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12 each; Wisconsin, Colorado, California,
10 each; Florida and Alabama, 8 each;
Oklahoma, 7; Michigan, Kansas, Ne-
braska, Missouri, Mississippi, 5 each;
Massachusetts, Iowa, Washington, North
Dakota, New Mexico, 4 each; Pennsylva-
nia, Georgia, Oregon, Arizona, Tennessee,
and Virginia, 3 each; Connecticut, Idaho,
Maryland, and West Virginia, 2 each;
and Kentucky, Arkansas, Indiana, Wyo-
ming, Louisiana, South Carolina, Utah,
New Jersey, 1 each.

Of the 148 colleges and universities
attended by the 220 teachers, the Uni-
versity of Minnesota heads the list with
seven of its graduates teaching in the
Canal Zone schools. Colorado State Col-
lege is represented by five teachers. Min-
nesota Teachers College at St. Cloud,
Minn., New York University, Texas State
Teachers College at Denton, Tex., the
University of North Carolina, the Uni-
versity of California at Los Angeles, and
the University of Nebraska, are repre-
sented by four teachers each.

And Bradley Polytechnic Institute,
North Carolina Teachers College, Wis-
consin Teachers College, Colorado State
Teachers College, the University of Cal-
ifornia at Berkeley, the University of
Florida, Florida State College for Women,
the University of Alabama, the Univer-
sity of Oklahoma, Mississippi Teachers
College, North Dakota Teachers College,
and the University of New Mexico each
trained three Canal Zone teachers. Other
educational institutions represented here
by one or more Canal Zone teachers in-
clude such outstanding colleges or univer-
sities as Chicago, Northwestern, Colum-
bia, Wellesley, Hamilton, Hunter, Syra-
cuse, Cornell, Western Reserve, Miami
(Ohio), Texas, Rice, Duke, Wisconsin,
Michigan, William and Mary, Virginia,
and Iowa State.



10



THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW



February 3, 1 956



Ships Sailed Its Waters For Centuries
But Port Of Balboa Is Only 55 Years Old

Although Panama Bay has been the
scene of ocean-going traffic for nearly 450
years, the Port of Balboa, as it is today
called, celebrated its 55th birthday only
last month.

The declaration of the official opening
of the port on January 1, 1901, was of
great significance to commerce of the
Pacific Ocean. Its 1,000-foot pier, and a
dredged channel to it, was the only place
in the 2,000-mile voyage between Salina
Cruz, Mexico, and Callao, Peru, where
deep draught vessels could dock to unload
their cargo. In those days, a 3,000-ton
vessel was listed in the category of a
"deep draught vessel."

Prior to that time, vessels which put
into Panama Bay stood offshore about a
mile and a half and cargo and passengers
were lightered in to piers near Panama
City's public market. This lack of deep
water for port facilities was true back to
the time in the early 1500's when Fran-
cisco Pizarro outfitted his expeditions at
Taboga for the conquest of Peru.

Until the latter part of the nineteenth
century, Taboga was frequented by ocean
going ships since there were no docking
facilities on the mainland. One of the
island's claims to fame was as the head-
quarters for the whaling industry which
established at Taboga a large station for
flensing and rendering blubber.

From Meager Start ....

From its meager beginnings, the Port
of Balboa has grown into one of the well-
known ports of the world, principally be-
cause of the enormous amount of traffic
which flows through the Panama Canal.
The port has never been as fully develop-
ed as was planned when the present port
facilities were under construction at about
the time the Canal was opened. Old
sketches show that five piers the size of
Pier 18 were planned, with the "inner
harbor" being about twice its present size.

It was then expected that a tremendous
amount of trade would flow into the
Canal's Pacific terminal; this would be
in addition to ships transiting the Canal.
To accommodate this expected trade, a




BALBOA HARBOR would have looked like this map shows if original plans had been followed.

It was expected during the construction period that several large piers would be needed for vessels

using the harbor but this trade never developed. The proposed piers would have extended almost

to the present Diablo Heights limits.



row of modern piers was planned, stretch-
ing all the way up to the present site of
Diablo Heights.

While this trade development never
took place, Balboa harbor has ample
docking and cargo handling facilities for
ships of all classes which use the port. In
addition, it has almost unlimited anchor-
age facilities.

The Port of Balboa is an elongated
stretch of water about six miles in length
from the north limits of the inner harbor
to the outer anchorage basin. It covers
roughly 7,000 acres in area. Most of this
is in the big anchorage immediately south-
east and east of the Fortified Islands and




COLLAPSE of a Balboa wharf in 1912 sank the Pacific Mail Company's SS Newport which was

tied up at the pier. Here the salvage vessel Salvor begins operations to raise the sunken ship. There

were no casualties.



San Jose Rock. The shoal water extends
out for a considerable distance and pro-
vides safe anchorage for hundreds of ships
without overcrowding.

The principal areas of the port which
are dredged or partially marked for ship
movement and anchorage outside the
Canal channel cover nearly 700 acres,
most of which is in the "explosives anch-
orage," south of the Canal entrance, and
in the inner harbor.

Balboa inner harbor, which the average
person thinks of as the Port of Balboa,
covers a relatively small area. It is here
that the principal port facilities are loca-
ted. Those for commercial vessels are
centered primarily in Pier 18 and the long
piers fronting the Industrial Division
shops. In all, the port has more than a
mile and a half of berthing space, most
of which can accommodate ocean-going
vessels.

Three Names

Despite its relative youth as wcrld
ports go, the Port of Balboa has operated
under three different names. It was first
named La Boca, or The Mouth, being at
the mouth of the Rio Grande. This name
was changed to the Port of Ancon by
President Theodore Roosevelt scon after
the United States undertook construction
of the Canal. The Spanish word ancon
means, in maritime parlance, an open
roadstead.

The name Ancon for that section of
Panama Bay is undoubtedly older than
La Boca. Histories (if Old Panama speak
of vessels putting into Ancon, some two
leagues from that city.

The name Ancon never seemed to stick.
While the first Isthmian Canal Commis-
sion report in December 1904 described
its boundaries and took note of its nam-
ing, it continued to be popularly known
as La Boca and in later years the name



Febiuary 3, 1956



THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW



11



was generally used in official documents
and reports.
The name Balboa, in honor of the dis-

coverer of the Pacific, became official in
April 1909, after it had been suggested
to American authorities by the Peruvian
Minister to Panama.

The Port of Balboa was a long time
aborning. Its history goes back to 1864
when the Panama Railroad Company, in
a revision of its concession with the Col-
ombian Government, agreed to extend its
tracks to the present-day Fortified Islands
or "other places in the bay where there
may exist a permanent depth of water
for large vessels."

The years dragged on and perhaps be-
cause of the amount of money involved
the Railroad did not comply with its
contract. In 1SS0 the Company entered
into another contract with Colombia in
which it agreed to pay $10,000 a year
for a period of 30 years in lieu of an ex-
tension of time or until the tracks could
be built to deep water in the bay.

During all these years — from 1855
when the Panama Railroad was com-
pleted — the Railroad Company used what
was known as the American Wharf in
Panama City, opposite the present Balboa
Brewery, lightering cargo and passengers
from ships about a mile and a half away.
Harbor Begins

To eliminate the $10,000-a-year pay-
ment under its contract with the Colom-
bian Government — as well as the expense
and inconvenience of lighterage — the
Panama Railroad in 1896 contracted for
the construction by the second French
Canal Company of a pier at La Boca.
In his annual report for 1898 the president
of the Railroad Company reported as fol-
lows on this work which was the actual
beginning of Balboa Harbor:

"Continued progress was mads during
the year in completing the new terminal
port and pier at La Boca, in the Bay of
Panama, which, as now almost finished,
consists of a magnificent pier, 1,000 feet
long, 50 feet wide, constructed of 24 solid
cement piers founded on bedrock, shedded
its entire length, with five large steam-
hoisting cranes and one 15-ton derrick-
crane, with which to discharge or load
three large ships at one time.

"Basins have been excavated alongside
the pier of sufficient size to allow a free
movement of vessels of 3,000-ton capac-
ity, and to allow such vessels to be safely
berthed there at all stages of a tide, which
has an average rise and fall of 21 feet."

This pier, a part of which still stands
and is the oldest known structure in use
in the Canal Zone today, is Pier 6, better
known to old timers as the French Pier.

It was first used in 1899 and that same
year the harbor was charted and the
Railroad's terminal facilities were greatly
expanded. The Colombian Government
accepted the work as the fulfillment of
the Railroad's agreement first reached 35
years previously. The Railroad Company
then assumed charge of the excavation of
the basin, leasing a machine shop and
various other equipment from the French
Canal Company.

Opened In 1901

The port was declared officially open
on January 1, 1901. The Railroad Com-
pany then entered a contract with the
French Canal Company for the use of
La Boca as a terminal until 1966, and
for various dredges and equipment re-
quired to keep the port open.

The buccaneer days of big business



were still evident then and the Panama
Railroad Company soon established a vir-
tual monopoly of the port. This was done
by contracts giving the sole rights to the
Pacific Mail Steamship Company for the
issue of through bills of lading for all cargo
moving north and to the Pacific Steam
Navigation Company and the Cia. Sud
Americana de Vapores for all trade south.

These contracts were examined by
Secretary of War William H. Taft on his
visit to the Isthmus in December 1904,
and they were subsequently canceled the
following June. Both the ports of Ancon
and Cristobal were declared open to the
commerce of the world in an Executive
Order issued June 24, 1904.
Taft Agreement

Many other matters of great import-
ance to the two ports attracted Taft's
attention during his visit which resulted
in the now-famous "Taft Agreement" es-
tablishing the modus operandi of the 1903
Treaty. Most important of these were
the delineation of the two harbors and
the handling of customs and immigration
in the ports.

It is interesting to note today that
Secretary Taft came to the Isthmus with
the thought in mind that terminal ports
for the Panama Canal might not be nec-
essary. In his report to President Roose-



velt concerning his visit and the agree-
ments reached, he said of the two ports:

"I was at first inclined to think that
we might give up the ports, but an exam-
ination of the situation made it perfectly
clear to me that the existence of Canal
ports, one at each end of the Canal, was
absolutely necessary in the construction,
maintenance, and protection of the Canal,
and if there was a complete interchange
of facilities between the ports of the Re-
public and the ports of the Canal, this is
all that we could afford to concede."
Construction Period

Except for Canal construction activities
the Port of Ancon was never a busy place.
The port facilities were somewhat ex-
panded and improved during the early
construction period, but little ship trade
was attracted. Although the trade mon-
opoly was broken, the three lines holding
the privileges continued to furnish most
of the ship traffic into the harbor until
the Canal was opened.

A summary of traffic for the four-year
period of June 1904 to July 1908 showed
that about 590 vessels entered and cleared
the port. These brought less than 50,000
tons of cargo and took out about 1,500
tons. The passenger trade was slightly
heavier, with about 23,000 arriving and
20,000 departing. There (See page W)




F. H. SHEIBLEY, retired Clerk of the United States District Court, points to one of the concrete
abutments which supported the old American Wharf in Panama. Mr. Sheibley was employed
there in the late 1890's when it was operated by the Panama Railroad Ccmpany. He is one of
the oldest American residents of the Isthmus. The pier was located near the present-day fruit
market in the area known as JaviJlo Fill. The lower picture shows the Panama waterfront as it
looked almost 50 years ago. This picture was taken about 1908.




12



THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW



February 3, 1956



Civil Service Enactment In 1883

Important Today To Many Here




THIS BOARD of Civil Service Examiners administers Civil Service matters in the Canal Zone.
In the usual order they are: E. A. Doolan, Chairman; Mrs. Zelda Glassburn, whose title is Civil Service
Clerk; 0. W. Helmerichs, and Dr. I. R. Berger. Standing are James A. Yates, Secretary, and F. G.
Dunsmoor. Not present when the photograph w-as taken was the other member, George F. Welsh.



An anniversary of considerable import-
ance to more than 1,200 men and women
in the Canal Zone — the 73d anniversary
of the signing of the United States Civil
Service Act of 1883— occurred last month.
Although it was observed with little
local fanfare, the fact that there is a
Civil Service system is in the best inter-
ests of every citizen of the United States.
It provides everyone with the right to
compete on a fair and impartial basis
with other applicants for employment in
the Federal service; and, following ap-
pointment, protects them, particularly in
certain types of positions, against the
hiring and firing whims of political pres-
sure groups.

The Civil Service system, according to
a statement made by Commission officials
on the occasion of the anniversary in
January, was born of the martyrdom of
a President. The assassination of James
A. Garfield in 1881, by a disgruntled job-
seeker, stirred the American people to end
the spoils system under which public jobs
were awarded on the basis of politics
rather than merit and fitness.

On January 16, 18S3, the present Civil
Service Act — also known as the Pendleton
Act — was signed into law by President
Chester A. Arthur. It laid the ground-
work for a competitive civil service which
today embraces a career force of more
than 2,000,000 Federal employees.
Began Here In 1904
Civil Service in the Canal Zone is al-
most as old as the Zone itself. On Nov-
ember 15, 1904, six months after the
United States undertook to build a Pan-
ama Canal, President Theodore Roosevelt
signed an Executive Order which made
all employments in the Canal Zone, ex-
cept those of workers classed as laborers,
subject to the laws and rules of the United
States Civil Service.

This meant that any engineer, dredge
operator, locomotive engineer, doctor,
nurse — or any other individual working
for the Isthmian Canal Commission or
the Fanama Railroad— had to meet the
qualifications of Civil Service and have a
Civil Service status.

Because of the difficult conditions
under which the Canal was being built,



this comprehensive order was more than
a bit cumbersome. The Isthmus of Pan-
ama was thousands of miles from the
nearest Civil Service office; the exchange
of papers took weeks. Well-qualified men
who came to the Canal Zone on their own
were blocked from employment because
they did not have Civil Service status.

So, in 1906, the order was amended to
exempt all Canal Zone employment from
Civil Service, except those for clerks,
bookkeepers, stenographers, "typewrit-
ers" — as typists were known in those
days — surgeons, physicians, internes,
trained nurses, and draftsmen. Fifty
years later, most of these positions still
are under Civil Service and those who
occupy them must qualify under Civil
Service regulations.

Regulation Established

The next step came in January 1908,
with a joint circular signed by Col. George
W. Goethals, as Chairman of the Isth-
mian Canal Commission, and John C.
Black, President of the Civil Service
Commission in Washington. The circular
established regulations governing exami-
nations, appointments, transfers, and pro-
motions "on the Isthmus of Panama,"
and established the first local Board of
United States Civil Service Examiners.
For the first time locally, "competitive
positions"— -those attained through com-
petitive examinations— were defined and
other confusing perplexities ironed out.

This began a system which, with suit-
able modifications for changing times,
still remains in effect. Today, Civil Serv-
ice in the Canal Zone is administered by
a five-man board which conducts exam-
inations when it is necessary to establish
a "register" from which qualified persons
are selected for "competitive" positions.
The board rules on Civil Service status,
retention rights, veterans' preference,
promotions, and similar questions. It
serves not only for the Canal organization
but also for the Armed Services and other
government agencies in the Canal Zone.

This local board, appointment to which
is recommended by the Governor and
made by the Civil Service Commission,
is subject administratively to the Bureau
of Departmental Operations of the Com-



mission's central office in Washington.
For several years, the Canal Zone was
considered a part of the Tenth Civil
Service Region in New Orleans; its regional
director, the late A. J. Leach, made sev-
eral trips to the Canal Zone on official
business during this period. In 1953 the
New Orleans office was closed and Civil
Service in the Canal Zone was again placed
under the jurisdiction of the Fourth U. S.
Civil Service Region, and shortly after
under the central office in Washington.
Board and Panels

The present Board of Civil Sen ice
Examiners is headed by Edward A.
Doolan, Personnel Director. James A.
Yates, Chief of the Utilization Branch of
the Personnel Bureau, is its secretary;
he has held this position since 1949. The
other members are Forrest G. Dunsmoor,
Administrative Assistant to the Gover-
nor-President; George F. Welsh, Chief of
the Employment and Utilization Division
of the Personnel Bureau; and Otto W.
Helmerichs, Chief of the Employment
Branch of the Personnel Bureau. Dr. I.
R. Berger is the medical member.

The board is assisted by two panels,
one composed of doctors and the other
of nurses. (If necessary the board can,
with the Commission's approval, establish
panels to cover any competitive position
category in the Canal Zone.)

Members of the doctors' panel are:
Col. William W. Nichol, Dr. David Senzer,
Dr. John M. Wilkerson, and Dr. Evganie
P. Shirokov. The panel of nurses is com-
prised of Miss Beatrice Simonis, Miss Re-
becca T. Kendall, Miss Lucille Hearn,
and Mrs. Thelma S. Rand.

The panel system is a comparatively
new addition to local Civil Service pro-
cedure. Panels were first established here
in September, 1954. Panel members re-
view and score the qualifications of those
applying for positions in the medical and
nursing services in the Canal Zone, as
positions in these fields must be filled
by Civil Service competitive procedure.

A number of well-known former Zon-
ians— they were required to state that
they were "independent politically"
have served on the local board. They
include Seymour Paul, former head of the
Canal's Personnel organization, Amos W.
Fox, for many years the Board's secretary,
Harvey A. McConaughey, Ernie L. Payne
Arden' Bennett, and Robert J. Smith.
Emergency and Examination

Civil Service provisions more or less
went out the window in the Canal Zone
during World War II, just as they did
in other Federal agencies. During the
emergency the employment of non-Civil
Service employees, known as "War Serv-
ice Appointees," was allowed in positions
which had formerly been restricted to
those with Civil Service status.

But after the end of the emergency, the
former rules again became effective. This
meant not only that any new employ-
ments in classified competitive positions
had to be made from registers established
from open, competitive examinations, but
also that the War Service appointees had
to qualify through examinations or leave
the service.

At about the same time, a Civil Service
Commission regulation was issued in
Washington which admitted citizens of



February 3, 1956



THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW



13




IX THE air conditioned oftces of the Credit Union, Mrs. J. B. Clemmons and Mrs. Judith Apster
talk business with a couple of member-clients. In the background are Walter A. White and Mrs.
May Hall of the Canal Zone Mutual Benefit Association, which has office space in the building.



Canal Zone Credit Union Worth $2,000,000 Zone High Schools

Get Formal Notice
Of Accreditation

Official notification that the Balboa and
Cristobal High Schools continue to be
accredited by the Middle States Associa-
tion of Colleges and Secondary Schools
was received last month by the principals
of the two high schools. The official notice
came from R. D. Matthews, Chairman
of the Commission on Secondary Schools
of the Middle States Association.

Both schools were inspected last year
by Dr. Ira Kraybill, Executive Secretary
of the Commission. He was assisted by
two local committees, one for each high
school. A few weeks later, two other
Association representatives evaluated the
Canal Zone Junior College. Formal noti-
fication of the Junior College accreditation
was received last May.

The accreditation of the two high
schools, which will cover the period to
December 31, 1960, means that their
graduates may be accepted for admission
to most colleges without the requirement
of entrance examinations or other qualify-
ing rules. At that time the schools will
report progress made toward fulfilling the
committee recommendations made in the
evaluating report.

Earlier reports from Dr. Kraybill and
his evaluation of each high school left
little doubt that the schools would again
be accredited. In a special report, he
described the Canal Zone schools as a
"good school system, intelligently admin-
istered for the welfare of boys and girls."
Regarding Cristobal High School, he
wrote: "The basic preparation given in
this high school is sound for students in
college preparatory and vocational work."
Concerning Balboa High School, he said
that it has "succeeded in analyzing the
needs of youth in the Zone quite well and
has a lively and intelligent interest in the
welfare of the pupils in the school."-
Accreditation Notice

The official notice of accreditation
for the two high schools, follows:

"It is a pleasure to inform you that
the Commission on Secondary Schools of
the Middle States Association of Colleges
and Secondary Schools has approved the
continuance of your school on the List of
Accredited Secondary Schools for the per-
iod ending December 31, 1960.

"You have received the report which
grew out of the visit of the Committee
to your school. Although the chairman's
report does not represent official action
on the part of the Commission, it is hoped
that you have found much of value in it.
Less favorably considered phases of your
program are indicated in the chairman's
report and the graphic summaries. We
trust that you will give careful considera-
tion to any weaknesses which have been
revealed, as well as continue to be inter-
ested in the strong features which were
described. By May 1, 1960, we shall ex-
pect a descriptive report indicating activ-
ities of you and your staff subsequent to
receiving the report of the committee.

"Please accept sincere congratulations
on this occasion. We, in the Commission
office, will be happy to be of service to
you and your school whenever an oppor-
tunity is available."



(Continued from page 5) Union have got-

ten out of bed at night to arrange loans
to finance emergency trips to the States;
they have watched Zone families grow.

"Sometimes," one of them said the
other day, "we have loaned a father
money to finance his son's college educa-
tion. A little bit later we lend that boy


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