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desirable that this parallel progress, in organized theory and
instruction, on the one hand, and in actual business with its
difficulties which arise almost haphazard, should be carried on. The
relationship is very helpful. Of course a substitute for this is the
coöperative plan, in which the student spends a part of his time in
college and a part of the time in a business house. Another
alternative in institutions which have the three-term year is to put
two terms in at college and one term in at business. The calendar
arrangement of any institution will suggest variations of this
suggested arrangement, the purpose of which will be to insure
progressive development in business practice and also in collegiate
instruction.

=Recent developments=

It is to be noticed that in the last few years business has become
more and more intense. The developments are in two directions. The
first direction is saving and efficiency through organization. This
tends to keep down cost. The other direction is in the stimulation of
the market and in perfecting advertising and selling methods.
Naturally there have been developments in the recording, accounting,
and clerical ends of the business, but scientific management in
production on the one hand, and scientific selling on the other, are
the two great developments. In both, engineering plays a prominent
part and dictates a close correlation of the business and the
engineering curricula of a college or university seeking to give most
effective training either to the student of business or the student of
engineering. On the selling side we are having the further
developments which come with the growth of foreign trade.

In order to meet the demand for men competent to organize production
wisely and from a business viewpoint, more courses will be given in
what we may call production management or commercial engineering.
Furthermore, the sales engineer must be trained. The curriculum of the
course of collegiate grade should be made up somewhat as follows:

A two years' prescribed course in the general sciences and in general
principles of business, followed by a two or three year curriculum in
technical business management, on the one hand, including especially
accounting, cost accounting, wage systems, employment management, and
some branch of engineering on the other hand. The engineering course
should be general but thorough. It should not go up into specialized
fields of design, but it should include all the fundamental courses of
engineering - of mechanical, electrical, and civil engineering. A
combination course in engineering and business management is needed
also to prepare men for places in banks as investment managers. The
banks must advance funds to industrial concerns, and such loans cannot
be made wisely save upon the advice of one who is thoroughly
acquainted with plant management, equipment, and mechanical operations
as well as costs of production and market possibilities. In addition,
such a man must be well acquainted with systems of accounting and
methods of preparing financial statements. In the field of
salesmanship, engineering training is growing in importance. In short,
the highly organized state of modern production and the tremendous
part played by engineering in modern industry indicate the need for a
close coördination of business and engineering education.

In conclusion we may say that business education is now at the stage
where it has its own technology, is in close touch with other fields
of technology, and is making its contribution to the general fund of
modern culture. Texts and scientific treatises in the field of
business are increasing, the pedagogy of the various included subjects
is receiving satisfactory attention, and schools of collegiate and
university grade are keeping abreast of the demands of the business
world for adequate general and specific training in business.

FREDERICK B. ROBINSON
_College of the City of New York_


BIBLIOGRAPHY

COOLEY, E. G. _Vocational Education in Europe._ Commercial Club of
Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, 1912. Chapters on Vocational Education in
General, Commercial Schools, and the Conclusion.

FARRINGTON, F. E. _Commercial Education in Germany._ The Macmillan
Company, 1914.

HERRICK, C. A. _Meaning and Practice of Commercial Education_, and
other works in the Macmillan Commercial Series, 1904. There is an
excellent bibliography on the whole subject of commercial education as
an appendix to Herrick's Commercial Education.

HOOPER, FREDERICK, and GRAHAM, JAMES. _Commercial Education at Home
and Abroad._ The Macmillan Company, 1901.

There are numerous contributions on particular aspects and general
methods and special methods in commercial subjects. The best printed
bibliography of these is in the back of Herrick's book. A typical work
on methods is Klein and Kahn's _Methods in Commercial Education_.




INDEX

Accountancy. _See_ Business Education

Adapting course of study, 95-97, 202, 244, 480, 572

Adler, Felix, 323, 325

Æsthetic aim, in teaching, 52, 92;
in music, 470

Aims, in teaching, 48-51;
modified for different students, 54;
in organization of knowledge, 65;
in teaching biology, 88-94;
in teaching mathematics, 172;
in physical education, 184-190;
in teaching economics, 217-220;
in teaching American history, 218;
in teaching political science, 282-287;
in teaching philosophy, 304;
in teaching ethics, 320-328;
in teaching psychology, 337;
in teaching English literature, 380-384, 422-423;
in teaching classics, 405;
in teaching Romance languages, 426-427;
in teaching music, 460-462, 467;
of art instruction, 478;
in teaching engineering subjects, 508-511;
in teaching mechanical drawing, 525-527;
in business education, 559.
_See_ Civic, Disciplinary, Utilitarian

Allen, J. T., 411

Angell, J. B., 30

Application of knowledge, 72

Art, 475-497

Art instruction, 475

Athletics. _See_ Physical education

Author's life, in literary study, 385


Biological basis of education, 85-87, 94, 364

Biology, 85-109

Brown, E. E., 358

Brown University, 5

Business education, 555-577

Butler, N. M., 30, 404


Calkins, Mary W., 339

Canby, H. S., 42

Case method, in political science, 292;
in philosophy, 316;
in ethics, 329;
in psychology, 338-340;
in commercial law, 572-573

Cattell, J. M., 30

Chemistry, 108-125

Chronological viewpoint in history, 257

Citizenship, training for, 282

Civic aim in economics, 219

Classics, 404-423;
in Colonial colleges, 5-6;
status in college teaching, 404;
through the vernacular, 418;
through ancient authors, 421

Coeducation, 18-21

College teaching, why ineffective, 46-48

Collegiate Institute, 4

Colonial period, 3

Columbia University, 5, 8

Commercial education. _See_ Business education

Commercial law, 571-572

Committee on standards of American universities, 42

Comparisons in teaching, 70

Composition and journalism, 546

Composition teaching, status of, 390.
_See_ English

Correlation, 70, 151, 156-157, 297, 295-297, 314

Course of study, 477, 481-485, 486-490;
in biology, 95-98;
logical and psychological, 103;
in chemistry, 111;
in physics, 134-137, 138-139;
in geology, 153-156, 158;
in hygiene and physical training, 206;
in economics, 225;
in sociology, 244-246;
determined by community, 246;
in American history, 259-262;
in European history, 269-276;
in political science, 280-281;
in philosophy, 312-314;
in education, 353;
in English literature, 386;
in classics, 410;
in Romance languages, 431-436;
in German, 442-453;
in engineering, 502-504;
in mechanical drawing, 526-530;
in business education, 559-567

Cultural aim, 220, 336, 348, 382-384


Dartmouth College Case and college development, 8-9

Democracy, 259

Descriptive geometry, 530

Design in engineering, 517

Development method, 73, 75-76
_See_ Recitation

Dewey, J., 362-364

Dexter, E. G., 30, 355

Differentiated courses, 504-508

Direct method, 444

Disciplinary aim, 51-52;
in physics, 126-127;
in geology, 143-150;
in history, 264;
in psychology, 336;
in education, 349;
in literature, 382-384;
in Romance languages, 424;
in music, 467-468

Draper, A. S., 30

Duggan, S. P., 353


Economic viewpoint in history, 257

Economics, 58, 217-240

Education as college subject, 347-376

Educational and instructional aim, 50-51

Elective system, 11-14

Elementary language courses as college courses, 426

Eliot, Charles W., 11

Emotional reaction in literature, 384

Engineering subjects, 501-524

English, teaching of, 49, 379-388, 389-403.
_See_ Composition, Literature

Equipment for art instruction, 490

Ethics, 320-333

Evening session for business education, 573

Examination, 80. _See_ Tests

Experimental work in psychology, 342.
_See_ Laboratory method

Expressional limitations of college students, 545


Field work, 254, 298, 517

Finance, teaching of. _See_ Business education

Flexner, A., 30, 42

Foster, W. T., 30

Functional aspect in teaching, 292


Geology, 142-160

German, 440-453

German influence on American college, 14

Gradation of subject matter, 56, 387

Graduate schools, 14-15

Graves, 353


Habits, 91, 199.
_See_ Aims, Disciplinary aim

Handschin, C. H., 42

Harper, W. R., 30

Hart, 355

Harvard, 3

Health instruction, 197.
_See_ Physical education

Heuristic method. _See_ Development method, Recitation

High school preparation, in physical education, 190;
in music, 469, 485

History, of American college, 3;
of college mathematics, 167;
of sociology, 241;
of music as college subject, 357;
of teaching of journalism, 533-539;
of business education in the college, 555-557

Holliday, C., 42

Horne, H. H., 36, 42


Illustrations, 243

Immigration and status of English teaching, 394.

Informal aim in teaching, 51

Informal examination, 308

Introductory course, in ethics, 328;
in political science, 288, 298;
in philosophy, 307, 315;
in psychology, 334;
in mechanical drawing, 527-528


Jefferson and founding of American college, 7

Johns Hopkins University, 32

Journalism as college subject, 24, 533-554

Junior college, 26-27


King's College, 5

Kingsley, C. D., 30


Laboratory method, 73, 78;
in chemistry, 62, 114;
in biology, 99;
in physics, 132;
in geology, 157;
in psychology, 343;
in engineering, 516

Language as index of mentality, 388

Law, 17;
commercial, 571-572

Lecture method, 73;
in chemistry, 113-114;
in physics, 131, 133;
in mathematics, 175;
in economics, 227, 231-235;
in sociology, 242;
in history, 260, 265;
in philosophy, 308-310;
in psychology, 340-341;
in classics, 419-421;
in engineering, 511-513;
in commercial education, 568-572

Length of periods in accountancy, 569

Literary analysis, 386

Literary appreciation, 380.
_See_ Aims, Cultural, Æsthetic

Literary style, 386

Literature and the classics, 407-408, 415.
_See_ English

Logical association, 63-64


MacLean, G. E., 30

Mathematics, 59, 161-182

Mechanical drawing, 525-532

Medicine, 17

Mental development and acquisition of language, 388

Methods of teaching conditioned by aims, 98.
_See_ Aims

Mezes, S. F., 48

Modern languages, when introduced, 7;
in business education, 571

Modern literature and the classics, 412

Monroe, P., 353

Morrill Act, 10

Motivation in teaching, 55-56

Municipal research, 298.
_See_ Laboratory method, Sociology, Political science

Music in secondary schools, 465


Natural method in classics, 411, 416-417

Newspaper English, 541-542

Non-sectarianism in American colleges, 7

Notebook of students, 356


Oberlin and coeducation, 20

Oral composition in German, 447

Oral reading and English literature, 384

Ordinance of 1787, 9

Organization of subject matter, 62-66

Outlines in biology, 102


Parker, S. C., 355

Pennsylvania University, 4

Philosophy, 57, 70-71, 123, 127, 302-319

Physical education, 22, 183-314

Physics, 126-141

Pitkin, W. B., 46-50

Place in curriculum, of political science, 287;
of ethics, 328;
of psychology, 334, 344;
of history of education, 351;
of educational theory, 359;
of German, 440;
of art education, 475

Point of contact in teaching, 57-62

Political science, 279-301

Preparatory training, in chemistry, 109;
in physics, 129;
in mathematics, 164, 176-178;
in physical education, 190;
in German, 448;
for journalism, 549

Problem method, in economics, 228, 231-235;
in sociology, 248-251

Professional preparation, for women, 20;
through political science, 283

Prose composition and the classics, 414

Psychology, 57, 334-346, 364

Public service, training for, 284


Quiz, how to conduct, 118


Recitation, 118, 174, 513-516, 568-572

Reduction of college course, 27

Reference reading, 73, 76, 267, 514

Relating course to students, 128, 370;
in chemistry, 120;
in sociology, 245;
in philosophy, 309;
in ethics, 321-327, 331-332;
in psychology, 338;
in music, 459;
in business education, 572.
_See_ Adapting course of study

Relative importance in organization of knowledge, 64

Religious character of American college, 5-7, 22

Reporting, teaching art of, 547

Research, 285.
_See_ Reference reading, Problem method, Seminar

Research scholars as teachers, 105-106, 124, 137, 178

Robinson, M. L., 42

Romance languages, 424-428


Scholarship as preparation for teaching, 38

Science, teaching of, 61-64;
place of, in journalism course, 552

Scientific methods, in political science, 298;
in psychology, 343

Scope of course in educational theory, 361

Self-activity, 72

Self-government, 24

Seminar, 76

Senior college, 26-28

Sequence of courses in political science, 289

Skill to be developed in biology, 90

Smith, F. W., 55

Snow, L. F., 30

Social museum, the, 254

Social sciences, place in journalism course, 550

Sociology, 241-255

Socratic method. _See_ Recitation, Development method

Stanley, A. A., 465

Student Army Training Corps, 335

Summaries in teaching, 66


Teacher, as scholar, 105.
_See_ Research, Teacher training

Teacher training, 18, 31, 37-39, 256-257, 436, 468-470

Technical subjects in college curriculum, 16, 25-26, 479, 504-508

Technique, as aim in teaching, 52

Testing results of instruction, 136;
in economics, 244;
in history, 261, 268;
in psychology, 343;
in music, 473;
in art, 493-496;
in engineering subjects, 519-522

Textbook, in geology, 158;
in mathematics, 179;
in economics, 228, 231-235;
in sociology, 253;
in history, 259;
in ethics, 330

Theology, in separate school, 16

Thoroughness, 66-72, 104

Thwing, C. F., 30

Time to be given to subjects, 345, 486.
_See_ Place in curriculum

Topical method in history, 266

Types of instruction, 396-398


Undergraduate and graduate teaching, 388

Unified courses, 59, 302

Utilitarian aim, 217;
of physics, 126;
of geology, 142;
of political science, 286;
of psychology, 337;
of history of education, 348


Values, 355. _See_ Aims

Vernacular, in teaching German, 445

Viewpoint in teaching, a new, 69

Virginia, University of, 7


West, A. F., 30

William and Mary, 4

Wolfe, A. B., 36, 42

Women, education of, 18-21.
_See_ Coeducation

World War, effect on curriculum, 183


Yale, 4




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A COLLECTION OF THE WORLD'S BEST LITERATURE FOR CHILDREN

TYPES OF CHILDREN'S LITERATURE

_Collected and Edited by Walter Barnes_

_Head of the Department of English, State Normal School, Fairmont, W. Va._


This book for the first time presents in convenient form the source
material that teachers and students of the literature of childhood
most need to have available. It is made up of classified masterpieces
that were selected after a thorough sifting of every type of



Online LibraryPaul KlapperCollege teaching; studies in methods of teaching in the college → online text (page 50 of 51)