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marsh and green sandpipers, with



ruffs, the great snipe* knot, curlew
sandpiper, dunUn tumstone. Now
and then the woodcock wanders
across, but as a rule its migration is
mostly confined to the south of Eu-
rope. The Adriatic gull extends its
range over the western Mediterranean
in winter. Many northern gulls and
terns, to wit, the herring, lesser, and
black-backed gulls, Sandwich, com-
mon, the little, the black, the white-
winged, and the whiskered terns,
spread themselves over the sea, and
wander up the Nile and to the lakes
of north Africa. Of the duck tribe
nearly all go north in spring. Among
others, we have noticed the bean
goose, shoveller, shelldrake, mallard,
pintaU, gad wall, widgeon, teal^gar-
gany, and castaneous ducks ; the red-
breasted merganser, and the cormo-
rant ; the crested, horned^ eared, and
little grebes.



Tn&Blated iiroin Stades Beligieiiset, HistoflqQeB et Litt6ralrei, par dei Fdres do U Compftgnie de

Jeeoe.



ANOTHER ATTEMPT AT UNION BETWEEN THE ANGLICAN
AND GREEK CHURCHES.



It is remarkable with what per-
severance Protestants have ever la-
bored to bring about a reconcilia-
tion and union between themselves
and the schismatical churches of the
East.

When one compares the terms be-
tween which it is desired to effect this
onion, it is difficult to conceive of
two which are more opposed, and be-
tween which there is a more complete
contrast. Protestants reject the au-
thority both of tradition and of the
hierarchy; ihe veneration of saints,
images, and relics ; outward ceremo-
nial, and aH that which may be con-

voL, n. 5



sidered as composing the external
side of religion. The Greeks, on the
contrary, so far from rejecting
these, have rather exaggerated their
importance. It seems impossible that
they should ever reach a uniformity
of sentiment; but yet the endeavor
to effect it has been steadily persever-
ed in.

As &r back as 1559 Melancthon
tried to bring about an understanding
with Joseph H., the patriarch of Con-
stantinople; and on sending him the
confession of Augsburg, he wrote, with
rather more cunning than fairness,
^that the Protestants had remained



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66



The AngHcan and Greek Okurchee.



faithful to the Holy Scriptores, to the
dogmatic decisions of holy councils,
and to the teaching of Athanasius,
Basil, Gregory, Epiphanius, etc., the
fathers of the Greek Church ; that
they rejected the errors of Paul of
Samosata, of the Manichees, and of all
the heresiarchs condemned by the
Holy Church, as well as the supersti-
tious practices introduced by ignorant
monks into the Latin Church, where-
fore he besought the patriarch to give
no heed to the evil reports which
were in circulation against Protest-
ants."

It seems the patriarch was not to
be caught by these plausible pro-
fessions, for he made no reply. The
Proftstants were not discouraged, and
fiflecn years later a fresh attempt was
made by the Lutheran university
of Tubingen. The ambassador of the
German emperor at Constantinople
was a Protestiuit, and had brought
with him a minister of his own de-
nomination, named Gerlach. It was
be who carried on the negotiations be-
tween the university of Tubingen and
the Patriarch Jeremias. The whole
of this correspondence is before the
public. The patriarch refutes the
Protestant doctrines with great ability
and clearness, and concludes- by re-
questing the professors of Tubingen to
trouble him no longer and to send
him no more letters. They were not
to be discouraged by a trifle like this ;
but write what they would, the patri-
arch made them no ftirther reply.
This negotiation began in 1573 and
lasted until 1581, but nothing came
ofit

Fifty years after the Lutherans
had failed, in their turn the Calvinists
mnde another effort, which seemed
to promise better success. The am-
bassadors of Holland, England, and
Sweden took the most active and
energetic part in the matter. The
patriarch, of Constantinople, Cyril
Lucar, himself a Calvinist at heart, so
far from opposing their designs, favor-
ed tlicra with all his power. Success
seemed certain. After various vicis-



situdes Cyril Lucar died in 1638.* A
few weeks after his death the synod of
Constantinople pronounced sentence of
censure upon his propositions, and
anathema upon himself. In 1642 a
second council was held under the
Patriarch Parthenius, who was very
hostile both to Rome and to Catholics,
which confirmed the previous condem-
nation of Cyril. Among others, Peter
Mogila, metropolitan of Kief, signed
this fresh censure. Last of all, these
condemnations of 1638 and 1642 were
confirmed by a council held at Jerusa-
lem in 1672, over which the Patriarch
Dositheus presided.

The creation of a bishopric at Jeru-
salem may be regarded, also, as an at-
tempt at reunion between the Protest-
ants and the schismatic churches of
the East. Fi-ederick William IV.,
king of Prussia, assisted by M. do
Bunsen,was the promoter of this idea,
but it was too ingenious and too com-
plicated to be practical. It pi-oposed
to labor for the conversion of the
Jews; to prepare the way for the
union of the schismatical churches of
the East with, the Anglican; and,
by means of the evangelical church
of Prussia, to induce the various sects
of Protestantism to conform in matters
of doctrine and discipline to the
Church of England. The archbish-
op of Canterbury favored the plan;
but, as was to be expected, there were
many Protestants who were very far
from giving it their approbation. As
to the Oriental Christians,* they were
exceedingly astonished, as Dr. Bow-
ring humorously related before Parlia-
ment, at the arrival, not only of a
bishop (un vescqvo), but of a lady-
bishop (una vescova) and baby-bish-
ops (vescovini). After an existence
of twenty years, no pretence is yet
made that the bishopric of Jerusalem
has succeeded in effecting any recon-
ciliation whatever with the Oriental
churches, or that it has in any measure
prepared the way for the uniting of



* Ho was thrown inte tho BoBphorns by the
saltAD, at tho roqaeot of his brotner bIshuM. —
Bd. 0. W.



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The Anglican and Greek Churches.



67



. Protestandflm itself. The Anglican
Church is herself more divided than
ever, and demonstrates more conclu-
sively from year to year how impossi-
ble it is for her to keep fast hold upon
any creed whatever. Perhaps this
manifestation of internal division and
doctrinal anarchy may contribute
somewhat to turn the eyes of Angli-
cans toward the ancient and immova^
ble Church of the East.

However this may be, we have be-
fore n3 in our own day a fresh attempt
at reuiion about which we must say a
few words. The facts are as follows :
Three or four years ago Dr. Troll,*
bishop of the Episcopalian Church in
San Francisco, discovered that there
were in his diocese some four hundred
persons belonging to the Greek Church,
who, while they recognized his author-
ity up to a certain point, yet refused
to receive communion from his hands.
Dr. Troll referred the matter to the
convention of the Episcopal Church in
the United States, who appointed a
committee to examine and report on
the relation in which the two churches
stood toward one another. The
Church of England took part in the
investigation, and convocation met
at Canterbury in 1863, appointing a
commission whose duty it should be to
have an understanding with the Epis-
copal Church in America and co-ope-
rate with her. In the month of Feb-
niaty, 1865, this commission presented
their report before convocation at
Canterbury. Thfe American com-
mittee published a series of works
designed to prepare the way for imion
by making known the dogmas and
rites of the Greco-Russian Church.
The English commission formed an
association whose object it was to
make the Oriental churches known to
Engltshmen, and in turn to make the
Anglican CHiurch understood by the
Oiristians of the East. The Angli-
can archbishop of Dublin, many other
bishops of the same church, and the



• There ie some mistake hero. Dr. Kip Is the
Protesuot Bishop of Califomia.— £d. C. W.



archbishop of Belgrade, were among
the patrons of this association.

In 18G^, Dr. Young of New York
made a visit to Russia, where he put
himself in communication with the
more proniinent members of the Rus-
sian episcopate. The Episcopalian
bishop of San Francisco visited Geor-
gia, Servia, and Bulgaria, and more
recently Nice, where he frequented
the Russian chapel.

Messrs. Popof and Wassilief, chap-
lains of the Russian ambassadors at
London and Paris, were present at the
sittings of the English commission
and took part in its deliberations.
By the very last news from America
we are informed that divine service
\i, €., mass. — Ed.] was solemnly cele-
brated, according to the Oriental rite
and in the Sclavonic language, in
one of the principal Episcopalian
churches of New York city. According
to the American newspapers, the cele-
ebrant was F. Agapius, recently come
to America, having been appointed by
the Russian Church to the spiritual
charge of his co-religionists in the
United States. The "Union Chr^
tienne," a Paris paper, informs us that
Father Agapius Honcharenko is a
deacon of the Russian Church who
was ordained priest by a bishop of
the Greek Church, which ordination
was irregular ; and that F. Agapius acted
without any authority from the Rus-
sian Church ; and lastly, that he was
associated with M. Alexander Herzen
at London and took part in the publi-
cation of the « Kolokor (the « Clock").
This last fact is of a character to
make a deep impression upon the
members of the synod of St. Petersburg,
but it is not so clear that it exercised
the same influence upon the mind of
the Americans. The "Union Chr4-
tienne" appears to think that when this
valuable information about Agapius
Honcharenko reaches New York,
the Episcopal Church will h^ve noth- ^
ing more to do with him. This is '
possible, but as yet it is mere con-
jecture. However this may be, this
little incident is not calculated to kin-



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68



The Anglican and Greek Churchee.



die in the sjnod of Russia any great
zeal for the proposed reunion.

The "Den" (Day), a periodical
in Moscow, has also an account of the
celebration of this mass in New York,
in its fourteenth number, 1865. Evi-
dently the MoscoTite journal has none
of the information as to this individual,
P. Ploncharenko, which was given bj
the ^ Union Chr^tienne ;'' but it makes
up for tliis by the important fact that
although this priest may have receiv-
ed no mission fi'om the Russian
Church, he was endowed witli at least
equal power and autliorization by the
metropolitan of Athens and the synod
of the kingdom of Greece, which
is easy of explanation, since from
Athens he embarked for America.

Tlie April number, 1865, of the
" Otetchestrennyja Sapiski," or " Pa-
triotic Annals," also speaks of the
attempt at reunion, and it repeats
the conditions proposed by the theolo-
gians of the Episcopal churches of
England and America. These condi-
tions no doubt constitute matter of
much interest, but as we have not
been able to procure this number of
the St. Petersburg review, we can say
nothing about them.

On the whole, up to the present
time but one bishop of the Oriental
schismatic church has shown himself
favorable to this project, viz., Monsig-
uor Michel, archbishop of Belgrade, or,
rather, metropolitan of Servia, under
which title he presides over the church
in Sei*via. This prelate made his tlie-
ological studies at Kief, has held the
see of Belgrade since 1859, and is
not yet forty years of age. Those
persons whose privilege it has been to
have access to him, represent him
as a man of a high order of intelli-
gence, very pleasing and attractive in
his personal appearance, dignified in
his manners, and very exemplary in
his life. If one may rely upon the testi-
mony of Protestant travellers who
have been in communication with him,
it would appear that he has shown
himself very favorable to a reconcilia-
tion between the Chjorch of Englaad



and the schismatical churches of the
East, and that for his own part he
would not hesitate to express in warm
terms his gratitude to the Protestants
for their profitable investigations re-
garding the Greek Church. In fine,
it is possible that Monsignor Michel
might allow himself to be induced to
take up again, in an underhand
way, the scheme of Cyril Lucar.
This is no small undertaking. Before
it is possible to blend these two
churches into one, a perfect under-
standing must be had on a great num-
ber of points which are of the highest
importance. It will suffice to men-
tion such, 6. y., as the mass, the sacra-
ments, the procession of the Holy
Ghost, devotion to the Blessed Virgin
and the saints, and the honor to be
paid to relics and images. In addition
to these must be settled the ques-
tion as to the validity of the Anglican
orders. As to Monsignor Michel per-
sonally, he would have an additional
difficulty to contend with. Everybody
knows that the people of Servia have
very little sympathy with the people of
Engknd, and they would undoubtedly
manifest very little inclination to
follow their metropolitan should he
try to induce them to do so.

It must be admitted, however, that
the endeavor to reunite the two
churches has far more hope of suc-
cess in the nineteenth than it had
either in the sixteenth or seventeenth
centuries. On the one hand, the
teaching of the Puseyites has spread
widely among the Anglican clergy.
Men of distinction who have made
their studies at Oxford and Cambridge
are beginning more and more to sus-
pect that apostolicity is an essential
note of the church of Jesus Christ,
and that it is very difficult to discover
this in a church which dates only from
the time of Henry VIII.; they
are gradually giving up the principle
of private judgment, and are learning
to appreciate more and more the
value of tradition, of the fathers, an<l.
of the general councils of the Church.
On the other hand, adherence to of*



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The Jnffltcan and Greek Churches.



69



thodozj has, in the East, lost some-
what of its deep, sincere, and in-
flexible character* Some jears since
we bad occasion to show, in the
pages of this review, that in her theo-
logical teaching the Russian Church
had been materiallj affected bj Prot-
estant influence. This is no longer
so in oor own daj, if we may judge
by the public writings of the Russian
bishops, and there has been a very
genen&l return to doctrines much
more in harmony with the traditions
of the churches of the East But at
the same time one must admit that ra-
tionalism and infidelity hare made
fearful ravages in the East as well as
in the West, Talk with youag men
from Russia, Greece, Romania, and
Servia who have made their studies
in either Russian or Grerman univer-
sities, who have attended the course
of lectures given by professors from
either Athens or Paris, and you will
see how feeble, cold, and wavering
their faith has become. The result
has h^n a prevailing atmosphere,
both intellectual and moral, which
enervates the firmness of convictions,
and generates a certain laxity in one's
hold on the teachings of the faith.
People have become more ready to
conform to public opinion, and I
should be greatly surprised if an at-
tempt similar to that made by Cyril
Lucar should find in the East of
to-daj an equally universal and
prompt condemnation.

Moreover, the working of Protestant
missions in the East has not been so
completely onsuccessful as many per-
sons are pleased to report As a gen-
eral thing Protestant missionaries are
men of intelligence, education, and
good breeding ; they make a thorough
study of the country in which they re-
side ; they erect schools and printing
presses, and put in circulation a large
number of books. It is impossible to
admit tiiat all this can be absolutely
withoat effect These schools and
those books must be the germ of an
ioflaeooe which time cannot fail to de-
velop. I am very well assured that
PrDteatantism has very few attractions



for the people of the East in any
point of view, least of all on the side
of externals, and that the difliculty of
making Protestants of the people of
the East would be very great ; still,
one must not conclude from this that
it would be impossible to bring about
a certain kind of union ; that an ar-
rangement might not be made which
would introduce a different spirit into
the schismatical churches of the East
while they yet preserved their exter-
nal form. I grant you the liturgy of
the East, eminently dogmatical as it
is, would contrast most singularly with
Protestant notions ; but remember, we
are not now speaking of Protestant-
bm in its pure development, but of the
Anglican phase of it, and of Angli-
canism leavened by Puseyism.

In conclusion, I have no faith my-
self in this attempt; but still a person
would have a false idea of the state
of the case who shDuld regard the
move as a purely fanciful one, and
one unworthy the attention of serious-
minded men.

But, now, supposing this effort
should be successful, have we Catho-
lics any cause for alarm? I think
rather the contrary. The Church of
England is as clearly wanting in apos-
tolicity as the Greek Church is ii^
catholicity. The one has need to
link herself on to the chain of past
time ; the other to extend her bound-
aries, that she may no longer feel her-
self to be enclosed within a part of
the world ; that she may not have the
appearance of identifying herself with
only a few of the many races of men.
Even admitting that by means of this
alliance the English could congratu- .
late themselves upon having won back
their title to apostolicity, and the
Greeks in turn Uieirs to catholicity,
the need of unity would be felt all the
more, which neither can ever attain to^
apart from that rock upon which our
Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ has
built his Church, and against which
the gates of hell shall never prevaiL

J. GA.GA.Rm.*

* F. Ga^rin U a Rasslan prince, a conrert
from the X}reek schtem, and a member of ttid
SocietT of Jeau.— Sd.



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70 The Children.



From The Bizpenny Magaadne.
THE CHILDREN.

When the lessons and tasks are all ended,

And the school for the day is dismisseil,
The little ones gather around me

To bid me '^good night," and be kissed.
Oh, the little white arms that encircle

My neck in their tender embrace ;
Oh, the smiles that are halos of heaven,

Shedding sunshine of love on my face.

And when they are gone, I sit dreaming

Of my childhood — too lovely to last —
Of joy that my heart will remember

While it wakes to the pulse of the past :
Ere the world and its wickedness made me

A partner of sorrow and sin,
When the glory of God was about me,

And the glory of gladness within.

I ask not a life for the dear ones \

All radiant, as others have done ;
But that life may have just enough shadow

To temper the glare of the sun ;
I would pray God to guard them from evil ;

But my prayer would bound back to myself:
Ah, a seraph may pray for a sinner.

But a sinner must pray for himself^

I shall leave the old house in the autumn,

To traverse its threshold no more ;
Ah I how I shall sigh for the deiu: ones

That meet me each mom at the door ;
I shall miss the "^ good-nights " and the kisses,

And the gush of their innocent glee ;
The group on the green, and the flowers

That are brought every morning for me.



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M-Hattow Eve ; or. The Test of FtOurUy,



71



From The Lamp.

ALL-HALLOW EVE; OR, THE TEST OF FUTURITY.

BY ROBERT CURTIS.



CHAPTER xni.

The next morning Winny present-
ed herself at the breakfast-table, look-
ing more attractive and more tidily
dressed, her rich glossy hair better
brashed and smoothed down more
carefully than was usual at that hour
of the day. Her daily custom, like
an other country girls who had house-
hold concerns to look after, was not
to "tidy hei-self up" until they had
been completed. She was not igno-
rant, however, of the great advantage
which personal neatness added to
beao^ gave a young girl who had
a cause to plead. And although the
man upon whom she might have to
throw herself for mercy was her father,
she was not slow on this occasion to
claim their advocacy for what they
might be worth. But she had also
prayed to God to guide her in all her
replies to the parent whom she was
bound to honor and obey, as well as to
tove. She had not contented herself
with having set out her own appear-
ance to the best advantage, but she
had also set out the breakfast-table in
the same way. The old blue-end-
white teapot had been left on the
dresser, and a dark-brown one, with a
figured plated lid, taken out of the
cupboard of Sunday china. Two cups
and saucers, and plates ''to match,^
with two real ivory-hafled knives laid
beside them. There was also some
white broken sugar in a glass bowl,
which Winny had won in a lottery at
Carrick-on-Shannon from a ^ bazaar-
man." There was nothing extraordi-
nary in all this for persons of their
means, though, to tell the truth, it was
not the every-day paraphernalia of
their breakfast-table. Winny had not
been idle either in famishing the



plates with a piping hot potato-cake,
a thing of which her father was* par-
ticularly fond, and which she often
gave him; but this one had a few
carraway-seeds through it, and was
supposed to be better than usual.*
Then she had a couple of slices of
nice thin bacon fried with an egg,
which she knew he liked too. ML
this was prepared, and waiting for her
father, whose fatigue of the day be-
fore had caused him to sleep over-long.

While waiting for him, it struck
Winny that he must think such pre-
parations oat of the common, and per-
haps done for a purpose. Upon re-
flection she was almost sony she had
not confined her embellishments to her
own personal appearance, and even
that, she began to feel, might have
been as well let alone also. But she had
little time now for reflection, for she
heard her father's step, as he came
down stairs.

She met him at the door, opening
it for him.

"Good morrow, father," she said;
" how do you find yourself to-day ? I
hope you rested well after your long
widk yesterday."

" After a while I did, Winny ; but
the tea you made was very strong, an'
I didn't sleep for a long time after I
went to bed."

^ Well, <a hair of the hound,' you
know, father dear. I have a good
cup for you now, too ; it will not do
you any harm in the morning when
you have the whole day before you.
And I have a nice potato-cake for you,
for I know you like it"

« Troth I b'lieve you have, Winny ;
an' I smell the carraways that I like.
But, Winny, sure the ould blue tea-
pot's not broken, is it ?"

" No, father ; but I was busy with



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72



AUrHaUow Eve; or^ The Test of Futurity.



the potato-cake this morning, and had
not time to wash it out last night, so I
took out number one to give it an air-
ing; and I put down the other tilings
to match.**

The portion of this excuse which

' was true was far greater than that

which was not ; and Winnj, who as a

general rule was truthful, was satisfied

with it — and, reader, so must you be.

" Never mind, Winny,.you are mis-
tress here, an* I don't want any ex-
j)lanation; it wasn't that made me
spake ; but Pd be sorry th' ould blue
teapot was bruck, for we have it since
afore you were well in your teens.
You're lookin' very well this momin',
Winny agra."

'^ Hush, father; eat your cake, and
don't talk nonsense. There's an egg
that black Poll laid tliis morning, and
here's some butter I finished not five
minutes before you came in yesterday
evening. Shall I give you some tea?"

" If you please, Winny dear." And
the old man looked at his daughter
with undeniable admiration.

They then enjoyed a neat and
comfortable breakfast, which indeed
neither of them seemed in a hurry to
bring to an end. The old man was con-
strained and silent, and left all the talk
to Winny, who, it must be admitted,
never felt it more difficult to furnish
conversation. Old Ned looked at her
once or twice intently, as if wonder-
ing at her being much finer than usu-
al ; and then he looked at the bi'eak-
fast gear ; and the expression of his
face was as if he suspected something.
These looks, both at herself and the



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