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staff and a special effort should be made
by the Health and Marine Bureaus to
insure effective coordination of the
Quarantine and other boarding ac-
tivities.

VETERINARY MEDICINE

Dr Falk points out that the prevention
and control of animal diseases transmis-
sable to man and the protection of the
Canal Zone's food supply are unusually
important to public health and unusually
complex here. The Division, he says,
carries out both functions effectively with
a small budget and staff and operates a
veterinary hospital which compares fa-
vorably with modern animal hospitals in
the United States.

To eliminate duplication of effort by
Canal Zone and military veterinarians he
recommends that all veterinary inspec-
tion and related activities with respect to
Panama establishments which supply food
to the Canal Zone, and the maintenance




SANITATION: Vitalh. important; environ-
mental functions well done; malaria con-
trolled but still present. Finances, staff
insufficient.

Recommends: Strengthening activities,
larger budget, consolidation of malaria con-
trol in C. Z., inclusive sanitary code.




PREVENTIVE MEDICINE AND QUAR-
ANTINE: Small staff for diverse responsi-
bilities including school program and com-
munity health. Quarantine services are
inadequate.

Recommends: Expansion of staff, program.
Transfer of quarantine operations to Health
Bureau.




VETERINARY MEDICINE: Important,
complex functions. Too small budget and
staff.

Recommends: Additional personnel, con-
solidation of food inspections in Panama for
Canal Zone; lengthened rabies quarantine.




May 2,1958



THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW



VITAL STATISTICS: Provides birth, death
information but no statistical services which
are important to health program.
Recommends: Small new Division, to ana-
lyze data, coordinate information with Pan-
ama, prepare reports.



of lists of approved establishments, be
consolidated in this Division of the Health
Bureau. Rabies quarantine should be
extended from the present four to six
months.

VITAL STATISTICS

In connection with Vital Statistics, Dr.
Falk suggests that the present operation,
now done by one person, be developed
into a small division. This should be
staffed to build up the vital statistics,
analyze hospital and other operating data,
develop exchange of statistical informa-
tion with the Republic of Panama, pre-
pare periodic reports for the United
States and international statistical agen-
cies, engage in special studies and provide
statistical aids for the administration.

ADMINISTRATION AND
FINANCING

Since the Canal Zone must be virtually
self-dependent for its health services, the
administration of the Health Bureau
must be appropriate to that of an agency
operating substantially complete public
medical services.

At the present time, nine administra-
tive units, including the various divisions
and the four hospitals, report to the
Health Director. This tends toward an
uneven administration, especially because
the hospitals— with nearly 90 percent of
the Bureau's budget—constantly press
urgent needs.

Dr. Falk suggests a reorganization of
the administration, to provide for at
least one or, better, two Assistant Di-
rectors. One would be responsible for
the community preventive and related
services, and the other for the hospitals
and clinics and first aid stations. He
also suggests that, for continuity, the
position of Health Director be a career
appointment on a permanent basis.

If his recommendations are adopted,
Dr. Falk says, Canal Zone authorities
should expect gross operating costs for
the community and personal health serv-
ice to rise from about $6 million in fiscal
year 1957 to, at current prices and wage
levels, about $7.7 million for fiscal year
1960 before levelling off. The program
would require capital outlays of about
$6.75 million, mainly for improvement of
facilities at Gorgas Hospital, which would
be counterbalanced by lowered operation
and maintenance costs.

The present budget procedure should
be replaced by a pattern under which
revenue from all sources would accrue
currently to the hospitals. If this were
done, it would not be necessary to request
any appropriation from Congress for the
hospitals, except for capital outlays re-
coverable through depreciation costs.

As far as individuals are concerned,
Dr. Falk suggests establishment of a
system of group payments through rou-
tine payroll deductions. This would
abolish individual charges at the time
medical services are received and would
make a corrective insurance plan un-
necessary.

Average deductions of one percent of
payroll or slightly less would apparently
cover all categories of cost, out-patient as
well as in-patient, would be lower than
the amount now being paid for limited
insurance for in-patient care and would
abolish the need for fee schedules, indi-
vidual billings, collections and deductions
from pay checks.




FOR YOUR INTEREST AND GUIDANCE IN ACCIDENT PREVENTION



NEW APPROVED METHOD OF ARTIFICIAL

RESPIRATION FOR VERY YOUNG CHILDREN




With the approach of summer vaca-
tion some of us may have the oppor-
tunity to demonstrate our first aid know-
ledge and save a life. However, in the
case of very young children a life may be
saved to be lost again when an adult does
not realize that his weight and strength
can seriously damage the child's chest.
For children of 3 or over the modified
method of applying pressure only with
the thumbs is sufficient but for babies
even the hands are too strong to use in
this method and the method shown above
is recommended.

The Rickard prone tilting-visceral
shift, as it is called now, was developed
by Capt. H. J. Rickard, a U. S. Navy
medical officer. The method was first
published in The Journal of the American
Medical Association and modern medi-
cine publications in 1956. It is by far
the most efficient, safe and simple method
of artificial respiration yet devised for
children under about 2 years of age.

The Rickard method's simplicity is per-
haps its most attractive feature. Once
you understand it you can use the method
without assistance, material, or equipment
and without a great expenditure of effort.
In brief, the procedure involves placing
the stricken child astradle your right arm,
its face in your upturned palm. Then by
simply raising and lowering your arm in
normal breathing cadence resuscitation is
accomplished. The middle finger of your



right hand is placed in the child's mouth
to depress the tongue and provide an
unobstructed air passage.

Figure 1 shows the child on the arm;
place your left hand on its back with your
fingers on each side of the neck over the
shoulders to hold it from sliding off your
arm. Figure 2 shows the 45 degrees from
the horizontal up and down motion.
Figure 3 illustrates how the middle finger
is placed in the mouth. Figures 4 and 5
show how the organs move back and forth
to create artificial breathing. In order to
lessen fatigue keep the right elbow tight
against the body for support. If you pre-
fer you may work in a seated position
with the elbow resting on the right knee.

Begin artificial respiration immediately
without bothering to remove or loosen the
clothing. Repeat slowly to yourself for
correct breathing cadence "Out goes the
bad air, in comes the good air." Con-
tinue the operation until the child resumes
normal breathing. Be prepared to start
all over again if breathing stops. Never
give up because others have lost hope and
make sure a doctor is called quickly to
decide whether the child is living or dead.
It is usually better to call the nearest fire
station first for they can get there quicker
with a mechanical resuscitator and take
over until a doctor arrives. But never in
any case delay a second in getting started.
Keep working until somebody shows up
whom you can send for a doctor.




Supply & Community Service ' H. Roll)

Health (Honor Roll)...

Civil AffairsfHonor Roll)

Transportation & Terminals

Engineering & Construction

New York Operations

Marine

C. Z. Govt. Panama Canal Company

( ) Locks Overhaul Injuries included in total.



'58 '57


'58


'57 1


45 27





1


20 16








4 11








51 57




1


33 34







6







353(304) 63


4(4)


6


517 208




8



42(42) 93



133



220






5
3
1

1

12(7) 8
22 20



THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW



May 2, 1958



©



CIVIL DEFENSE
NEWS



General plans for Operation Alert 1958,
the national Civil Defense exercise to be
held this month in the United States and
on the Canal Zone, were outlined last
month at a three-day conference in Wash-
ington of the National State and Terri-
torial Civil Defense Directors.



Eighteen girls from Cristobal High
School are now learning first aid in the
third session of the High School Nurses
Aid Civil Defense training program. The
instructor for the group is Mrs. Charlotte
Kennedy, while the program as a whole
is under the director of Miss Florence Ed-
brooke, Director of the Nursing Service
at Coco Solo Hospital.

Earlier in the year the girls had started
on the first part of the program— a series
of lectures. This is almost completed.
The third phase, actual training in the
hospitals, is held during the school vaca-
tion period in the summer.

The first three places in the first aid
competition on Safety Field Day, held at
Santa Cruz April 12, were won by three
teams from the Canal Zone Civil Defense
Volunteer Corps. The winning teams
were: Paraiso, first; Rainbow City, sec-
ond; and Santa Cruz, third. Six civil
defense teams participated in the Safety
Field Day events.



New Zone Warden for the Margarita-
Coco Solo Volunteer Corps is Mrs. Max-
ine Carpenter, of Margarita. She was
elected at a recent meeting conducted by
Fire Marshal W. G. Dolan, who served as
Civil Defense Training Officer in the ab-
sence in Washington of Philip L. Dade.
Other officers of the Corps are: Mrs. Vir-
ginia Kleefkens, Assistant Zone Warden;
Mrs. Astrea Brooks, First Aid Warden;
and Mrs. Frances Whitlock, Secretary.



MAY VOLUNTEER CORPS MEETINGS
» Town Place Hour

Margarita-Coco Serv. Center 9:00 a. m.
Solo Margarita

I Santa Cruz Serv. Center 8:00 p. m.

Rainbow City School 6:30 p.m.

i Paraiso School 7:30 p- m.




Official Panama Canal Company Publication
Published Monthly At Balboa Heights, C.Z.

Printed by the Printing Plant, Mount Hope, Canal Zone

W. E. Potter, Governor-President

Hugh M. Arnold, Lieutenant-Governor

William G. Arey, Jr.

Panama Canal Information Officer



J. Rufus Hardy. Editor

Eleanor McIlhenny, Assistant Editor

Eunice Richard, Editorial Assistant



On sale at all Panama Canal Service Centers.
Retail Stores, and The Tivoli Guest House for 10
days after publication date at 5 cents each. Sub-
scriptions, Jl a year; mail and back copies, 10
cents each.



Postal money orders made payable to the Pan-
ama Canal Company should be mailed to Editor,
The Panama Canal Review, Balboa Heights. C Z.



May 2,1958



Worth Knowing . . .



April 17 was Exam Day in the Canal Zone. That morning a total of 389 young
men and women who would like to be sales clerks or hold similar positions in the
retail stores or servire centers assembled at the I'.ir.ii-o .md Rainbow Cit\ high




schools for a one-and-a-half hour examination. Of the total, 235 took the exami-
nations on the Pacific side and 154 at the Rainbow City school. The tests, ad-
ministered by personnel from the Personnel Bureau assisted by several from the
Sales and Service Branch, included a short written composition, tests in compre-
hension, association and ability to follow instructions. A register will be established
when results of the tests are compiled and from this register men or women will
be selected to fill sales and allied vacancies as they occur.



News gets around. And so does The Panama Canal Review. A report on tanker
traffic, carried in the February issue of The Review was quoted in the March 12
issue of The Shipping World and World Shipbuilding, a British publication which
describes itself as "the oldest weekly journal devoted to Shipping, Shipbuilding,
Marine Engineering, Ship Repairing, Aviation and Finance." The Review story
had reported that low tanker rates were reflected in heavy oil shipments through
the Canal during the first six months of the fiscal year. The bulk of the shipments
were from Venezuela to California and from Lebanon to the United States
West Coast.

The old La Boca Commissary is leading a new life. Since February the commis-
sary building, which went out of business as a retail store at the end of December
1956, has been used as a warehouse for wholesale housewares for the Supply
Division. Use of the La Boca building frees additional space on the second floor
of the Housewares Annex of the Balboa store for furniture and household goods
sales and display. Little change was necessary- for the La Boca building's new
functions; last month, however, the Federal Roofing and Painting Company
began a contract to remove and replace all of the former built-up roofing with
another type of roofing, covered with gravel.



Blood is ready for emergency use at the Pacific Side Blood Bank. A report for
the period between March 1 and April 4 showed that as of the closing date for
that period, the Company-Government had on hand a surplus of 44 pints of
blood. Although the surplus is considered a healthy one, it is somewhat below
the surplus of 68 pints on hand at the close of the previous period. The decrease
was due to the fact that during the five- week period covered by the report, 80
pints of blood were furnished to employees or their families while only 61 pints
were donated. The remainder was taken from reserve on hand. The largest
number of donors and donees was reported for the Engineering and Construction
Bureau.

Children do like to read. Or, possibly, they like to be read to. Members of the
Canal Zone Library staff report outstanding success this year in the Story Hours
conducted at the Paraiso and Rainbow City for youngsters enjoying their long
dry season vacation from school. At Paraiso, where Story Hours were something
new this year, the average attendance each Saturday was over 60 boys and girls
between 6 and 10 years old. The Paraiso study hours, which grew so rapidly that
they had to be moved to the High School building, were conducted by Mrs.
Consuelo Baker, branch librarian, and her assistant, Mrs. Hilda Butcher. At
Rainbow City, where the average attendance was 20 or over, the story hours
were conducted under the direction of Kenneth Griffith, branch librarian. In
addition to listening to stories, the youngsters enjoyed films supplied by the U. S.
Information Service, and, at Paraiso, enjoyed some of the musical records avail-
able there.




Copper ore starts its trip north through the Panama Canal from this Cerro de Pasco smelter on the treeless altiplano of Peru.

Nation On The Double March

Business and lending agencies back their judgment that Peru is headed
for economic growth of monumental proportions

(This is the last of two articles on Peru in "The Review" series on trade areas served by the Panama Canal)



Peru of today has the appearance of a
nation on the verge of an economic growth
of monumental proportions.

The signs are clearly visible to the
casual visitor. Last month a large group
of Panama Canal employees returned
from a ten-day vacation trip to the Em-
pire of the Sun. They were impressed as
much by the bustle of business activity
and evidence of economic growth as by
the beauty of Lima, the Incan ruins at
Cusco, or the grandeur of the Andes.

Business leaders of international re-
known see the potentialities of this
great South American Republic with an
area twice the size of Texas. Develop-




ment capital is flowing into Peru in an
unprecedented volume. Since the first
of this year three major American
financial institutions announced the
joining of forces to make $60 million
available for the stabilization of Peru's
credits abroad; the International Bank
for Reconstruction and Development
(World Bank) approved a §15 million
loan for the rehabilitation of the rail-
way system; and the Export-Import
Bank announced a S10 million credit to
the Marcona Mining Company for ad-
ditional expansion of its iron mining
activities.

Within recent months expansion or de-
velopment programs have been announced
by such United States firms as W. K.
Grace & Co., Cerro de Pasco Corp., and
some of the major oil companies.

The most concrete evidence of the na-
tion's industrial and economic growth
comes from statistics of shipping through
the Panama Canal through which flows
most of Peru's external trade.

( Inly seven years ago, in the fiscal year
1951, cargo through the Canal from Peru
represented only 2.S percent of the total
commodity movement from the Pacific
to the Atlantic.

Peru is a mixture of the old and new.
At left, a worker in the Goodyear tire
plant in Lima,- right, an Indian woman
and bundled-up baby from Huancayo.



Last year Peruvian shipments aggre-
gated 4,851,000 tons, 15.9 percent of the
total commodity movement in this direc-
tion.

Goods shipped in the other direction,
to Peru through the Canal, last year
totaled over 1,000,000 tons, approxi-
mately two and a half times the 1951
volume.

While Peru's economic boom has been
recently blunted by inflation and other
economic ills, it is evident that industrial
and financial leaders consider this setback
to be of a temporary nature. As far-




THE PANAMA CANAL REVIEW



May 2, 1958




sighted businessmen, they are investing
in Peru's future.

More than most nations, Peru's
topography has been a deterrent to its
economic development. Desert, soar-
ing mountains, and jungle have com-
bined to forestall economic change and
social progress for all but a small pro-
portion of its inhabitants. A concerted
effort is being made to overcome these
obstacles which have hampered trans-
portation and communications, prime
necessities of business everywhere.

Internal communications still present
serious problems in Peru's development
of an integrated economy which will serve
as a basis for any substantial growth in
its external trade. The rugged terrain
makes the cost of building railroads pro-
hibitive in many sections. Consequently,
an intensified program of highway build-
ing was initiated a few years ago to link
the principal areas, and open up vast
areas in the highlands and coastal region.

Peru is divided longitudinally into
three distinct zones: The coastal region
along the Pacific; the sierra, or highlands;
and the montana, or subtropical eastern
slopes of the Andes which merge with the
Amazon River basin. The latter is a vast
region "on the other side of the moun-
tains," recognized as one of great poten-
tial wealth from agriculture, minerals,
and petroleum.

While the Panama Canal provides a
water link between the eastern slope of
the Andes and Peru's Pacific coast, the
trade route is so long the amount of cargo
moved is negligible. When this area west
of the Andes is developed, as it will be
someday, the Canal's role in linking it
with world markets will depend upon the
success of piercing the Andes with a high-
way system adequate to provide econom-
ical land transportation.

Historically, Peru has been closely
linked with the Isthmus of Panama for
over four centuries. The narrow neck
of land was the principal trade route
over which moved the untold wealth of



The Grace Line Santa Mercedes had
cleared from Callao in Peru just a few
days before she was honored as the
Canal's 200,000th commercial transit.

May 2, 1958 9



the Incas after Pizarro's conquest.
This was wholly adequate so long as
shipments consisted of gold and silver
but sailing ships and pack mules could
not compete in handling such bulk
cargoes as ores, lumber, and agricul-
tural products.

As a result of this factor and Peru's
geographic isolation from world markets,
her economy dwindled during the indus-
trial revolution which galvanized the
United States and Europe in the 19th
Century. Ships were required to make a
10,000-mile trip around the Horn to reach
European markets and Peru could not
compete in world trade with such a handi-
cap even though it was alleviated to some
extent by the advent of the steamship.

Thus, when the Panama Canal was
opened to traffic in August 1914, it re-
opened for Peru trade potentials dormant
for many decades.

Peru's export trade increased nearly
15 percent the year after the Canal was
opened, with exports exceeding imports
by a comfortable margin. During the
first World War Peru's principal export
products — cotton, sugar, minerals, and
petroleum — were sorely needed by the
Allies and with the Panama Canal pro-



Sugar is one of Peru's leading exports.
This refinery, left, is at Pomalco in
Lambayeque near the Pacific coast.



viding an economical route for their de-
livery, this favorable trade balance con-
tinued.

These products were caught in the
cyclical downturn of prices during the
world wide depression of the 1930's and
in most years since then the nation has
imported more than it has sold abroad.

Peru, like most other Latin American
republics, since the close of World War II
has adopted a course of advancement by
strengthening and expanding her internal
economy and thus lessening its depend-
ency on external sources for many prod-
ucts, including some basic foods.

This program, of necessity, is a slow
process. Gradually, results are beginning
to show. In 1956 the country's imports
totaled $365 million in value, while ex-
ports were valued at $311.4 million. A
published report early this year showed
that 1957 imports exceeded exports by
$71 million. However, a large amount of
imports included capital goods such as
machinery for foreign firms and did not
mean a loss in foreign exchange.

The United States, United Kingdom,
and Germany are Peru's chief trading
partners. Although trade with the
United States is by far the most im-
portant, that between Europe and Lat-
in America is increasing. An indica-
tion of this growth is the fact that the
net vessel tonnage of ships moving
through the Panama Canal on the trade
route between Europe and South Amer-
ica has doubled since 1951.

Fifty percent of Peru's imports, value-
wise, come from the United States, mostly
being moved through the Canal from the
east coast and southern ports. European
and other imports for Peru passing
through the Canal amount to another 30
percent, making a total of 80 percent of
the nation's imports passing through the
waterway.

The following figures show the value,
the principal countries of origin, and per-
centage of the total of Peruvian exports





Selection last month of a three-span
arch truss type of bridge for the per-
manent Canal crossing at Balboa set-
tled one of the principal preliminaries
to its construction.

An architectural rendering of how
the bridge will look when completed
about four and a half years from now
is shown above. This was one of
three principal drawings submitted
last month by the Sverdrup & Parcel
Engineering Co., of St. Louis, in its
preliminary engineering report.

Other bridge types submitted were



a single span arch rib bridge, and a
three-span cantilever truss bridge.

The designing engineer firm recom-
mended selection of the three-span
arch truss bridge on the basis that it
would be "the most feasible from the
standpoint of design, cost, and ease
of construction." Sverdrup & Parcel
expressed the opinion that the bridge
is aesthetically well-proportioned and
particularly suited to the requirements
and location. Additionally, the engi-
neering firm estimated the construction
costs would be $1 million less than the



cantilever truss type, and $1,800,000
less than the single span arch rib bridge.

The recommendation was approved
by the Consulting Board for the bridge
design and construction which held its
first meeting at Balboa Heights last
month to receive the preliminary re-
port, and later by the Board of Direc-
tors of the Panama Canal Company
at its quarterly meeting in Washing-
ton.

The exact alignment of the bridge
and its approaches is still under study.
While the minor variations in align-



for 1956, almost all of which were shipped
through the Canal:

Value (in Per-
millions) centage

United States $181.7 49.6

Germany 32.8 9.7

United Kingdom 32.6 8.9


2 4 5

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