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can gtjrirernmeiit in 1833. It was
pretended that the friara were un-
equal to the management of the mis*
8101I8, and the natives' property was
therefore transferred to the hands of
laymen. Mr. Marshall^in his inter-
esting work on ^ Christian Missions,"
quotes the following statistics, com-
paring the two conditions :

Under the Ad- Under

ministration the Civil

oftheFriart. Adminis'a.

Christian IndlanA . . 80,660 4,450

Homed Cattle . . . 494,000 t8.2«

Borsea and Moles . 62,000 8,600

Sheep 321,600 81,600

Cereal crop!. . . . 70,000 4,000

And then he sums up in these
words:

''It appears, then, that in the
brief space of eight years the sec-
ular administration, which affected to
be a protest against the inefficiencj of
the ecclesiastical, had notmilj destroy-
ed innumerable lives, replunged a
whole province into barbarism, and al-
most annihilated religion and civilisa-
tion, but had so utterly failed even in
that special aim which it professed to
have most at heart — ^the development
of material prosperity — that it had al-
ready reduced the wealth of a single
district in the following notable pro-
portions : Of homed cattle there re-
mained about ane-Jifteenth of the num-
ber possessed under the religious ad-
ministration ; of horses and mules less
than {me-'tixtsenth ; of sheep about
one-tenth; and of cultivated land
producing cereal crops less than one"
seventeer^ It is not to the Christian,
who will mourn rather over the moral
ruin which accompanied the change,
that such &cts chiefly appeal ; but tiie
merchant and the civil magistrate,
however indifferent to the interests of
rsligion and morality, will keenly ap-
preciate the cruel and blundering pol-
icy of which these are the admitted
resuttj^ and will perhaps be iiiclined
to eiodaim with Mr. MdUhausen,
'It is iinpossible not to wish that
the missions were flourishing once
more !' •*

How beautHul was the old Spanish



system under which Father Junipero
and his companions set forth to re-
claim and convert the wandering In-
dian 1 Is it not the greatest gloty of
Spain that she can stiU cheer our dark
horizon by the light of her past histo-
ry, and shed a fragrance which re-
mains for ever over lands which have
been broken down by the hoof of the
invader, and desolatc^l by his diabolical
pride and insatiable rapacity ? What
was the Spanish system as exhibited
in California ? It was simply this : a
recognition, without question or jeal-
ousy, that our Lord, the great high
priest, continues in his priesthood to
be the shepherd, teacher, and minister
of his people. '' To go and teach all
nations," ^ to minister to the least of
the little ones," to be the ''shepherd of
the flock," "to lay down life for the
flock." This is distinctly the opera-
tion of Christ through his priests.
That this was the real character of
the Christian priesthood was a clear
and elementary principle, which ad-
mitted of no doubt in the mind of the
Spanish people.

Conscious of their power, and with
a light burning within them which
shone over the vast prospects that lay
before them, of extending the &ith
and saving innumerable souls, for
whom the most precious blood had
been shed, the Spanish missioners
went forth to extend their conquests
over the heathen worid. Rapine and >
plunder were not their aim ; they were
introduced among colonizers by the
snare of the deviL To maintain the
Indian on his territory, to raise, in-
struct, and Christianize him, giving him
rights and equality before ^elaw, this
was the policy of Catholic Spain. The
priest, therefore, was regarded as the
chief pioneer, his plans were recog-
nized and acted upon, and he was con-
sidered to be not a mere creature of
the crown, who should extend its in-
fluence, but a minister and agent of
his majesty the Great King of Heaven,
who had deigned in his infinite love
to look upon Spain with a peculiar
predilection, and to choose her as an



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iDfltroment to sare the soak for whom
he once had died.

A hundred yean ago no European
had OTer fixed his abode in Oalifomia
Alteu Father Jnnipero and his de-
Toted companions, led on hj zeal ''to
establifih the Oatholic religion among
a numeroas heathen people, submerg-
ed in the obscure dajrkness of pagan-
ism," were, then, the real pioneers of
California. Three Protestant writers,
quoted by Mr. Marshall, shall sum up
for u!( in a few words the ciyilizing
effects of the Catholic education of the
Indians in California. Captain Moi^
rell says :

** The Indians are very industrious
in their labors, and obedient to their
teachers and directors, to whom they
look up as fathers and protectors, and
who, in return, discharge their duty
toward these poor Indians with a great
deal of feelmg and humanity. They
are generally well clothed and led,
have houses of their own, and are
made as comfortable as they can wish
to be. The greatest care is taken
of any who are affected with any dis-
ease, and every attention is paid to
their wants." And Mr. Foibes
writes :

''The best and most unequivocal
proof of the good conduct of the Fran-
ciscan fathen is to be found in the un-
bounded affection and deyotion invari-
ably shown to them by their Indian
subjects. They venerate them not
merely as fathers and friends, but
with a degree of devotedness ap-
proaching to adoration." And, lastly,
Mr. Bartlett observes :

" They (the Indians) are represent-
ed to have been sober and industrious,

well clothed and fed.

They ocmstitnted a large family, of
whidi the padres were the social, re-
ligious, and, we might almost say, po-
fitical heads."

Such was the first planting in this
vineyard of the Loid. Let us briefly
note the blight and destruction which
followed. In 1827, a Mr. Smith es-
tablished himself in California to make
money. In 1834, three hundred



Americans setded in the oottntry for
the same purpose. In 1839, Captahi
Sutter biuh a fort and an American
refuge. In 1841, he got possession of
a considerable traet of land. In 1844,
a revolution took place, and the Amei^
ican settlers sold themselves for a
grant of land to the party wliidi was
aflerward defeated.

In 1845, the people, being harassed
by civil war, wished for the protection
of some strong external government
It was a chance whether California
was to become English or United
States territory. H.M.S. OoBngwoad
entered the port, we believe, of Mont-



erey,



and was asked to set



Union Jack, and declare the country
to be under British protection. The
captain replied that he would sail vnp
the coast and ascertaui whether this
was the will of the country, and if it
were, he would return and deelare the
protectorate. Meanwhile, tiie United
States ship^SbwannoA, under Commo-
dore Stoa^ was on the watch ; so that
when the CoUingwood returned, hav-
ing ascertained the good will of the
otiier ports, she found, to her surprise
and dismay, that she had been out*
stripped by the Yankee, and that the
stars and stripes were floating over
the town. California from that time
became the property of the United
States. In 1848 gold was aoddeni-
ally discovered, and an emigration set
in with the violence of a spring tide,
of a very difierent character to that
of the pious Scfior Galves or of the
humble Father Junipero and his Fran-
ciscans.

Then, indeed, the world began to
ring with glad tidings of great joy :
the sun had at last arisen on a be-
nighted land — its redemption was at
hand. Every newspaper in Europe
— ^we may say in the world — teemed
with reports of a new El Dorado dis-
covered on the western coast of Amer-
ica. This country was Oilifomia.
Adventurous spirits, athirst for wealth,
from all parts of the world, were
set in motion toward this land of
promise. Ships were chartered and



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freighted with men and yonths readj
to spend all thej had in order only to
reach the golden boame. Merchants
from the United States and from En-
rope, ready speculators, sent out their
vessels laden to the water's edge with
dry goods, hardware, com, spirits,
and general merchandise. The ex-
citement and the recklessness were,
perhaps, without a parallel Ships
reached the great and heautiful bay
of San Francisco, in which all the
fleets of the world conld ride at ease,
and were oi^en abandoned by their
captain and crews, who scampered off
to the gold diggings, even before their
cargo was cUscharged. Sometimes
they fell to pieces in the bay ; somer
times they became the property of
adventurers, or were run aground,
and served as temporaiy houses, and
then as the comers and foundations of
streets, which energetic speculators
soon carried down upon piles into the
water. There they stand to this
day, monuments of the aur% sacra
fames.

It was, in4^ed, natural that none
but the fiercest and most daring ele-
ments should prevail. The modest,
the timid, the indolent, the sickly, the
child, the woman, the aged, the leis-
ure-learned, the owner of property, of
good position, of fair prospects, the
man of routine, the unambitious, were
all left behind. It was said, and said
truly, in the cities of Europe, Ameri-
ca, and Australia, that men of despe-
rate character were on the road to
Califoroia ; that all went armed with
knives and revolvers ; that the way
thither was a Tiighway of rapine and
crime; and that none should start
who were not prepared to fight it out
any day in self-defence or in attack*
There were a thousand difficulties
arising from the immense length of
the journey, and from the great num-
bers on ihe way ; and a thousand
other difficulties to be accepted on ar-
rival in the country — expense, danger,
uncertainty, perhaps sickness ; and all
these far away from home. Such
were the prospects in those days, and



such the normal condition of life io
California.

It is not strange, then, that the men
who formed the horde which, fifteen
or sixteen years ago, began to flow
into California, should represent to us
a type of all that is rough, adventur-
ous, devil-may-care, elastic, lights
hearted, and determined in human
nature. The Australian population
began with convicts and honest emi-
grants. The Califomian popuUtioB
began with all kinds of unconvicted
criminals from aU parts of the world,
with " Sydney ducks," as they called
the ticket of-leave men from New
South Wales or Tasmania; but, be-
side these, a considerable number of
energetic, honest emigrants, chiefly
from Europe and the States. Then,
we may add that the Yankee element
prevails in the Califomian population,
and the John BuU element in the Aus-
tralian. The American is lean, and
all nerve and iq|patient energy;
health and life are to him of no mo-
ment when he sees an object to be at-
tained by the risk of them. If we
may be allowed to put it grotesquely,
his body is human but lus soul is a ,
high-pressure steam-engine ; he knows
no delay and is reckless, and his bye-
word is « Go ahead.'* The En^ish-
man, by contrast, is fat and easy-go-
ing; much more cautious of health
and life, he calculates on both. F.
Strickland (^Catholic Missions in
Southern India") happily applies to
him the words of Holy Writ spoken of
the Romans, '^Possederant omnem
terram consilio suo et patientia." ^ It
is by wisdom in council, and by pa-
tiently watching their opportunity;
. . . • wisdom which has often
degenerated into Machiavellism, but
has niever neglected a single opportu-
nity of aggrandizement; patience
which has Imown how to ^bide its
time,' and to avoid precipitation''— ^
this is how the Englishman succeeds.
And so, to look at the Englishman in
a Pickwickian sense, he is a matter-of-
fact, cautious gentleman, who wishes
to make very sure of what he has got.



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OaHfomia and tha Okurek.



and when he fisels comlbrfcably confi-
dent, Bays ^ All right,*' and moves on
deliberately to acquire more. An
Enjiclish traveller says :

** The first night we arrived in San
Francisco we were kept awake all
night on board the steamer by the in-
cessant ory of ^ Go ahead,' which ac-
companied the launch from the crane
which sent each article of luggage
and goods on to the wharf. It re-
minded ns of a story his late eminence
Cardinal Wiseman used to tell. He
said the first Italian words he heard
oi)» first landing, some forty years ago
or more, in Italy from England, were,
^Pazlenza, pazienza.' The English-
man sums up all things that happen
with the words 'All right;* the Yan-
kee with the words, < G^ ahead.' "

Many merchants realized enormous
fortunes in a few months-— some even
by one consignment ; but many were
hit hard and many were rained. A
period in which a^ egg was worth a
dollar was followed by a glut in the
market of all kinds uf goods and pro-
visions. There was nobody to re-
ceive them ; there was no sale for them.
Warehousage cost more than the total
value of goods and freight Tons of
sea-bread were abandoned ; barrels of
hams and bacon, cargoes of cheeses,
dry goods, and even wine and spirits,
were left unclaimed, and fell into the
hands of *^ smart" men of business, or
were spoiled by weather and neglect.
Ships, captains, crews, and cargoes
bound to California sailed as into a
vortex, and were lost in the whirlpool
of excitement. Even officers of men-
of-war were seized by the gold mania,
and ^ ran" to soil their white hands
in the precious ^ pay-dirt.' ,

Such circumstances as these which
occurred in 1849-50-51 are now past
and can never recur, at least in Cali-
fornia. The country is settling down
into a normal condition. The regular
system of American states govern-
ment is permanently established. On
two occasions, once in 1851 and again
in 1856, when the government of San
Frnncisco fell into the hands of a set



of low sharpers, who sospended the
laws for punishment of crime and pro-
tected criminals, the people, trained
from childhood to self-government, ex-
temporized what was called a vigilance
committee. They abrogated for the
time the state laws, they caught
thieves, tried ihem in the night, and
hung them in the morning. They
strock terror into the << Sydney ducks,"
and into the plunderers who had come
down upon San Francisco, like vul-
tures upon their prey, from all coon-
tries of the world. When the commit-
tee had effected its object it peaceably
dissolved, and the regular form of
government resumed its sway. Cali-
fornia, however, still presents a spec-
tacle unlike that of any other country
of the world. Sydney, Melbourne,
and Queensland have not the diverei-
ty of population which California has.
They are more like ^^ home ;" a strong-
er government is exercised ; there is
more security, less excitement, less in-
cident, and less variety in life. The
traveller meets every day in the dig-
gings and elsewhere men who had
come over from Australia, thinking to
better themselves; they have not
done so, and they aU complain that
they have not found the same order
and security for man and property ;
and most of them determine to return
in the coming season.

For internal resources, in scenery
and climate, and in variety of pro-
duction, California is probably su-
perior to the Australian colonies.
There is a continual excitement, and
all the business of the country is done
in San Francisco ; it is the only port
of any note ; the trade with CaUifor-,
nia from the States, from South
America, from Europe, Asia, and
Australia, is to San Francisco. She
is called the " Queen of the Pacific,**
and it is expected that she will become
one of the largest cities of the world,
and that the whole trade between
China, Japan, and Europe and the
States will pass through her. She
will be one of the great ports, and the
most magnificent harbor on the high-



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Toad wbicb, trhen the ndiroad across
the plains is completed, will connect
together in one line Pekin, Canton,
Japan, San Francisco, New York,
London, and St. Petersburg; thns
girdling in a great highway the north-
ern hemisphere of the world. The
market in San Francisco is just large
and manageable enough to produce the
greatest amount of excitement for the
merchants. Exports and imports
are reckoned at about eleven
millioQ pounds each ; of the exports
about eight millions are of gold and
silver. The highest game is played,
and the English houses, always safe
and sure, are looked upon as slow and
plodding in comparison with the
American. The stakes are, day by
day, fortune or ruin. The interest on
loans varies from one to ten per cent
a month, according to the security.
There are great losses and great gains.
San Francisco is in a chronic state of
exciting business fermentation ; there
is little amusement, no learned leisure,
but everybody is occupied in trade or
speculation. The people are well
dressed — all the men wear broadcloth,
^ nearly all the women silk ; there are
no beggars in the streets, and there is
an air of healthiness, vigor, and buoy-
ancy of life such as is not to be seen
in any other city in Europe or Amer-
ica. No market in the world, save,
perhaps, that of London, is better
supplied. Railroads run along the
streets in all directions. Churches,
schools, hotels, and houses are lifted
ap from their foundations by hydraul-
ic power ; and if the owners wish to
add a story, instead of clapping it on
above, they build it in below, and
roof, walls, and floors all go up to-
gether uninjured.

The traveller is astonished to see a
procession of solid-built houses slowly
marching through the centre of one
of the principal thoroughfares. In
eightrand-fbrty hours an hotel, brick-
buUt and three stories high, will be
carried, without interruption to busi-
ness, ^m one part of the city to an-
other. The coontiy is full of inter-



esting incident and novel excitement.
It contains all the preeious metals,
gold, silver, platinum, copper, iron,
coal, asphaltum, spring and mineral
oil, borax, arsenic, cobalt The lai^est
crops in the world have been grown
on its soiL We quote the published
accounts: Crops of 80 bushels of
wheat to the acre have been grown in
California. Mr. HiU harvested 82^
bushels from an acre in Pajaro val-.
ley in 1853, and obtained 660 bushels
from ten acres. In 1851, Mr. P. M.
Scooffy harvested 88 bushels, and Mr.
N. Carriger 80 bushels, in Smoma
valley. Again: In 1853 a field of
100 acres in the valley of the Pajaro
produced 90,000 bushels of barley,
and one acre of it yielded 149 bush-
els. It was grown by Mr. J. B. Hill,
and was mentioned as undoubtedly
true by the assessor of Monterey
county in his official report; and a
prize was granted by an agricultural
society for the crop^ According to the
assessor's report, the average crop of
potatoes in Sacramento county in
1860 was 390 bushels per acre. Po-
tatoes have been seen in the market
weighing 7 lb. The largest beet-root
was 5 ft. long, 1 fV. thick, and 118 lb.
in weight — it was three years old;
cabbages 45 lb. and 53 lb. each ; and
a squash vine bore at a time 1,600 lb.
of fruit Then the lai^st trees in the
world are. found in California, in mam-
moth-tree groves. Two are known to
be 32 ft in diameter, 325 ft high.
<^One of the trees which is down
must have been 450 ft. high, and 40
fl. in diameter." The tree of which
the bark was stripped for 116 fL, and
sent to the Crystal Palace, condnued
green and flourishing two years and a
half afler being thus denuded. The
highest waterfall in the world is- in
the Tosemite valley, in California.
It is 2,063 ft. high, according to the
official surveyor. The Cs^fomian
Greysers are among the wonders of
the world — a multitude of boiling
springs, emitting large quantities of
steam with a hissing, roarings splutter-
ing noiae ; while near them, within a



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\mw and the Ohureh*



few feet, are delidooslj cold springs.
There are mud yolcanoes, which can
be heard ten miles off, and seen at a
still greater distance. A great vari-
etj of wild beasts and birds — bears,
panthers, wolves, deer, elk, the Cali-
fomian vulture (next to die condor
the largest bird that flies), make
fip other sources of interest, specula-
tion, and excitement and contribute to
. give to Galifomians a certain peculiar
character and sympathy one with an-
other, which unite them together as
hail-fellows-well-met in any part of
the world in which they may chance
to meet. There is travelling up the
rivers in steamboats three and four
stories high, which not unfrequently
blow up or run into each otber. A
oonsiderable portion of the country
can be traversed in wagons called
"stages,^ whose springs are so very
strong that ocular demonstration is
necessary as a proof of their existence.
They cross plains and mountains,
penetrate forests, and skirt precipices,
along the most difficult roads. Wood-
en bridges thrown across ravines or
deep gullies or streams, and formed
by laying down a number, of scantling
poles, and covering them with loose
planks, are taken by the four-horse
^ stage" at a gallop, just as you ride
at a ditch or rasper out hunting ; pat-
ter, patter, go the horses' feet, up and
down go the loose planks— one's
heart in one's mouth — ^no horses have
slipped through — no broken legs-— it
seems a miracle — ^and away onward
goes the stage, conducted by dauntless
and skilful drivers, to the everlasting
cry of ** go ahead !" But much of the
country must be travelled on horse-
back, and California has an admirable
breed of thin, wiry little horses, which
will gallop with their rider over a hund-
red miles a day, requiring little care
and hardly any food. Much of the
country is still unexplored. There
are mountains covered with perpetual
snow, and immense virgin piue forests
coyering their sides; long rolling
plains, baked by the sun; and rich
luxuriant ralleys, watered by the rich-



est fish-«treams. In extent the ooun-
irj is 189,000 square miles, or nearly
four times lai^ger than England, and
possesses within itself all the re-
sources of Che temperate and tropical
zones. There are 40,000,000 acres
of arable land in the state, thongb not
more than 1,000,000 are now in culti-
vation.

^ The climate near the ocean is the
most equable in the world. At San
Francisco there is a difference of only
seven degrees between the mean tem-
perature of winter and summer — the
average of the latter being 57° and
of the former 50° Fahrenheit. Ice
and snow are never seen in winter,
and in summer the weather is so cool
that woolen clothing may be worn
every day. There are not more than
a dozen days in the year too warm
for comfort at mid-day, and the oldest
inhabitant cannot remember a night
when blankets were not necessary for
comfortable sleep. The climate is
just of that character most favorable
to the constant mental and physical
activity of men, and to the unvarying
health and continuous growth of ani-
mals and plants. By travelling a few
hundred miles the Callfomian may
find any temperature he may desire —
great warmth in winter and icy cold-
ness in summer."

It may be understood,, then, from
all these circumstances, that the blood
of a Califomian tingles with an ex-
citement of its own. Indeed, it is con-
stantly observed that men who leave
California with their fortunes made,
and with the intention of establishing
themselves in the Eastern states, or
in Europe, are unable to settle down,
and soon return to the Golden State.

Let us now proceed with the sub-
ject before us, and draw out briefly
two contrasts : one between the Span-
ish or Catholic and the Anglo-Saxon
or non-Catholic conduct and policy
toward the original lords of the soil,
the Indians ; the other as between the
names they gave to the localities which
were the scenes of their respective la-
bon* It wiU indicate a differeaoe of



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tone and ^irife anfficiaiitlj remark-
able.

Of coarse all Galifomians are not
to be held responaible for the acts of a
low and heartless section of ruffians,
an J more than all Englishmen are ao-
coantable for the atrocities which we
have perpetrated in times past in In-
dia or Oceanica. But as we would
not pass over the crimes committed
bj the Anglo-Saxon race in India
were India our topic, so neither will
we be silent here on deeds of equal
atrocity with any of which we were



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