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GODFREY LOWELL CABOT
SCIENCE LIBRARY

HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY



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THE



AMERICAN JOURNAL



OF



SCIENCE AND ARTS.



COND17CTCD BT



BENJAMIN SILLIMAN, M. D. LL. D.

Ptof. Chem., Mm., fce. In Yale CoU. ; Cor. Mem. Soc. Arts, Man. tnd Com. ; and

For. Mem. Geol. Soc., London; Mem. Roy. Min. Soc., Dresden; Imp.

Agik. Soc., Moscow ; Hon. Mem. Lin. Soc, Paris; Nat Hist

Soc. Belfast, Ire.; Phil, and Lit Soc. Bristol, Eng.;

Mem. of various Lit and Sden. Soc. in America.



VOL. XVII.— JANUARY, 1830.



NEW HAVEN:



Published and Sold by HEZEKIAH HOWE and A. H. MALTBY.
PhQadMhia, E. UTTELL & BROTH GR. - JV*<^ York, O. & C. & H.
CARVllL.— Boffon, HILLIARD, GRAY, LITTLE & WILKINS.



PRLNTED BY UEZEKIAU HOWE.



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CONTENTS TO VOLVWE XTll.



NUMBER I.

Art. I. Sketch of the Geology of the Arctic Regions, and the
Steppes of Rassia, with notices of Siberia, Kamschat-
ka, and the Knrile Islands, . . . i

IL On the infldence of certain substances on the Peroxide

of Hydrogen; by Edwih D. Faust, M. D. - • 34

III. Accident in consequence of the compression of the air, 38

IV. Assay and Analysis of an Iron Ore, (fer titanne,) from the

environs of Baltimore; by T. G. Clbmsok, • 42

V. Sketch of the mine of Pasco; by M. de Ritebo: with a
map. Introductory notice of specimens of silyer from
Peru and Chili ; by the Editor, - • 43

VI. Geological Prodromus ; by Prof. A. Eaton, - 63

VII. Solution of a Problem in Fluxions; by Prof. Theodork

Strong, .... - $9

VIII. The Fundamental Principle of the Higher Calculus dem*
onstrated by the method of Indeterminates. (Commu*
nicated by Mr. Stiles French.) - - 74

IX. Notice of the Mineral Fusible Cement of H. Fits Lowitz, 81
X. Inquiries into the Principles of Liquid Attraction ; by

Dr. Horatio G. Hough. With drawings. * 86

XL Architecture in the United States, - - 99

XII. Manufacture of Steel, - * * - 111

XIII. Notice of Peruvian Antiquities — ^with a print, * 116

XIV. Igneous Origin of some Trap Rocks — with a print, (fron-

tispiece.) — ^Edftor, - - - - 119

XIV. bis.* Danger from the premature explosion of gunpow-

der in the blasting of rocks, with suggestions as to the
means of prevention, - * - - 132

XV. On Crystallized Native Terrestrial Iron, Ferro-sillcate

of Manganese, and various other American Minerals ;
by C. U. Shepard, Assistant to the Prof, of Chem. and
Lect on Bot in Y. C. - - - • 140

XVI. Observations on the Magnetism of the Earth, especially

of the Arctic Regions ; in a letter from Edward Sa-
bine, Esq. to Pro^ Renwick, - - - 1 45
XVIL Necrology. Sir Humphiy Davy — Dr. Wollaston, 167

SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.!

MECHANICAL PniLOSOPBr.

1, 2. Invention of stereotyping — Hydrostatic lamp with a double

current of air, - - - - 161



* In a part of the edition, repeated through inadvertence,
t The arranged articles communicated by Prof. Grifcom.



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U CONTENTS.

SCIENTinC INTELLIGENCE •

MECHANICAL PHILOSOPHV.

Page.
1, 2. laventioD of stereotyping — Hydrostatic lamp with a double

current of air, - - - - 161

3, 4. Watkins' dry galvanic battery — Eccentricity of Satarn's

ring, - - - 162

5, 6. An improved procens for drying wood for glass houses —

Blowpipe simplified, - - - - 163

7, 8. Linear unit — Smoke disperser of M. Millet, - 164

9. Conductibility conferred by water, - - - 166

CHEMICAL FHILOSOFHr.

1. Litmus paper. - - - - - 166

2. Liquid sulphurous acid, - - - - - 166

3. 4. Crystallization of iodine — Note on the action of metals

upon inflammable gases, - - - 168

5. Preservation of bones, and the employment of gelatine, 16^

6, 7, 8. Color of the sea — Solar phosphori — Test of the strength

of chlorine or chloride of lime, - - 170

9. New indelible ink, - - - 172

10, 11. Detection of potatoe flour in that of wheat — Aspartic acid, 173

12, 13. Extrication of gas from mushrooms — Antidote to prussic

acid, ^ . - - . - 174

14, 16. Copal varnish — Oily and resinous products of the distil-
lation of wood, - - - - 176

16, 17, 18. New method of discovering the presence of nitric
acid — Reduction of boracic acid by hydrogen — On py-
rophorus, - - - - . 175

19, 20. loduret of calcium and potassium-^Ins tractions relative

to the art of refining, - - - - 177

21. Pectic acid convertible into oxalic by an alkali, - 179

22. Detection of corrosive sublimate, - - - 181

23. 24. On potassium and sodium — Test for vegetable and ani-

mal matter, - . . • . 182

NATURAL HISTORY.

1. Couzeranite, - - - - - ' 183

2, 3, 4. Belemnites — Number of salts, divisibility of matter —

Preservation of cloth, furs, &c. - - 184

5. Vision of the mole, - - - - 186

* The arrang^ed articles communicated by Prof. Griscom.



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UNARRANGED MISCELLANIES, DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN.

1. Particalan of the striking of lightniDg over a great surface, 193

2. Electro-gaWanic pheDomeoa, - - - 194

3. Test for lead in oil of vitriol, - - - - 196

4. 5. Eaton galena — ^Description of a new locality of zircon, 196

6. Geology, - - - - - - 197

7, 8. Magnetic variations — Elements of Technology, - 198
9, 10. Elementary works on astronomy — Catalogue of plants in

the vicinity of Amherst College, • - 199

11. Agenda Geognostica, .... 200

12, 13, 14. Naval Sketches — Turner's Chemistry — Foreign me-

moirs and pamphlets, ... - 201

15, 16, 17. Giils to the Geological Society— Gold in Maryland-
Culture of silk, - - - - 202
18, 19, 20, 21. Acidulous sulphate of iron — Rozhucy Laborato-
ry — Correction — Iron mines, . - - 203

22. Hydrophobia, - - - 204

23. Crystallization of tin, - - - . . 206

24. Albany Institute, - - . . - 208

25. Chloro-hydrogen blowpipe, - - - - 21 1

APPENDIX.

An account of the Siamese twin brothers, united together from

their birth ; by Prof. J. C. Warren, M. D. &c. with a plate, 212



NUMBER II.

Art. I. Review of the Scientific Labors and Character of Sir

Humphry Davy, with a portrait, - - 217

II. Architecture in the United States, - - 249

III. Synopsis of the Organic Remains of the Ferruginous Sand

Formation of the United States ; with geological re-
marks ; by S. G. Mortoh, M. D. of Philadelphia ; Mem.
of the Amer. Philos. Soc. ; of the Acad, of Nat. Sci. of
Philad. &c. 274

IV. Fragment from Peron, with notices from other voyagers,

on the Temperature of the Sea, at great depths, far
from Land ; by Be5j. Tappait, - - 295

V. On Malaria, - - . - - 300

VI. Tennessee Meteorite, - . . - 326

VII. Solution of a Problem in Fluxions ; by Prof. Theodoiub

Strong, Rutgers College, ... 329

VIII. All primitive general strata, below granular quartz, are

cotemporaneous and schistose; by Prof. A. Eatoit, 334
IX. On the Origin of Springs and Fountains ; by (jeo. W. Long, 336
X. The science of Mechanics as applied to the present im-
provements in the useful arts in Europe, and in the
United States : adapted as a Manual for Mechanics and
Manufacturers; by Zachariar Allcn, - 338



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ERRATA^VoL. XVII. No. I.
Page 70, line 6 and 18 from top, and in the rest of the article^ for C, C'a , &c. reafl

" " line 14 from bottom, for (o) read (O).

PV PV

« 71, " 3 from bottom, for =. read ==•

f* 72, *' 12 from top, for " whatever may be the time of describing C'/* real

.whether c" = e' or, not.
" 72 and 73, for parameter read eeiniparameter,

.YoL. XVI. No. 2.
Pa|^ 891, line 21 from top, for burning read betofning-

Vol.. XIV. No. 2.

j^age 294, line 17, after " Erie" dele the semicolon and insert a comma.
«< " « 18, after "out of ,if ' dele the comma And insert a period.



The Chemical Text Book, already announced, will be published in parts ; Part 1.
to appearby the first of November; Part II. to follow as soon after as possible.



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R HAB-TFOKIID, CONNECTICUT. j

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THE

AMERICAN



JOURNAL OF SCIENCE, /kc.



Art, I. — Sketch of the Geology of the J$rotic Region$^ an4 the Stepr
pes of Russia^ with notices of SU>eriay Kamschatka, an^ the Ku-
rile blonds.

Prepared and communicated for this Journal.

To sciisotiQc research, the Arqtic regions have beeoy uqtil vrithiQ «
few yearsi a terra incognita^ seldorn apprpaebedy except by a few
persevering miasioikariesy or adventurous wbalerneu, who accomplish-
ed title for science, beyond pioneering the way for future mvestiga-
tors. Tp ih^ diligence, and the observations of a few travellera,
but still more to the exploring expeditions und^r Parry and Frank*
lin, this age is indebted for whatever is known of the high northern
latitudes in this henaisphere. These .examinations were made und^r
circumstances, little (avorable to geological science. No mechaniea}
facilities were at hand — ^no deep iQiBes disclosed the aecrets of their
foriQaiioQ, or developed their mkieral and metallic treasures — the fiott
bound rocks, and sterile earth, with here and there a ravine, or a
rifted mo^nta^lf peering above die icy desoladon, were the only VH
dices of what lay shrouded beneath*

To ^ve a comprehensive view <A thje rocky formations, and the
jninerals of the arctic regions, the materials furnished by McKensie,
Crantz, Egede, Von Troil, and other travellers, with the facts ascer-
tained by the naturalists in the exploring expeditions, under Parry
and Franklin, w31 be arranged in consecutive order^ beginning on
the North West with

I. The Jforthem Uvffs o^ the Bocky Mounicms, and the Jl^*

Kenzie River, from Great Bear Lake, in 6b'' J^orthhU.

to the Northern Ocean*
H. From Slave Lake to the Arctic Ocean^ by the Coppfir Mine

River,
Vol. XVn— No. 1. 1



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2 Sketch of the Geology of the Arctic Regions.

in. MdviUe Islandj Port Bowen^ and the Coasts of Prince Rs"

genfs Inlet.

IV. Islands and Countries bordering on Hudson^s Bay.

' V. Greenland^

VI. Icdand.

VIL 3^ JVorth of Europe, with the Steppes of Russia.

Vni. J>rotices of Siberia, Kamschatka, and the KurUe Islands.

I. The Rocky Mountains, near their northern termination, do not
form a continuous range, but separate mto blufis, and detached
masses, runmng in various directions, some parallel with each other,
and others diverging as they approach the Arctic Sea. A few barren
hills, rising in a deep morass, from three to twelve miles in breadth,
divide them from the frozen Ocean.

The formation of the mountains is of primitive rocks, over which
a secondary covering, extendmg upwards, reposes upon their eastern
sides many hundred feet from their bases. The sea coasts, from
them, towards the McKenzie, are shaUow, and skirted with islands,
sometimes margined with a gravelly beach, and at others with high
banks of sand, or limestone. Greenstone, sandstone, and limestone
form the pebbles on the beach.

On the Sea Coast West of the McKenzie, Captain Franklin col-
lected the following specimens. Gre]rwacke slate in columnar con-
cretions ; globular, dark blackish grey splintery limestone ; worn
pebbles of quartz ; lydian stone ; splintery limestone ; fine grained
mountain green clay date ; potstone, and rock crystal. '^ Brown coal;
clay iron stone ; pitch coal, and greenish grey limestone, were seen
on the shores opposite the Rocky Mountains ; and westward, to-
wards Icy Cape, were found, greenish grey greywacke ; fine gram-
ed greywacke slate; dark bluish greywacke slate, traversed by
veins of quartz, and iron pjrrites. On Flaxman's Island, N. lat.
70° ir, W. long. 146° 60', were seen fine grained greenish clay
slate, " obviously of primitive rock, supposed to be brought down by
the rivulets and torrents from the Rocl^ Mountains."

From the East end of Lake Superior, slighdy converging towards
the Rocky Mountains, to the east side of Great Bear Lake, exists a
formation of primitive rocks, but litde elevated above the general
level of the country. For seven hundred miles, beginning in lat.
50°, between these two ranges, the space is occupied principally by
horizontal strata of limestone, as far as 60° North.



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Sketch of the Geology of the Arctic Regions. 3

The shores of Cheat Bear Lake are of primitiye rocks, sometimes
rising into elevations of eight hundred, or a thousand feet. Detach-
ed blocks and gravd, probably the debris of the hills, consisting of
quartzose sandstone, fingments of granite, and granite running into
gneiss, are found on the surface, and in the vallies. The north
shore of Bear Lake is formed by bowlders of limestone. Fort
Franklin stands on a bay of the West coast, and the bottom of the
bay, and the beach, are strewed with bowlders of primitive and other
rocks, of which the^ following are some of the varieties. Coarse
crystalline granite ; felspar, flesh red ; granite, with felspar paler ;
quartz in small quantity ; fine grained granite ; quartz and felspar,
white, with garnets. Granite, felspar brick red ; quartz and augite,
no mica. Porphyridc granite ; sienite ; porphyritic sdenite ; reddish
brown horn stone porphyry ; crystalline greenstone ; porphyritic
greenstone; pitchstone porphyry; greenstone slate; amygdaloidal
claystone porphyry ; dolomite ; limestone with corallines ; chert ;
white quartz; coarse sandstone; fine gramed spotted sandstone;
striped sandstone ; and dark red claystone. Some of the granite
bowlders were recognised as the same which occur at Fort Enter-
prize.

The soil in the vicinity of Fort Franklin is sandy, or gravellyi
covering a bluish plastic, but not tenacious clay, of unknown depth,
and during a greater part of the year firmly firozen. Narrow precip-
itous ridges of limestone rise b the country west and north of Fort
Fraliklin, which b otherwise level as far as the eye can reach.

Bear Lake River.

Sandstone of a yellowish grey color, associated with beds of bluish
clay, forms the solid strata on the banks of the river. Imbedded in
them are concretions of various sizes and irregular shapes, of a pur-
plish iron brown, studded with crystals of sulphate of lime, and small
round grains of quartz. Salt springs yielding exceUent common salt
M mto the river a litde below the rapid, at that point where the Rocky
Mountains first appear in the distance. The walls of the rapid are
a hundred and twenty feet high, and three miles long, consisting of
horizontal strata of ^* earthy looking stone intermediate between clay
and sandstone." Lignite with impressions of fern appears in thQ
banks, also ammonites in a brown iron shot sandstone. The lime-
stone ridge below the rapid stands on a narrow base, and its general



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4 Sketch of the Geology of the Arctic Regitmt*

direction is pahtOel with the Rocky Mountnin chain. Between the
cliffi of the rapid, and die limealone hills, a rivdet flows whose bed
presents acomnulatkms of bowlders, soixie of ibem very beandfuly
consisting of varieties of granite, gneiss, mica date widi gainels,
greenstone and porphyry ; the lattner much resembling some of tbe
rocks in ]he gneiss distrkn of Fort Enterprise. The Bear Lake Biv^
er flows into the McKenzie through banks of Uackidi grey limestone
with sparry veins* The superior beds are cafesreoos breccia, asso^
dated with Iknestone charged with bitumen, Also'bitmninous diale.
^' Sulphureous springs, and streams of mineral pitch" are seen issuing
firom the lower limestone strata on the b^mks of the McKenne when
the waters are bw.

' McKenaM?^ River.

"Wood ood, m various states, alternating widipipe clay, potters'
clay, bitumen, slate clay, and porcelain eardi" forms the banks of Ae
river at the junction <>( Bear Lake Rivet. The lignite wh^ recent*
ly detached is compact, but on esqposure, soon splits into rhomboidal
pieces. It bums with litde smoke but an offensive odor, leaving
brOwn red ashes, less than one tenth of the original 'bulk of the coal.
The jiame bed .presents brown coal that in different specimens is
fibrous, oonchoidal, tirapesoidal, and earthy. Some of them havie
the appearance of compact bitumen, but exhibit die fibroas stmdtmre
of wood. The beds of lignite take fire on being exposed to the
atmosphere. The gravel, intermixed with it, consists of pebbles of
lydian stone, flinty slate, white quartz, and conglomerate. Pipe clay,
potters' clay, slate clay, and pmk clay, are all found in the lignite de-
posits. The pipe clay is of a light yellowish cream color, and is
used by the natives for food when provisions are scarce. It is not
unpleasant to the taste and is said ^^to have sustained life ibr acoKH
siderahle time. Tbe traders use it for whiteoiDg their iiouses. It is
associated with bituminous shale on the shores of the Frozen Sea.'*
Lignite formations occur near the Rocky Mountains* ^* along their
eastern edge, in a narrow strip of mardiy, boggy, tmeven ground,**
and again oa a branch of Peace River, and on die Saskatdmwan in
latitude 52°, and on Garry's Island, near the moulfa of llie McKenzie.
It lies over beds of bluish grey sandstone, and white day,

■ . ' ' - - - ,

* McKenzie.



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Sieieh of the GtoUgy o/ ike Arctk Regions. 5

Ott tbe bflidttof the McKenzie bt)(Mv Be«r Lake Hi?er, ure pr^
cApoonift dllS& <f[ bituminous shale, and near it, ud in most instances
underlying it, tae horiootiiai straut of UtaestoM. Sak springa tte
oonnedted wuii this formaiian. The Rocky MoiHitains eppear u
no freat distance from ifae McKenae «t the i^ds in that tii^er, tvliere
limestone ridges traverae the country. Pieces of cheit -and frag-
ments of trap rock, connected by calc spar, and immediady below,
horizontal strata of sandstcme, (am the banks and bed of the river.
Forty miles below the first rapid, the sides of the river rise into mural
pnecipices of limeslone, ^^weatbepedintii coiumns,*' «id castellated
towecs. Biaiiy atones, coifiaiiiing oorattMs, laieeompmy dieae rocks.

At thiBTemarkaUe -^'fiaipid" catted by tiie tm^brs ^^ihe Ramparu,*'
aooon£ng to McKenflie, liie iiv«r is vaanmreA to three huncfred yards,
vMi fi% fsthoms depth of i«wier, andihe deCIe is three miles in length.
Tlie banks lise oa «aoli side of tfaas tpeitiendotis^liasm, frtMa eighty
toahcndredfeetdbo^rethelei^el of ih^rrrar. JTlie ledges ssvddUb
of ^ die Rampants,^' are of falia«sd gramilsr limesimie, stabed widi
iBtunen, aad accompuiying the liver thvoagh tins astoakhiiig -gorge,
limestones of every inarieiy «pp(?aar, ih some places associated with
caibonaceous niters ; in others with coraHinesand fossS sheHs, cby
and marly depoais. Bdow *^the Rampatts'' die river eacpsaids to
tiie bveaddi «f two aoales, and its banks stope away to a liioderate
devatiofn. '

In ktitade 66%f«rpciidioukr faifls^of sandstone a hundred and she-
OfT feet high, ccoiaiHiig coarse giraiaed <{unt£, repose fit borizontat
strata, w^pcm feriaontal limestone^ The sandstone <^ft present many
imbedded minerals, such as tranducent quartz ; black lydian stone ;
and disintegrated felspar* The ^nderljring beds of fimestene con-
tarn many shcffls e»d chain coral, traversed by veins of calc spanr.

For^ miles below these sandstone waAs aad bills, nunl date
bseakiag «o sbelvii^ acdivities, aad de^p mvraes, foims ihe bttdc^
of Ae river, which again coDtractkig gives to tlus reach, for twenty-
miles, the name of ^'the Narrows.^' On ^nerging from^^^iilie Naav
cows,'* Ae MdECeazie forms a number df deitasifarottgh wfawh it Aii&
into the sea. The Rocky Mountains form 4h0 western boundmy <0f
die lowlands oif liie ideltaa, and the BaspAeer fails a paiiaiiei be^a-
ry on the eastern side. limesione occurs in ^onicai kndHs, btKt «
loose sandstone predominates. Tlie sandstone contains black flin^
slate, or lydian stone, and white quartz, accompanied by acclivides
of sand. The summits of the bill are thinly coated with coarse peb^



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8 Sketch of the Geology of the Ardic Regions^

bly gravel coasisting of green felspar, white quartz, chert and lime-*-
stone. These hiUs gradually diminish in altitude, and the eastern
branch of the river runs round their northern limit in lat. 69°. White
spruce grows as far as 68"^ where it disappears. The country thence
becomes a frozen morass, onward, north of the hills, seldom thawing,
more than six or eight inches upon the surface.

Alluvial Islands.

The space occupied by the various reaches of the McKenzie be*^
tween the Rocky Mountains and the Remdeer Hills, is ninety miles
in length, and from forty to fifty wide. The river forms this tract
into islands, by the numerous channels through which it winds its way
to the sea. The islands are most of them flooded in the spring, but
annual accumulations of drift wood and sand, have raised some parts
above the reach of the annual inundations, and as far north as 68^^
the highest parts are clothed m summer with dwarf willows, and white
spruce. Sandy shoals skirt the coast, ^^ and the whole line from Cape
Bathurst, b W. Icmg. 127'' as far west as the Sacred Islands in
W. long. 137^, presents a striking similarity of outline and structure.''



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