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in France do not derive their origin
from these military stations as Eng-
land has of Chesters. But the stu-



* " Notice Tiittorigve sur ia tUU dt Dintrhtey
JHvemia^ aid[our(PlMi l>6svret." Par M. d'Ordre.
Boulogne, 1811.

t '' n n'y paB 60 ftot que le nom de Desvres a
prevalu sur celul de DeBarcnneqne cetteTlUe
STait tonjonrs port^ anparavant/*— M. L. Coaelnf
^'Memoirea de la Boditedet AntiqwUree de la Mor^
irUe^^' vol. iv., p. 289. M. Coueln^B papers on Mod-
tbalin and Tiagry, In the TransactioDs of this so-
ciety, are in general accord with what I have
said of the ancient military Importance of the
whole district of Desvres.



dent who attempts this task will be
sure to find the Latin word ahnost de-
faced beyond power of recognition by
the etymological maltreatment which
it has sustained in that conflict of
consonants which has resulted in the
present high polish of Academic
French. I may mention one or two
instances to show how little violence
I do to French philology in identify-
ing the IHvemia Bononiensis of the
middle ages with the Tabemad of
Boulogne. Saveme in Lorraine is
well known to be the TabenuB Tribo-
rooorum. It was known in a semi-
Germanic form as Msai Tahem.
Gradually the sibilant m of the first
word invaded the second ; and it has
long settled down into one w(Mti in
the form of Saveme. The Ihlenus
Bhenana, on the other hand, retained
the hard b instead of converting it into
V, as inevitably happened in the south,
and instead changed the T into ^
Rhem-Zabren. In ages which had no
hesitation in changing the pure dental
T into the sibilant dentals S or Z, it
will not be considered surprising that
it was sometimes changed into D —
the only other pure dental sound. In-
deed, of all the transmutations of let-
ters, those of d and ^ and those of v
and 5, are notoriously the most com-
mon. - « The Irish <£," says O'Dono-
van, << never has such a hard sound as
the English d" Again, ^ In ancient
writings, t is frequently substituted
for rf." Again, " It should be remark-
ed that in ancient Irish MSS. conso-
nants of the same organ are very fire-
quendy substituted for each o&cr,
and that where the ancients usnally
wrote i>, €f f, the modems write 6, q^
dr* Decline the Irish word TAd,
father. It becomes M d&dy his £i-
iher; Ei th&d^ her father; bynhM^
my father. We carry the tendency
into English. The mistake ia one
from which oertfun parts of Ireland as
well as certain parts of France
are not exempt even to the present
day ; and in Munster one may still

* O'Dohovrh, John, LL.D., ** A Otminmu of

fhe Irish Langoage.'' DabUn, 181S.



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He BirOplaee of SahU Pahrici.



7M



hemv as in the iimes when the ballad
of ^ LiUibnUero" was written, the let-
ter d occasionallj used where the
tongue intended t orA, Nor is this
Yagary of speech confined to the Irish*
Why do the Welsh say Tafyd for
David ? It is the most frequently re-
Gurring of that systematic permutation
of oonsGDants which is one of the
chief difficulties of the Gymhric tongue.
The Welsh d and t turn about and
wheel about in their mysterious al-
phabet without the slightest scruple.
In Germany the conyertibility of the
same lettess is also very marked.
The German says da$ for that, Dcmk
for thanks, Durst for thirst ; and again
Teufd for devil, Tanz for dance,
TheU for dial. As to the same abuse
in France, the dictionary of the
Academy and that of Bescherelle*
lay down the principle very plainly:
<^ Le < est une lettre k la fois linguale
et dentale, oomme le d son correlatif,
plus faible, plus doux, avec lequelil
est fr6quemment confondu, nonseule-
ment dans les langues germaniques,
mais dans la plupart des langues.
£n latin, cette lettre so permute fr^
quemment avec le d: aUuLU pour ad-
iuUL On dcrivit primitivement set,
aput, quot, haut, au lieu de sed, apud,
quod, hand.''

So far as to the permutation of T
and D. I will not waste the time of
the reader in order to show that the
conversion of v into h is even more
common. We find a familiar illustra-
tion of it in the old Latin name of
Ireland, which, as every one knows, is
variously written Ibemia, Ivemla,
Hibemia, Juvemia, and lemia. But
the English word tavern, which is ex-
actly derived from the Latin Ta-
bemise, is a still more apposite illustra-
ti(m in the present case. In this
word, finally, the intermediate vowel
swayed in sound with the consonants
which inclosed it As the primary
Liatin T changed into the softer and
fidebler D, and the h into v, the inter-

• ** IHetUmnair$ de TAead^U FraneaUey
Botr hmrftllo, '' IHaUmnaire Jfational.'' ^^is,
tBBT.



meduite a lost its full force. The
medissval Latin melts into % in Di-
vemia. The modem French form,
Desvres, brings it half-way back to-
ward its place at the head of the al-
phabet. It does not run the whole
gamut of the vowels, as from Ibemia
to Juvemia.

This Divemia JBonaniensiSy then, I
claim to identify with the TabemiiB
Bananienses, Toumehem with Nem-
tur or Emtor, £nna with Enon. If it
were necessary even to push the
proof a step further, there is the dis-
trict called Le Wlcquetj which M.
Jean Scoti, who was UeUtenarU par-
ticuUer di la SennechavMie ds jBour
hgnej tells us is undoubtedly derived
from the Latin Yicus, and which
might naturally be the vico Bonavm
TaherrUce of which the *' Confession"
speaks ; but the historian of Desvres,
Baron d*Ordre, whom I have already
cited, disputes this derivation, and
says the word is Celtic, and comes
fom Wic^ Celtic for wood, like our
word wicket Both may be right, for
Yicus may be a Latin form of the
same word.* But the point is not
materiaL

Let me now add to the etymolog-
ical evidence a few historical illustra-
tions.

St. Patrick is stated in ahnost all
his biographies to have been a nephew
of St Martin of Tours. St Martin,
though said to be a Celt of Pannonia,
was during his military and early
ecclesiastical career stationed in this
identical district The well known
legend of his division of his cloak
with the beggar, who proved to be our
Lord himself, is alleged to have taken
place at Amiens. It is recorded that
he was baptized at Therouanne. The
first church raised to his honor was
built there. The principal missionap
ries of the district are said to have
been lus disciples, and evidently en-
tertained a deep devotion to him, of



* Among the names ofTtllneoB In this district
of whoso olBtory I coald flna no trace, is one
called Srin, the placo where Blessed Benedict
Joseph Lahre was Dom.



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756



The Birihplaee of Scdni Patrick.



which there are Btill abondant evi*
dences.*

St. Patrick, while in captivity at
Slemish in Ireland, lived within sight
of Scotland. A few miles only sep-
arate the coasts at Antrim. But when
he escaped, he did not attempt to pass
into Scotland. He made his way
south, and passed through England to
France. He says he was received
among the Britons as if (quasi)
among his own clan and kin. Doubt-
less there was close relationship of
race and language between the Brit-
ons of the island and of the continent
There were Britons and there were
Atrebates on both sides of the sea.t
But Britain was not the saint's native
place nor his resting-place. He went
on, and abode with those whom he
calls his brethren of Gaul, '^seeing
again the familiar faces of the saints
of the Lord," until he was summoned
to undertake his mission to Ireland.

In his own account of the vision
which induced him to undertake the
apostolate of Ireland, he says he was
called to do so by a man, whose name
is variously written Victor, Victori-
cius, and Victricius. The real name
18 in all probability Victricius ; but
if it were Victor or Victoricius, it
would be equally easy (were it not for
the fear of failing by essaying to
prove too much) to identify the source
of the saint's inspiration with the
same district. Saint Victricius was
the great missionary of the Morini at

* or the 420 churches comprised In the andent
diocese of Boalogne, 83 had Ut. Martin for pa-
tron. I also flna several dedicated to the Irish
8t. Macloa and St. KlUan : bat> strantre to say,
not one to 8t. Victricius.->V. '' BUMrt det
Sviguet d6 Boulogne,''' par M. TAbbe K. Van
Drlval. Bonlogne, 1862.

t M. Piers, In the paper already cited, quotes
H. Amc'dee Thierry a« eayinj;; "^^ 1^/^% BrittatU
ftirent les premiers ani s'y flxdront ; lis habital-
ent one partio de la M orlnie : peut-6tre par an
pienx Bouvcnir ont-ils appelo fear nouvelle pa-
tria la Grande Bretagne. ij^h Atr^Mtea anglais,
originaires de Bel^um, residaient i CaUna on
GaZBna^<r0&a<vm,lkS2mIlIeede Venta Belgar-
vm dans le canton oaest ai^oard'hni Windsor.**
H. Piers adds that there is a tradition that a
oolony of the Morloi had given their name to a
distant country of islands which they discovered ;
bat that he has found it impossible to discover
the name In any ancient atlas. Perhaps the
district of Mourne, on the north-east coast of
Ireland, is that Indicated. The Irish derivnUon
Of the name la at aU events idenUcal with the
French.



the end of the fourth century ; bat he
had been preceded in that capadly by
St Victoriciufl, who suffered martyr-
dom with Sts. Fuscien and Firming at
Amiens, in a.d. 286. Again, the name
Victor is that of a favorite disciple of
St Martin, whom Sulpicius Sevems
sent to St Paulinns of Nola,* and of
whom they both write in terms of ex-
traordinary encomium. But the per-
son referred to in the ^ Confession** is
far more probably St Victridu3,t who
was an exact contemporary of St.
Patrick, who was engaged cm the mis-
sion of Boulogne at the time of his
escape, and who is said to have been
a French Briton himself. Mai-
brancq's ^Annals of the Sec of Bou-
logne" aver that in the year 890 the
^'Morini a Domino Victricio exculti
sunt,'' and that in the year 400 he
dedicated their principal church to St
Martin.l

When St Patrick was on his way
to Ireland, with full powers from
Pope Celestine, it is recorded that he
was detained at Boulogne by the re-
quest of Sts. (xermanus and Lupus,
who were pnxseeding into Britun in
order to preach against the Pelagian
heresy; and that during their absence
he temporarily exercised episcopal
functions at Boulogne, and so came to
be included in the list of its bishops.
If St Patrick were a native of\ the
island, is it not probable that Gennan-
ns and Lupus would rather have in-

• S. PanllniNolanl "C|pmi." J^gUMa xxiU. In
the " Patrologim Cursus Compietus^'' of i. P.
H igne, vol. Ixl. Paris, ISiT. Secali>o the two ep^
tlett to St. Victricius. who with St. Martin persuad-
ed Paulinas to withdraw from the world. I hare
a suspicion that the disciple of St. Victrldua,
named in these epistles now as PaschaslDa,
now as Tvtlchns or Tytius (the name being eTi-
dently misprinted, but there being no donbt, a»
the Dollandists sa}*, that the two names refer to
one and the same person), mayhave been In re-
ality St. Patrick. In his 17th Epistle, St. Fanli-
nns refers to the accounts bo nad heard ttom
this vonng priest of the anxiety of St. Victrlcina
for the evangelization of the . most remote parts
of the globe, and speaks of him as a disciple in
every way worthy of his master; •* In ctO^is gra-
tia el humaultate, quasi qnasdam virtntam gra-
tiarnmque taarum lineas velnt apecnlo reddcnte
collej^imus."

t Franclscus Pommpnens, O. 8. B.. In bis
*' History of the Bishops of Rouen." says St. Vic-
tricius was also sometimes called Victoricaa aaad
Victoricius.

t See also " Acta Sanet&ntm A^igutUi;^ ton.
li. ,p. 19ft. Antverpiae, IISS.



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The Better Part.



757



yited him to join iheir missioi]? But
their object in asking him to inter-
rupt his own special enterprise for a
time in oi^der to remain among the
Boulonnais was, it is said, to guard
against the spread of this heresy on
the continent. And it is Tery natural
that they should have asked him to
stay for such an object, and that he
should have consented, if this were
indeed his native district, in which his
intimacies were calculated to give
him a special degree of influence ; but
not otherwise, hastening as he was
under the sense of a divine call to the
conversion of a whole nation plunged
in paganism.

And, as I began by saying, all this
proof -is impoiiant mainly because it
tends in same degree to elucidate the
spirit and the work of the saint. We
begin to see how with the Celtic char-



acter of a Fi'ench Briton, which made
him easily akin to the Irish, he com-
bined the Roman culture and ci^-iliza-
tion, which added to his missions pe-
culiar litei-ary and political energy,
that long remained. We see in him
the friend and comrade of the great
saints of a great but anxious age.
We see how he connects the young
Church of Ireland, not with Rome
alone, but with the great militant
Christian communities of Gaul — a
connection which his disciples were
destined so to develope and extend in
the three following centuries ; and we
cease to wonder that both Ireland and
France have clung so fondly to a tra-
dition which linked together in their
earliest days two churches whose
mutual services and sympathies
have ever since bebn of the closest
kind.



From The liOmp.

THE BETTER PART.

" SwBET sister Lucille, I watch thee working.
From morning till nightfall, on cloth of gold,
On silks of purple, and finest linen,

And gems lie before you of worth untold.
Makest ihou vestments for holy preacher,
And c\oths to adorn the altar rare ?''
" Ha, ha !" quoth Lucille, " thou simple creature I
The garments I make I intend to wear.

Dost thou not see I am nobly fashioned.

Regal indeed is my bearing and mien ;
Are not my features as finely chiselled

As e'en were tlie jeatures of Egypt's queen ?
m work, and work, and Fll never weary,

Until rich garments be duly wrought,
Suited to clothe my unrivalled form.

For which tissues fitting cannot be bought.



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759 ^^ BeUer Part.

Bot, my gentle Mary, I watch thee praying.

And wasting many a precious day,
Sauntering oat amid lanes and alleys,

And taking to beggars upon the highway.
You bring them in to sit at your table,

You feed them on savory meat and wine ;
Are they above you, that you should clothe them,

And so humbly serve while they feast and dine ?^

Then answered Mary : '< God's poor, mj sister,

Are more than our equals, I should say ;
One day they'll feast in the kingdom of heaven.

For Christ will call them from hedge and highway.
I too am working a costly garment

With tears and penance, fasting and prayer ;
'Tis to clothe my soul, and with God's needy

The raiment I weave I hope to wear."

Each walked her way through this vain world ;

LuciUe lived with courtiers who gave her praise,
Solicitous still to adorn her person,

She frittered time to the end of her days ;
She work'd, and work'd, and never felt weary.

Changing her costume as changed her will ;
When dea& came, unfinished still were her garmentBi

But withered and sinful he found Lucille.



Each walked her way through this vain world ;

Mary sought neither courtiers nor praise.
But in the lazar-house, firm and steadfast.

Good she worked to the end of her days.
She smooth'd (he couch of the sick and dying,

She taught the smner the ways of the Lonl,
She gave to the " little ones" drink refreshing ;

YerT\j she shall not lose her reward.



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OonsUmce Sherwood.



759



From The Xonth.

CONSTANCE SHERWOOD:

AN AUTOBIOaRAPHY OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTUBT.
BY LADY GBOBQIANA FXTLLERTON.



(OONOLtJDSD.)



CHAPTER XXYI.



On the night before the 10th of De-
cember neither Muriel nor I retired
to rest. We sat together by the rush-
light, at one time saying prayers, at
another speaking together in a low
voice. Ever and anon she went to
listen at her father's door, for to make
sure he slept, and then returned to me.
The hours seemed to pass slowly ; and
yet we should have wished to stay
their course, so much we dreaded the
first rays of Ught presaging the trage-
dy of the coming day. Before the first
token of it did show, at about five in
the morning, the door-bell rung in a
gentle manner.

" Who can be ringing P* I said to
MurlcL

" I will go and see,** she answered.

But I restrained her, and went, to
call one of the servants, who were be-
ginning to bestir themselves. The
man went down, and returned, bring-
ing me a paper, on which these words
were written :

« My Dear Constance — ^My lord
and myself have secretly come to join
our prayers with yours, and, if it should
be possible, to receive the blessing of
the holy priest who is about to die, as
he passeth by your house, toward
which, I doubt not, his eyes will of a
surety turn. I pray you, therefore,
admit us.''

I hurried down the stairs, and found
Lord and Lady Arundel standing in
the hall ; she in a doak and hood, and



he with a slouching hat hiding his face.
Leading them both into the parlor,
which looketh on the street, I had a
fire hastily kindled ; and for a space
her ladyship and myself could only sit
holding each other's hands, our hearts
being too full to speak. After a while
I asked her when she had come to
London. She said she had done so
very secretly, not to increase the
queen's displeasure against her hus-
band ; her majesty's misliking of her-
self continuing as great as ever.

"When she visited my lord last
year, before his arrest," quoth she, " on
a pane of glass in the dining-room her
grace perceived a distich, writ by me
in bygone days with a diamond, and
which expressed hopes of better for-
tunes."

« I mmd it well," I replied. « Did
it not run thus ?

* Not Beldom doth the sun sink down In bright-
est light

Which rose at early dawn disfigured qnite oat-
right;

So shall my fortunes, wrapt so long In darkest
night,

Bevive, and show ere long an aspect clear and
bright.*"

" Yea," she answered. " And now
listen to what her majesty, calling for
a like instrument, wrote beneath :

*Not seldom do Tain hopes deceire a alUy
heart ;

Let all each witless dreams now Tsniah and
depart;

For fortnne shall ne^er shine, I promise thee,
on one

Whose folly hath for aye all hopes thereof un-
done.*

We do live," she added, ^ with a sword



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760



OomUence Sherwood.



hanging over our heads; and it is
meet we should come here this day to
learn a lesson how to die when a like
fieite shall overtake us. But thou hast
been like to die hj another means, mj
good Constance,** her ladyship said,
looking with kindness but no astonish-
ment on mj swollen and disfigured
face, which I had not remembered to
conceal ; grave thoughts, then upper-
most, having caused me to forget it.

" My life," I answered, " God hath
mercifially spared ; but I have lost the
semblance of my former self."

« Tut, tut !•* she replied, " only for a
time."

And then we both drew near unto
the fire, for we were shivering with
cold. Lord Arundel leant against the
chimney, and watched the timepiece.

" Mistress WcUs," he said, " is like,
I hear, to be reprieved at the last mo-
ment"

" Alas !" I cried, « nature therein
finds relief ; yet I know not how much
to rejoice or yet to grieve thereat.
For surely she will desire to die with
her husband. And of what good will
life be to her if, like some others, she
doth linger for years in prison ?*•

•* Of much good, if God wills her
there to spend those years," Muriel
gently said ; which words, I ween, were
called to mind long afterward by one
who tlien heard them.

As the hour appointed for the exe-
cution approached, we became silent
again, and kneeling down betook our-
selves to prayer. At eight o'clock a
crowd began to assemble in the street;
and the sound of their feet as they
passed under the window, hurrying to-
ward the scaffold, which was hung
with black cloth, became audible.
About an hour afterward notice was
given to us by one of the servants that
5ie sledge which carried the prisoners
was in sight. We rose from our
knees and went to the window. Mr.
Wells's stout form and Mr. Genings's
slight figure were then discernible, as
they sat bound, with their hands tied
belund their backs. I observed that
Mr. Wells smiled and nodded to some



one who was standing amidst the
crowd. This person, who was a friend
of hisi hath since told me that as he
passed he saluted him with these
words : ** Farewell, dear companion !
farewell, all hunting and hawking and
old pastimes ! I am now going a better
way." Mistress Wells not being with
them, we perceived that to be true
which Lord Arundel had heard. At
that moment I turned round, and miss-
ed Muriel, who had been standing
close behind me. I supposed she
could not endure this sight; but, lo
and behold, looking again into the
street, I saw her threading her way
amongst the crowd as swiftly, lame
though she was, as if an angel had
guided her. When she reached the
foot of the scaffold, and took her stand
there, her aspect was so composed, se-
rene, and resolved, that she seemed
like an inhabitant of another worid
suddenly descended amidst the coarse
and brutal mob. She was resolved, I
afterward found, to take note of every
act, gesture, and word there spoken ;
and by her means I can here set down
what mine own ears heard not, hot
much of which mine own eyes
beheld. As the sledge passed
our door, Mr. Genings, as Lady
Arundel . had foreseen, turned his
head toward us; and seeing me at
the window, gave us, I doubt not, his
blessing ; for, albeit he could not rsuse
his chained hand, we saw his fingers
and his lips move. On reaching the
gibbet Muriel hejirdhim cry out with
holy Andrew, " O good gibbet, long
desired and now prepared forme, much
hath my heart desired thee ; and now,
joj'ful and secure, I come to thee. Re-
ceive me, I beseech thee, as the disd-
ple of him that suffered on the cross!"
Being put upon the ladder, many ques-
tions were asked him. by some standera-
by, to which he made clear and dis-
tinct answers. Then liflr. TopcllfRa
med out with a loud voice,

<• Genings, Genings, confess thy
fault, thy papist treason; and. the
queen, no doubt, will grant thce.par>
donl"



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Chnstcmce Shenoood,



761



To which he mildly answered, " 1
know not, Mr. Topcliffe, in what I have
offended my dear anointed princess;
if I have offended her or any other per-
son' in anything, I would willingly ask
her and all the world forgiveness. If
she be offended with me without a
cause, for professing my faith and re-
ligion, or because I am a priest, or be-
cause I will not turn minister against
my conscience, I shall be, I trust, ex-
cused and innocent before God. *We
must obey God,' saith St. Peter,
' rather than men ;' and I must not in
this case acknowledge . a fault where
there is none. If to return to England
a priest, or to say mass, is popish
treason, I here do confess I am a trai-*
tor. But I think not so ; and there-
fore I acknowledge myself guilty of
these things not with repentance and
sorrow of heart, but with an open pro-
testation of inward joy that I have
done so good deeds, which, if they
were to do again, I would, by the per-
mission and assistance of God, accom-
plish the same, thongh with the hazard
of a thousand lives."

Mr. Topcliffe was very angry at
this speech, and hardly gave him time
to say an " Our Father" before he or-
dered the hangman to turn the ladder.
From that moment I could not so much
as once again look toward the scaffold.
Lady Arundel and I drew back into
. the room, and clasping each other's
hands, kept repeating, "Lord, help
him ! Lord, assist him ! Have mercy
on him, O Lord!" and the like
prayers.

We heard Lord Arundel exclaim,
" Good God ! the wretch doth order
the rope to be cut !" Then avoiding
the sight, he also drew back and silent-
ly prayed. What followeth I learnt
from Muriel, who never lost her senses,
though she endured, methinks, at that
scaffold's foot as much as any sufferer
upon it Scarcely or not at all
stunned, Mr. Genings stood on his
feet with his eyes raised to heaven,
till the hangman threw him down on
the block where he was to be quarter-
ed. After he was dismembered, she



heard him ntter with a loud voice,
" Oh, it smarts!" and Mr. Wells ex-
claim, " Alas ! sweet soul, thy pain is
great indeed, but ahnost past Pray
for me now that mine may come."
Then when his heart was being pluck-



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