrawal by the United States of sales to ships, except
for sales to ships operated by the United States and except for
the sales of fuel and lubricants and sales incidental to ship
repair operations.

Withdrawal by the United States from non-U. S. citizen
employees who do not reside in the Canal Zone of services
offered in the Canal Zone, except those which (See page is)


September 2, 1955

Contractors Hill Profile —




THE PLACE— the narrowest stretch of the Canal

THE CRACK-a threat to the precipitous hill

THE PLAN— a series of terraced setbacks

The Contractors Hill project, except
for some minor clean-up work and the
removal of machinery and temporary
structures, last month became a part of
the Panama Canal history.

Because of the potential danger from
the rock fissure which ran across the
rocky mass parallel to the Canal channel,
the project attracted worldwide atten-
tion, particularly during the early phases.

The contract for the work was awarded
May 25, 1954, to the Tecon Corporation
of Dallas, Tex. While the original con-
tract called for the removal of 1,700,000
cubic yards of rock and 150,000 of Cuca-
racha formation, this was later extended
and the total excavated up to the end of
August was approximately 1,820,000
cubic yards of rock and 605,000 cubic-
yards of Cucaracha, or shale.

In addition to the principal contract
for the removal of a big part of Con-
tractors Hill, the Tecon agreement was
extended early this year for the removal
of 250,000 cubic yards of Cucaracha from
Project 13. This project has been in
progress on a intermittent basis for about
20 years. It provides for the widening
of Culebra Reach to a bottom depth of
500 feet.

Under the supplemental agreement,
the Tecon Corporation removed all of the
remaining Cucaracha formation near the
water level. While a two-month exten-
sion was granted because of this work,
the entire project was practically com-
pleted by the end of the original time-
limit of the contract.

Except for the contracts awarded for
the Third Locks project, the Contractors
Hill work, officially designated as Project
13-A, was the largest ever awarded in
the history of the Canal. The total
excavation nearly equalled that required
in the construction of Miraflores Locks.

Tecon subcontracted with the local
firm of Bildon, Inc., for the construction
of a drainage tunnel, five by nine feet,
from the Canal side of the hill to intersect
with the rock fissure, and the removal of
the bronze tablet on the face of Contrac-
tors Hill erected to the memory of Col.
David DuBose Gaillard. This subcon-
tract was completed in July and August
of last year.

Machine Job

Most of the equipment required on the
job was brought new by the Tecon
Corporation and arrived in July 1954.
Excavation work was begun in August of
last year and for a period of about six
weeks one ten-hour shift a day was used.
A second shift was added in the middle
of September and the excavation was
continued on this basis until early last
month when one shift was discontinued.

The excavation reached its height dur-
ing the last dry season; during the latter
pa r t of the work an average of alojt
8,000 cubic yards of material was being
handled daily. The highest one-day
record was sat on May 20, 1955, when
10,070 cubic yards of rock were removed.

The Contractors Hill work was largely
a machine job because of the nature of
the job and the limited area involved.
The maximum force employed by the
contracting firm was 84 employees in
skilled and supervisory work, and 73 in
semiskilled and unskilled work; this was
last June.
In addition to these, the Canal organ-

September 2, 1955


Before And After Tecon

ization had a maximum force of 13 men
engaged on inspection and project man-
agement. By the end of last month the
contractor's force had been cut to less
than 50 skilled and about 30 unskilled
workers, while the number of Canal
employees assigned to the job had been
reduced to six.

Most of the Canal employees were
transferred from other units to Project
13-A and in most instances they have
returned to their former positions.

The principal items of equipment used
on the job included three 2 1 2 -yd. shovels,
15 large trucks, four bulldozers, two
wagon drills, and two rotary drills.
Precision Blasting

One of the principal aspects of the
Contractors Hill project was the necessity
of blasting and removing the rocky mass
without creating a hazard for Canal
traffic or interfering with the movement
of vessels. This was accomplished by
precision drilling and blasting procedure.

The strict safety measures adopted at
the outset of the work resulted in no
interference to Canal traffic. The num-
ber of accidents to personnel on the job
was remarkably low for a project of that
nature and only one serious injury was
reported in the 15-month period. One
workman was gravely injured by a falling
rock boulder.

With the conclusion of the Contractors
Hill work, the town of Pedro Miguel will
become practically deserted. The town-
site had been slated for abandonment
before the work was started but a numbei
of family and bachelor quarters were made
available to the contractor's force.
Deserted Village

The maximum number of quarters in
use by these employees was last March
when 26 family quarters and nine bache-
lors apartments were occupied. This
number has now been reduced to 16

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