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PHONOGRAPHY



FOR SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES



A COURSE OF LESSONS IN



THE BENN PITMAN SYSTEM



PARKE SCHOCH, A. M.

Director, Department of Commerce and Finance
Drexel Institute, Philadelphia



THIRD EI>ITION



PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHOR



Copyright, 1900, by

PARKE SCHOCH,

Philadelphia.



AVIL 1'Bi.MiMi COMPAHY,
Composition and Electrotjping.



CONTENTS.

PAGE.

Preface .... 5

Introductory Remarks 7

PART I.

Consonant Alphabet. Part I 9

Consonant Alphabet. Part II 12

Consonant Alphabet. Part III 15

Long Vowels. The Heavy Dots 18

Position for Single Consonant Words 19

Long Vowels. The Heavy Dashes 21

Position for One Syllable, Two Consonant Words . 22

Rules for L, Ar and Ray. Part I 22

Word-Signs 24

Short Vowels. The Light Dots 26

Position for Words of Two or More Syllables ... 26

Rules for /,, Ar and Ray, Part II 27

Short Vowels. The Light Dashes 29

Diphthongs 32

The Principle of Phrasing 35

The Circle S or Z at the Beginning and End of

Words 38

The Circle S or Z Between Two Consonants .... 41

The Circle Sez 44

(3)



4 Contents.

PAGE.

The Loops Steh and Ster. 46

The Semicircle and Hook W, and the Semicircle Y 49

The Aspirate H 53

The Double Consonants Tzv, >zv, Kw, Gw .... 53

The L Hook 56

The R Hook 61

The Iss Circle Before the L and R Hooks ... .65

TheA^Hook 68

The .For V Hook 73

The Hook Shun or Zhun 76

The Circles and Loops following N, F or V, and

Shun 80

The Halving Principle Applied to Unhooked Strokes 84
The Halving Principle Applied to Hooked Strokes . 91

The Doubling Principle 95

The Prefixes 99

The Affixes .... 103

Punctuation Marks, and Figures 107

PART II.

Enumeration of Advanced Principles 109

Compounds and Derivatives in

Irregular and Contrasted Words ... 113

Distinguished Words 115

Contracted Phrases and Words 117-128



PREFACE.

The lessons in this book are based upon the ninth
edition of Isaac Pitman Phonography, published in Eng-
land in 1852, and familiarly known in the United States
to-day as Ben-n Pitman Shorthand. But, unlike the
standard works of either of the foregoing authors, this
book makes no reference whatever to the science of pho-
netics, a wholly superfluous feature of a shorthand text-
book designed, as this is, to fit the student directly and
immediately for the practical application of phonography
to commercial and professional needs. This is not a new
system, but rather a standard system in new clothes,
adapted to new methods.

The plan of the book follows faithfully the now gen-
erally accepted method of instruction known as the
"Reporting Style," as distinguished from the "Corre-
sponding Style," so universally adopted by authors and
teachers up to within a decade ago. This more recent
plan involves the presentation of the principles and the
arrangement of the exercises in such a manner that not
a single word shall be introduced until the principle has
been stated which provides for the writing of that word
in the briefest form used by the practitioner. With a
view to a complete adherence to this plan, the principle
of position writing is coupled with the first vowel lesson"
but stated in such simple form and evolved so gradually
and naturally throughout the series of vowel lessons, as

(5)



6 Preface,

not to detract from the importance of the vowels them-
selves. Thus, the student unlearns nothing during his
course, a feature of the book that will at once appeal to
all teachers and writers who are familiar with the reverse
conditions, so common where the " Corresponding Style "
still prevails.

Part II of the book presents all those principles of
abbreviation that are distinct from, and in advance of,
the principles which form the broad basis of shorthand
writing. Here are gathered in proper groups that large
class of common words whose shorthand outlines are
either abbreviations or modifications of those which
would be secured by the application of some one or more
of the standard principles presented in Part I. These
lists give completeness to the student's vocabulary of con-
tracted and irregular forms. Beyond this, no dictionary
is needed; all other words should be written in full, in
accordance with general rules.

These lessons are the outgrowth of twelve continuous
years in the class-room, eight of which have been spent
in the institution with which the author is now connected,
where ideal conditions exist for the attainment of best
results in shorthand teaching. This book is a revised
and enlarged edition of one published by the author in
1896 and successfully used since then in many schools and
colleges throughout the country.



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS.

Phonography is a system of shorthand writing whereby
the sounds of any language and, for our purpose, the
English language are represented by distinctive char-
acters. Broadly, therefore, it may be called a system of
sound writing. This art is better known to-day by the
name stenography, or by the generic word shorthand.

The distinguishing characteristic of phonography,
or shorthand writing, as compared with the ordinary
method of writing, by contrast called longhand, is that
the former is based upon an alphabet of distinct and un-
varying sounds, the latter upon an alphabet of letters,
some of which vary in sound, and a few of which dupli-
cate in sound other letters in the alphabet. In phonog-
raphy all silent letters are omitted ; thus, bake is spelled
bak ; toe, to ; sigh, si. Sound writing would spell cage,
kaj ; beau, bo ; phrase, fraz. The student must, there-
fore, train himself to catch and give expression to the
sounds of words, and discard entirely spelling by letter.
'The materials to be used in shorthand writing are
ruled paper and a pen or pencil. A fine point steel or
gold pen should be selected, and a pencil of medium
hardness.

(7)



PHONOGRAPHY



PART I.

CHAPTER I.

CONSONANT ALPHABET.
PART I.

Letter Sign Pronounced As in

P pee P a y> hP

boat, rob



B \


bee


T i


tee


D 1


dee


OH /


cha;


J /


jay



dip, bid

chay chip, pitch
Joe, edge

K" kay ^ing, ^ome,

C? _ gay ^o, mg

R X" (up) ra y ^te

JH" cr fttp) hay hope

(9)



TO Pitman Phonography.

1. The first six consonant signs are struck downward,
k and gay from left to right, and ray and hay upward, as
indicated. These directions are invariable ; under no
conditions may the signs be struck in the opposite direc-
tion. The difference betwen chay and ray is one of slant,
chay sloping thirty degrees from the vertical, and ray
sixty degrees.

2. The student must not think of proceeding a step
further until these ten characters are thoroughly mas-
tered. They can be learned in the shortest time by
writing each sign singly at least twenty-five times, repeat-
ing this exercise, if necessary, until the desired result is
secured.

3. When two or more consonants are joined together,
they must be written without raising the pen, the second
stroke beginning where the first ends, the third where
the second ends, and so on. (Line i, Reading Exercise.)

4. When a horizontal stroke begins a combination and
is followed by a descending one, the horizontal sign is
written above the line, so as to permit the descending one
to rest on the line. When a horizontal stroke is followed
by an ascending one, the horizontal sign is placed on the
line so as to permit the ascending one to rest on the line
when the combination is complete. (Line 2.)

5. In combinations of two downward strokes, the first
rests upon the line, the second goes below it. (Line 3.)

6. When horizontal strokes are joined, they rest upon
the line. (Line 4.)



Consonants.



II



READING EXERCISE.



h -f -/




7. In the Writing Exercise below, each group of two,
three, or four signs, as indicated by the hyphen, must be
formed in accordance with the rules as stated in ^ff 3, 4, 5,
and 6.

WRITING EXERCISE.

! T-gay, p-gay, p-p, p-b, gay-t, chay-j, ray-ch^y.

2. ray-gay, hay-t, chay-ray, p-d, d-c.hay, j-p, b-p, d-i.

3- g a y-t-pi p-d-gay, b-k-chay, t-ray-chay, t-p-gaj'.

4. k-hay-d, k-p-ray, gay-b-chay, j-p-ray,k-j-b,hay-t-ray.

5. hay-ray-t, t-ray-p, ray-chay-gay, hay-k-t, d-k-b.

6. b-p-ray, t-chay-ray, t-p-d, b-d-k-gay, t-t-ray-p.

7. d-ray-b-k, ray-t-chay-k, k-t-b-ray, p-k-d-ray.



12 Pitman Phonography.

CHAPTER II.

CONSONANT ALPHABET.
PART II.

Letter Sign Pronounced As in

F ef /an, mu^

, \

V V_ vee z>ane, knaz/e

TH \ ith Mink, lath

TH \ thee thy, lathe

S ) ess sip, fuss

^>

zee .zeal, buzz

ish sAe, fish

ZH J zhee vision, azure

8. It will be observed that/" and v correspond in direc-
tion to the straight signs p and b ; ith, the, s and z to t
and d ; and ish and zhe to chay and/. These eight signs
are all struck downward. What was said in \ 2, relating
to the best method of mastering the straight letters,
applies with equal force here.

9. In certain rare groupings, to secure a better combi-
nation, ish may be written upward. When standing




Consonants. \ 3

alone, however, it is always written downward. (Line 2,
Reading Exercise. )

10. When two curves are joined, an angle must be
formed between them, except in such pairs as ith-s and
the-2, where the second curve is a continuation of the first
in the opposite direction. (Lines i and 3. )

11. Between a straight and a curved consonant, an
angle is likewise necessary, except in such pairs as t-f,
t-ish,f-k, etc. (Line 4.)

READING EXERCISE.



- ........ 4 ...... * ....... y- -



-M ....... V - ~t ..... -t .....




a.-



t



12. Ish will be struck downward whenever it occurs
in the Writing Exercise following :






14 Pitman Phonography.

WRITING EXERCISE.

1. v-f, ish-v, ith-z, z-f, v-s, zhe-ish, ith-f, z-s, ish-z, ith-t.

2. f-gay, d-f, ish-gay, ray-zhe, hay-v, gay-ish, ish-ray.

3. v-chay, d-ith, the-t, p-v, zhe-ray, ith-ray, hay-ish.

4. ith-v, s-k, v-gay, z-ray, j-v,,ish-b, p-zhe, p-ish, ish-f.

5. d-v-t, gay-v-t, ray-ish-k, f-ray-j, Ush-ray-f, hay-f-ith.

6. k-v-ish, ith-ray-z, z-ray-f, hay-s-t, d-ray-v, s-k-k.

7. chay-ray-the, k-ish-s, v-d-k, s-gay-b, f-ray-d, k-f-d.



Consonants. 15



CHAPTER III.

CONSONANT ALPHABET.
PART III.

Letter Sign Pronounced As in



L


( (up) el


/cap,


Y


f yay


yet


R


^


far


W


i way


wave



3f / ^~ x em way, aim

MP ^ em P

j^g emb camp, emoer

N ^- ' en wote, tow



NG ^_x ing

13. In the above list of consonants, / corresponds in
direction to the straight letters ray and hay ; yay to the
straight stroke/ ; arand way \.Q p and b ; and w, ;///> or
emb, n and /;/.- to k and vy.

14. As indicated above, / when standing alone is always
written upward. In combination with other consonants,
it may also be written downward. Thus, like ish, it may



i6



Pitman Phonography.



be struck in either direction when joined to another letter.
Rules for the use of / will appear later. (Line I, Reading
Exercise.)

15. Here, again, certain combinations of curves, also
straight and curved letters, such as m-n, n-m,p-n, l-k, etc.,
are made without an angle being formed between the
strokes. (Line 2. )

READING EXERCISE.



^c....^:. - i - -^^ - y C-,




16. Wherever / appears in the following exercise, it
must be written upward.

WRITING EXERCISE.

1. 1-ing, ar-1, way-m, ar-emb, n-ing, m-emp, 1-way.

2. m-ar, 1-1, v-m, the-emp, s-n, z-ing, n-v, n-s, f-yay.



Consonants. 17

3. f-ing, m-ith, emp-1, f-ar, s-emb, z-m, m-n, iug-m.

4. yay-1, ish-ing, 1-the, n-b, 1-chay, chay-ra, n-j, ish-1.

5. ing-k, ray-ing, hay-1, t-1, emb-ray, m-chay, p-ing.

6. t-ar, k-erab, n-gay, b-m, t-ing, way-k, p-yay, ar-ray.

7. chay-emp, hay-way, chay-1, way-ray, p-m, d-1, v-p.

8. 1-f-t, f-l-j,m-k-n, way-gay-ing, hay-t-l,s-t-m,k-zhe-ar.

9. yay-k-m, v-n-ing, gay-l-t, m-ray-d, n-f-m, m-u-f.

10. n-v-ni, 1-ith-emp, ar-in-f, v-l-m, m-zhe-ar, s-l-m.

11. v-k-b 1, n-tm-ray, k-1-p-ray, 1-z-n-n, p-k-l-b, n-s-t-t.



1 8 Pitman Phonography.

CHAPTER IV.

LONG VOWELS. THE HEAVY DOTS.

17. The long vowels are six in number, three of which
are presented in this lesson. The first three long vowel
sounds are:

E as in ^at

A as in ate

AH as in alms

18. These sounds are represented by a heavy dot, placed
respectively at the beginning, middle, and end of any con-
sonant; thus,

E A ATI

19. The vertical stroke used in the above illustration,
while it corresponds to the letter /, is intended to repre-
sent any consonant stroke. The dots are written close
to, but must not touch, the stroke.

20. The vowel e, written at the beginning- of the stroke,
iscalled a first-place vowel; a at the middle, a second-place
vowel; ah at the end, a third-place vowel. It will be
observed, therefore, that vowel place is reckoned from the
beginning, not from the top, of a stroke. On an up
stroke, such as /, the vowels would appear thus:

.r r (L

E A AS



Long Vowels. 19

21. A vowel placed to the left of an upright or slanting
stroke, or above a horizontal stroke, is read before it; when
placed to the right of the former, or below the latter, it
is read after it; thus,

eat ache pay key

POSITION FOR SINGLE CONSONANT WORDS.

22. When the vowel in a word is a. first-place vowel, the
consonant, if upright or slanting, is written half the length
of a 1 above the line; if horizontal, the consonant is written
a full length of a t above the line. Note examples below.
Such words are said to be written in the first position.

\ .r ^

bee eel eke me

23. When the vowel in a word is a second-place vowel,
the consonant, whether upright or slanting, or horizontal,
rests on the line, as in the examples below. Such words
are said to be written in the second position.



age hay aim gay

24. When the vowel in a word is a third-place vowel,
the consonant, if upright or slanting, is written half way
through the line; if horizontal, the consonant is written
immediately below the line, as in the examples following.
Such words are said to be written in the third position.



pa



2o Pitman Phonography.

25. In the Writing Exercise following, each word must
be written in its proper position with reference to the
line, in accordance with \\ 22, 23, and 24.

WRITING EXERCISE.

1. Tea, fee, knee, pea, ease, may, ace, bay, ale, aid, lay.

2. Say, day, Eve, way, neigh, she, ape, each, see, yea, Lee.

3. Nay, eat, ate, ache, fay, jay, they, fa, la, shah.



Long Vowels. 21



CHAPTER V.

LONG VOWELS. THE HEAVY DASHES.

26. The remaining three long vowel sounds are:

AW as in aw\
O as in <?de
OO as in ooze

27. These sounds are indicated by a heavy dash, and
are treated in precisely the same manner as the heavy
dot vowels in the preceding lesson. The dashes are
struck at right angles to the consonant, but, again, must
not touch it; thus,

L '\ J_

A \V O OO

RULES FOR PLACING VOWELS BETWEEN TWO
CONSONANTS.

28. FIRST-PLACE vowels are written after the first con-
sonant. (Line i, Reading Exercise.)

29. SECOND and THIRD-PLACE vowels are written
before the second consonant. (Lines 2 and 6. )



22 Pitman Phonography.

POSITION FOR ONE SYLLABLE, TWO
CONSONANT WORDS.

30. The first consonant, if a vertical or slanting one, is
written in the position of the vowel sound. (Lines I
and 4.)

31. If the first consonant is a horizontal one, followed
by a downward or upward stroke, the horizontal letter
must be written so as to permit the downward or upward
stroke to rest in the position of the vowel sound. ( Lines
2 and 5.) In other words, in such combinations, the
vertical or slanting stroke must conform to the position
of the vowel sound, and is, therefore, the controlling one
in the word.

RULES FOR THE USE OF/:, ARWDRAY.

PART I.
INITIAL L AND R.

32. Upward I is used in all words beginning with the
sound of /. (Line 3. )

33. Ray is used in all words beginning with the sound
of r, except when followed by in or etnp, when ar is pre-
ferred. (Line 4.)

FINAL L AND R.

34. Upward / is used after all consonants, except ray,
f, v, and ,when downward / is preferred. (Lines 5 and 6.)

35. Ar is used after all consonants, except ray, hay, m,
and etnp, when ray is preferred. (Lines 7 and 8.)



Long Vowels.
READING EXERCISE.



_.s,._. \




36. The student must see to it that every word in the
following exercise conforms to the foregoing rules, both
as to position and the use of /, ar and ray. The conso-
nant form, or outline, as it is called, must be completed
before the pen is raised to insert the vowel.

WRITING EXERCISE.

1. Tall, daub, balk, peak, sheep, wreath, sheaf, Paul.

2. Poke, coke, pope, shake, goat, game, vogue, paid.

3. Coop, boom, palm, doom, food, balm, tomb, tooth.

4. League, loom, lake, loam, laud; rage, rogue, rood.



24 Pitman Phonography.



5. Rake, ream; ball, deal, pail, meal, kneel, fail, veal.

6. Gale, jail, toll, shawl, shoal, zeal; tar, czar, pair.

7. Bore, jeer, fair, shore, lore, rare, mare, tier, far, poor.

8. Name, comb, theme, shame, bathe, beech, meek.

9. Maim, coal, cape, joke, booth, peep, babe, bake, folk.

10. Fame, heap, nome, loath, shade, foal, beet, leaf.

11. Loop, robe, page, keep, lave, boat, choke, boot.

12. Beak, reach, chore, loaf, toad, heat, cheek, cheap.

WORD-SIGNS.

37. Many words occur so frequently in ordinary speech
that it is neither desirable nor necessary to give them
complete expression, but, instead, some part of the short-
hand form may be selected to represent the whole. This
partial representation may be in the nature of either a
consonant or vowel sign. The abbreviated form thus
employed is called a word-sign or logogram. In addi-
tion to the word-signs embraced within the above state-
ment, we likewise include under this heading all single
consonant words which, unvocalized, are written out of
their natural position.

38. The ten signs below, as will be noted, are but the
vowel expression of the words for which they stand. The
heavy dash signs, for convenience, are called ticks, and
each is given the name of the consonant whose direction
it takes. Thus, all and too or two are b-ticks; already,
before and owe or oh, d-ticks; and ought and n> horn, j -ticks.



L ... v ___

the a, an a j t all too, two



2


J








already


before


oh, owe


ought


who-m



Long VOID els. 25

*
39. These word-signs must be mastered and then

applied in writing the Sentence Exercise which follows.
All other words in this and subsequent sentence exercises
must be written in full, except those in italics, which are
to be written in the position of the vowel sound, but with
the vowel sign omitted.

SENTENCE EXERCISE.

I. Joe bought a sheep. 2. Eat all the meal. 3. They
may see the mail. 4. They all know the way. 5. Paul
may feed the two sheep. 6. They all came before tea.
7. Maine bought a wreath, too. 8. Oh, see, she may
fall. 9. Jake already saw the poor show. 10. Lee may
take the boat too far. n. May saiv the thief take all the
rope. 12. They who pay me all they owe me may see the
ball game.



26 Pitman Phonography.

*

CHAPTER VI.

SHORT VOWELS. THE LIGHT- DOTS.

40. Like the long vowels, the short vowels are six in
number, three of which are treated in this lesson. The
first three short vowel sounds are:

I as in z't
E as in <?dge
A as in at

41. These sounds are represented by a light dot, placed,
again, respectively at the beginning, middle, and end of a
consonant, being designated first-place, second-place, and
third-place light dot vowels; thus,



I E A

42. The rules for writing these short sounds are the
same as those which govern the long vowels. (Lines i
and 2. )

POSITION FOR WORDS OF TWO OR MORE
SYLLABLES

43. The first consonant, if a vertical or slanting one, is
written in the position of the vowel in the accented syl-
lable. (Line 3.)

44. If the first consonant is a horizontal one, followed
by a downward or upward stroke, the horizontal letter
must be so written as to permit the downward or upward
stroke to rest in the position of the vowel in the accented



Short Vowels. 27

g

syllable. (Line 4. ) In other words, theory/ slanting or
upright stroke controls the position of a word, and the
stroke's position is determined by the accented vowel
sound.

RULES FOR THE USE OF L, AR AND RA Y.

PART II.
INITIAL L AND R PRECEDED BY A VOWEL SOUND.

45. When / beginning an outline is preceded by a vowel
sound and followed by a horizontal stroke, use the down-
ward /; when followed by a down stroke, use the upward /.
(Line 5. )

46. When r beginning an outline is preceded by a vowel
sound, use ar, except when followed by the down strokes
/, d, chay, j, f, v, ith, the, s or z; and the horizontals n
and ing, when ray is employed. Ar is also used when it
is the only consonant in a word and is preceded by a
vowel sound. (Line 6.)

FINAL L AND R FOLLOWED BY A VOWEL SOUND.

47. When / ending an outline is followed by a vowel
sound, use the upward / without exception. (Line 7. )

48. When r ending an outline is followed by a vowel
sound, use ray without exception. (Line 8.)

MEDIAL L AND R.

49. In the middle of an outline, that is, between two
other consonants, upward / and ray are generally em-
ployed, the only exception being that before m and emp,
as heretofore, ar is always used. (Line 9.)

50. Two parallel light ticks underneath a word, as in
Line 5, indicate a proper name.



28



Pitman Phonography.
READING EXERCISE.




WRITING EXERCISE.

1. Pitch, rip, ship, nip, big, pith, bill, tip, ditch, fib.

2. Fell, fed, leg, wretch, dell, keg, gem, deck, jet, debt.

3. Lamp, batch, Jack, cap, pad, chap, lap, lash, pap, gap.

4. Mattie, pit}', shabby, Adam, chatty, Emma, lady.

5. Elbow, Elsie, elm, ilk, ear, orb, Arab, army, air, earl.

6. Rally, fellow, delay, chilly, mellow, Billy, Nelly.

7. Parry, Mary, harrow, berry, Peary, barrow, vary.

8. Charity, Erminie, parch, hearty, mark, farm, charm.



Short Vowels.



CHAPTER VII.

SHORT VOWELS. THE LIGHT DASHES.

51. The three remaining short vowel sounds are:

O as in odd

U as in up

OO as in took

52. These sounds are indicated by a light dash, being
called respectively first-place, second-place, and third-place
light dash vowels; thus,

1 i -i

6 ij oo

53. Here, again, the rules are the same as those which
have prevailed in the foregoing vowel exercises. (Read-
ing Exercise. )

READING EXERCISE.



-C



-k-



3...



c\



3O Pitman Phonography.

WRITING EXERCISE.
1 i. Lock, mock, rob, fog, shock, pod, chop, dock, dot.

2. Rug, fur, tuck, lump, nudge, dug, dumb, love, jug.

3. Bush, npok, shook, took, hood, botch, numb, pug.

4. Pop, puck, bog, thumb, dodge, tongue, Dutch, junk.
s. Folly, Lottie, muddy, lucky, Polly, body, atom, copy.

6. Motto, money, oddly, olive, volley, mummy, cooky.

7. Molly, chubby, porridge, dummy, Gotham, polish.

WORD-SIGNS.

i ..... A_J.__j_. ^L^y^L..^

and of to or but on should he, him hope,happy

party

..... v.... A .....J. ..... L...L ...... f .

be,object to be it dollar do had,advertise which



much advantage large are wlU whole f r Tialf

54. The light dash signs are again called ticks, and
each is given the name of the consonant whose direction
it follows. Thus, of and to are p-ticks; or and but, t-ticks;
on and should, which are struck up, are ray-ticks; he or
him, chay-tick, because it is struck down. The other
signs are described as follows: Hope, happy, or party, p 3 ;
be or object, b 2 ; to be, b 3 ; if, t 2 ; dollar, d l ; do, d 9 ; had or
advertise, d 3 , etc. The small figures adjoining the letters
indicate the position of the word-sign, / signifying first-
position; 2, second - position ; j, third - position . This
method of describing the word-signs is adhered to
throughout the book.



Short Vowels, 31

SENTENCE EXERCISE.

i. Who took the book ? 2. The dog lay on the rug.
3. Jack may feed the pig all the chop. 4. He ought to
go to the large factory. 5. To whom should he go for a
lamp ? 6. Harriet will be the belle of the party. 7. Take
the copy book to Mattie or Emma. 8. The wreck of the
ship lay on the beach. 9. He should lock the door of the
academy. 10. //"he way take a nag and a buggy, he will
go to the show. n. They all hope to be in the village
on the day of the party. 12. The object should be to
advertise the party on each day of the month. 13. They
owe too large a bill already, but they hope to pay it before
long. 14. He will borrow half the money which they keep
in the bank. 15. 'Emma and Anna are happy, for they
may each take a dollar and go to the academy.



32 Pitman Phonography.

CHAPTER VIII.


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