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instructively to the heart of the pio-
neer who has come in hot haste to
seek a fortune. How can he help at
times being touched, when he is with
his own thoughts in solitude, perhaps
in sadness and disappointment, in the
presence of these old remnants which
tell of pioneers who came with an-
other and holier end in view than that
in which he sees himself foiled and
mistaken? We will venture to say
that these ancient memorials of the
faith and devotedness of the Catholic
missionaries are as sweet, and as dear,
and as impressive to many a Califor-
nian, as the gorgeous old piles of Cath-
olic piety in England are to the dense
and civilized Protestant population
which lives around them and profits
by their revenues.

Among the first pioneers of Cali-
fomia, before the discovery of gold,
in search of an agricultural district
and of a genial climate, came a hardy
band of earnest Irishmen. They
were in a high sense pioneers, for they
were the first caravan that found a
way across the plains and Bocky
Mountains from the Eastern states.
They passed many long months on
t^je road, and were exposed to every
imaginable hardship and difficulty.
They had to clear the forest as they
went, to make a passage for their
wagons. Sometimes they would
spend a week breaking a road through
^reat rocks and enormous 'boulders^



which obstructed a river-bed or a
mountain-pass; their wagons often
came to pieces through hardship and
exposure; they cut down trees to
mend them, and had to extemporize
wheels and harness as they journeyed
slowly on. They had placed all their
trust and confidence in God — ^in the
rain and wind, in the thick forest, and
on the snowy mountain, they always
turned to him — ^they served and wor-
shipped him as well as the circum^
stances would allow, and he led them
at last into the land of promise which
they looked to.

After them came another caravan
from the States, but formed of men of
a very different stamp. License,
crime, and disorder of the most ap-
palling character marked their steps.
We will enter into no details. They
suffered innumerable hardships, they
fell so short of provisions, and were
reduced to such straits, that, finally, in
despair of ever reaching the rich
plams of California, they killed one
of their party, and made their even-
ing meal upon human fiesh. The
next morning one mile off they des-
cried the land they longed for, and
immense herds of elk feeding on the
plains. They felt that the hand of
Grod had struck them. The Irish
Catholics soon rallied round the few
pastors who remained in the country ;
they established themselves near tibie '
missions. Soon they lifted up their
voice calling for more spiritual as-
sistance. The riches of earth were
of little value to them* without the
blessings of heaven. The zeal of the
Holy See anticipated their own. Mis-
sionaries were on the way to the scene
of labor, and a devoted bishOp was
soon appointed to rule over them.

When, after 1849, the rush to the
diggings took place, and all men were
suffering from " the gold fever" and
" silver on the brain," spending their
money in wholesale gambling, fniilcing
fortunes one week and losing them
the next, and every man's head seem-
ed to be turned by the helter-skelter
ezdtement, the Catholic Church, in



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CaUfcTfda and Ae Church.



her calm majesty, was growing up in
the midst of the turmoil, and occupying
her position as the city on the moun-
tain, and the light shining before men.
The zeal of the archbishop and der*
gy and faithful Irish knew no limits.
Churches sprang up on the conspicu-
ous eminences of the city of San
Francisco, and in the principal thor-
oughfares. And that vast assemblage
of men, irho had come together from
all parts, without religion or God in
their hearts, began to see that they
were in the presence of the Catholic
Church, and that the shadow of the
Catholic towers and crosses had fallen
upon them. As soon as the Holy See
gave to San Francisco an archbishop,
the zealous sons of St. Patrick deter-
mined to build him a cathedml. The
wages of a common hodman were £2,
10s. a day; nevertheless, while the
Catholic with one hand worked or
scrambled for wealth, with the other
he freely gave to that which is always
dearest to his heart. The deep foun-
dations of the cathedral were sunk, the
walls arose, its massive time-keeping
tower crowned the city, its solemn ser-
vices were inaugurated. It was the re-
sult of fabulous suras of money, and of
heroic devotedness on the part of pas-
tors and people. Nor was this alL
Large and handsome churches have
sprung up in various parts of the city,
like St. Ignatius's and St. FranciB*s,
and others, such as the French church,
St. Patrick's, St. Joseph's, the German
diurch, and a number of smaller
chapels. The unbelieving speculator,
the '* smart" trader, the land-owner,
and the miner, on his visit to the city,
were all struds: with these visible to-
kens 6f sincerity and zeal, without
stint of generous alms, put forth by
the Catholic Church from the very
outset Later, and stimulated by
Catholic example, the various sects of
Protestantism, Jews, infidels, and pa-
gans, erected in several places their
churches, temples, chapels, lecture-
halls, and joss-houses. In point of
churches, in numbers and construction,
the Catholic communion in San Fran-



cisco stands far ahead of aQ others.
But it is not in the erection of
churches alone that Catholicity has,
with the vigor o^her perpetual youth,
outstripped the sects, all of which,
before they attain to half a century,
become old and decrepit; for no
sooner did the population roll in from
the ocean and across the plains, than
new wants at once arose — ^hospitals
for the sick from the city, the country,
and the mines ; homes for the orphans
who were lefl alone in a far-off coun-
try, where men die in thousands from
accident and violence, as well as from
disease and natural causes; and
schools for children, who arc bom
more numerously, it is stud, in CaH-
fomia than in any other country.
Here again the Catholic Church was
first in devoted charity and anxious
zeal for souls.

As to popular schools, before the
Atlantic and Pacific oceans were '
bridged together by the iron rails of
Panama, the gentle and devoted Sis-
ters of the Presentation from Ireland,
ladies by birth, tradition, and refine-
ment, left their tranquil convents for
the storm and troubles of life into
the midst of which they were to be
thrown in San Francisco. They, in
their strict and peaceful inclosure,
were to be calm, like the point which
even in the whirlwind is always to be
still and at rest. There, day by day,
they teach one thousand children from
infancy up to womanhood, the poor
according to their wants, and the rich
according their requirements, and all
this entirely gratis, looking to Grod
aione to be their " reward CKceeding
great." Moreover, the only school in
the state of California for Lidians and
negroes is established and taught by
them. In the state schools no color-
ed child would be allowed to set his
foot. Thousands of children of Cath-
olic, of Protestant, and infidel parents
have passed out into the world from
under their considerate and enlighten-
ed care, and they bless them every-
where evermore. Such disinterested
charities/ such daily self-denial, siidi



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gentle and kindly sympathj, are no^
lost upon the wayward, goHiJiead, and
hardened Yankee. These are the
lives which touch and melt and win
him. This, he says, is practical re-
ligion. Next, in a state like Califor-
nia, orphanages became an early and
a primary want. The Sisters of Char-
ity first supplied them. Then hospi-
taJs were needed ; and the Sisters of
Mercy from Ireland said, ^ Here are
hospitals." They possess the best
hospital in the state. They watch
the sick with a mother's care; and
many a man learns on his bed of pain
from their lips lessons which he has
never heard in childhood, or has for-
gotten in manhood. In all these de-
partments of popular instruction, or-'
phanages, and hospitals, the Catholic
Church in California leads the way,
extending aid and care to all, without
distinction of creed or nation. The
Catholic convents and establishments
stand out conspicuously to all the
world on the heights and in the prin-
cipal thoroughfares of San Francisco.
These are all works which we attrib-
ute to the zeal of the Irish, and which
prove to Americans, and they admit
the proof, the faith and charity of the
Catholic Church. They are an ap-
peal to their h^rt and to their reason.
And now tor tnV appeal to their sense
of honesty and justice. Take the
Catholics of California as a body, and
they stand before any other body for
honesty in busmess. They nearly all
came to the state poor men; some
had to borrow money for their jour^
ney ; but they have worked their way
up; and now, though the Jews are
the largest capitalists, and the Yan-
kees, from being more numerous,
hold absolutely a greater amount of
wealth, the Irish and Catholics, as a
class, are more uniformly well off.
The mean of comfort and sufficiency is
probably hig)ier among them than
among others. And they have obtain-
ed for themselves a high reputation
for honesty and honorable con-
duct in business. It is. impossible
for a person ?nthoat experience



to form an idea of the amount of
cheating and rascality which is
oflen practised in trade and com-
merce. Bobbery and lying, upon
however large or mean a scale, when
successful, will be called by a great
number only "smart conduct.**. A
man is not tabooed and banished the
exchange and the market for cheating
his credttoi-s, and defrauding the pul^
He, as he would be in London or
Liverpool. He can live down such
public opinion as there is, and many
of his friends extend a misplaced pity
to him, or tJiink none the worse of
him for his behavior. A man may
become bankrupt three or four times,
and become richer each time ; tliis is
not uncommon ; and there are certain
persons with whom it is taken for
granted that tliey are thus " making
their pile." ^So and so has just
caved inj'^said a merchant ; " and he
had $20,000 worth of goods from me
last week, and all that's ' run into the
ground,' and no two ways about that.
He'll be through the courts white-
washed in a few weeks." "Well,"
said the interlocutor, " you won't let
him have more goods without ready
money ?" « Yes, I shall. He'll just
come to me for goods to set up again ;
and he knows Til let him have them,
for he's a ' smsui' fellow ; he will be
better able to pay me then than he
ever has been before." In t^nfirma-
tion of our general statement, we may
quote the words of Mr. Hittel :

" Insolvencies legally declared and
cancelled by the courts are more fre-
quent in San Francisco, in proportion
to its population, than in any other
part of the world. Our laws provide
that any man who declares himself
unable to pay his debts, and petitions
to be released from them, may obtain
a judicial discharge, unless he has
been guilty of fraud ; and as the fraud
must be distinctly proved upon him
before the discharge will be denied,
the release is almost invariably ob*
tained."

From this testimony of a long resi*
dent and man of busmess in Califinv



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Igmia cmd Ae Okur^



nia it will be readilj understood how
closely men's personal character for
hones^ will be scrutinized bj persons
who are not anxious to suffer in deal-
ing with them. Now, inquiries have
been made in various parts of the
oountiy, and it has been ascertained
beyond a doubt that the Irish, or
American Irish GatholicSy are con-
sidered the safest class of men to do
business with. Whether it be early
training, religion, the confessional, or
the influence of the priests, so it is ;
they are trusted by a Yankee more
readily than others are. Far be it
from us to impeach the honesty, and
sense of honor, of all save the Irish
and Catholics. These natural vir-
tues shine witli the greatest brilliancy
in many an unbeUeving man of busi-
ness. We but record a fact which is
highly creditable to the Irish, and
spreads the good odor of tVk religion
they profess.

We have now to notice the direct
action of the archbishop and of the
clergy upon the popalation. The
bishop is the ^ forma gregis facta ex
animo," "the city on the hill," "the
candle placed high upon the candle-
stick," giving its light around ; and on
each prelate bestows what gifls he
pleases. With these he illumines the
world in the person of his minister.

Go, then, up California street, turn
round the cathedral of St. Mary's, and
you will enter a miserable, dingy
little house. This is the residenV^e
of the Archbishop of San Francisco
and his clergy, who live with him in
community. To the left are a number
of little yards, and the back windows
of the houses in which the Chinamen
are swarming. Broken pots and
pans, old doors, and a yellow compost,
window-frames, fagots, remnants of
used fireworks, sides of pig glazed
and varnished, long strings of meat^
God only knows what meat — changing
to dry, dog-kcnnels, dead cats, dirty
linen in heaps, and white linen and
blue cottons drjing on lines or lying
on rubbish — such is the view to the
lefL The odors which exhale from it



who shall describe ? A spark wodd
probably set the whole of t^ese prem-
ises in a conflagration; and one is
tempted to think that even a fire
would be a blessing. To the right,
adjoining the cathe^l, is the yard
where the Catholic boys come out
to play; a|id in this yard stands a
little iron or zinc cottage, containing
two rooms. This is where the arch-
bishop lives ; one is his bedroom, the
other his office, where his secretaries
are at work all day. No man is more
poorly lodged in the whole city ; and
no man preaches the spirit of evan-
gelical poverty, a detadiment in the
midst of this money-worshipping city,
like this Dominican. Spanish Arch-
bishop of San Francisco. From ten
in the morning to one p.m. every
day, and for two Or three hours eveiy
evening, his grace, arrayed in his com-
m<Hi white habit, and with his green
cord and pectoral cross, receives all
who come to consult him, to beg of
him, to converse with him, be they
who they may — emigrants, servants,
merchants, the afflicted, the ruined, the
unfortunate. The example of such a
life of disinterested zeal, holy sim-
plicity, and poverty has told upon the
inhabitants of San Francisco with an
irresistible power. B has been one
of the Catholic inflSnces exercised
by the Church on the population.

On taking possession of his see,
when San Francisco was yet forming
and building itself up, the first thing
Dr. Alemany looked around for was
an edifying and zealous body of clergy.
There were, indeed, already before
him some few who are laboring in the
vineyard to this day, but there was
also there the refuse of Europe, men
of scandalous life, and men affecting
to be priests who were impostors.
Whereupon he went over to Ireland,
and entering into relations with, the
College of All Hallows, which had
supplied so many devoted priests to
other parts, he began to draw from
that splendid seminary apostles for
California : of whom, we believe, the
first was the present bishop at Marya-



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California and the Church,



809



Tille, Dr. O'Connelly so dktingaished
for his gentleness, learning, piety, and
zeal for the salvation of the Indian as
well as of the white man. May that
college long continue to send forth its
heroic bands of laborers, who may be
recognized everywhere as they are in
California, as a virtaoas and exem-
plary clergy I But the archbishop,
with the eye of a general, perceived
that in order to make a deep impres-
sion upon the masses which were
forming themselves with incredible ac-
tivity in San Francisco and the coun-
try, it was necessary, in addition to
the secular clergy, which were station-
ed in pickets through the city and
coontiy, to form a strong body of in-
defatigable men, who should act upon
the population with all the accumu-
lated power of a compact square. He
therefore called into the field the Jesuit
fathers. They came down in little
numbers from Oregon and the Rocky
Mountains, from the Eastern states,
and from Piedmont. He assigned to
them the old mission of Santa Clara,,
about forty miles from San Francisco,
m order that they should at once open
a college for the better classes ; and
also a site in San Francisco^ among
the sand-hills, in order to form a day
college for the inhabitants of the city ;
and a church in which they should
bring into play all those industries of
devotion, retreats, sermons, lectures,
novenas, and sodalities, which consti-
tute BO considerable an element of
their influence in Rome, and upon the
various populations in the midst of
which they establish themselves.

We have already shown that the
Church was foremost in the formation
of hospitals, orphanages, and schools
for the poor. She is also first in re-
putation for the excellence and solidi-
ty of her higher education. The Col-
lege of Santa Clara has a public name
all down the western coast, in Mexico
and Peru, as being, the most efficient
house of education on the Pacific
But in order to appreciate the value of
this work, 'it is necessary to under-
stand something of the infideUty, im«



morality, and vice against which it
acts as a barrier. Precocity in vice
in California exceeds an3rthing we
know in England ; and the domestic
inner life of the family, except among
the Irish, who still maintain its sanc-
tity in a wonderful degree, and a cer-
tain small minority of others, has
probably less existence than in the
Eastern states. In the state systedl,
boys and girls attend the ssJhe schools
up to seventeen and eighteen. We
have heard of a college in which boys
and girls were educated together and
liv^ under the same roof; and we
have been told of even girls' boarding-
schools having been broken up on ac-
count of vice and disease. But rather
than speak ourselves, we prefer to
quote the published evidence of a Cal-
ifomian as to the moral state of so-
ciety :

" In no part of the world is the in-
dividual more free from restraint.
Men, and women, and children are
permitted to do nearly as they please.
High wages, migratory habits, and
bachelor Hfe are not favorable to the
maintenance of stiff social rules among
men, and the tone of Society among
women must partake to a considerable
extent of that among men, especially
in a country where women are in a
small minority, and are therefore much
courted. Public opinion, which as a
guardian of public morals is more
powerful than the forms of law, loses
much of its power in a community
where the inhabitants are not perma-
nent residents. A large portion of the
men in California live either in cabins
or in hotels, remote from women rela-
tives, and therefore uninfluenced by the
powers of a home. It is not uncom-
mon for married women to go to par-
ties and balls in company with young
bachelor friends. The girls commence
going into " society*' about fifteen, and
then receive company alone, and go
out alone with young men to dances
and other places of amusement In
this there is a great error : too much
liberty is allowed to girls in the states
on the Atlantic slope, and still greater



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Oeltfomia and tk« OkwrdL



• liberty is given here, where, as thej
ripen earHer, thej should be more
guarded."*
Again:

'^ The relation between the sexes is
unsound. Unfortunate women are
numerous, and separations and di-
vorces between married couples fre-
quent No civilized country can equal
us in the proportionate number of di-
vorces, -^ur laws are not so lax as
those of several states east of the Mis-
sissippi ; but the circumstances of life
are more favorable to separation. The
small proportion of women makes a .
demand for the sex, and so when a
woman is oppressed by her husband
she can generally find somebody else
who will not oppress her, and she will
apply for a divorce. The abundance
of money is here felt also. To prose-
cute a divorce costs money, and many
cannot pay in poorer countries. Dur-
ing 1860, eighty-five divorce suits
were commenced in San Francisco,
and in sixty-one of these, or three-
fourths of the cases, the wives were
the plaintiffs."

We need add no comment. Such
being the tone and condition of society,
of what inestimable value must not
good Catliolic colleges be to the whole
coimtry ! They are highly appreciated
by many who are not Catholics : for
they send their children to Santa
Clara, and to the convents of Notre
Dame, being fully persuaded that they
will not only be educated in the
soundest principles of morality, and be
fenced in from evil, but will receive a
higher intellectual training than they
could elsewhere. Society, ' indeed,
must modify any particular system of
education; and the Jesuits have had
to depart from their traditional prac-
tice of a thorough classical training,
in favor of positive sciences, especially
chemistry and mmeralogy, and to
adopt the utilitarian line ofinstmction
rather than that which is the habit in
Europe. Their colleges in Santa
Clara and in San Francisco, and the

• '' BeBonroM of CUlfonU," p, 884.



schools of Notre Dame, must be
marked as the principal educational
establishments in C^ifomia; and
th^y are telling steadily upon the peo-
ple.

The archbishop has also opened
another college in behalf of the mid-
dle classes, which no doubt will bear
its fruit. All are thus amply provided
for; and no one points a finger of
scorn toward the Catholic Church for
ignorance and neglect of education;
rather she is looked upon as pre-emi-
nent in her training, and men external
to her communion send their children
to learn wisdom at her establish-
ments.

The sand-hills in the midst of which
the college and church of St. Ignatius
were placed, have long since been car-
ried away by the vigorous application
of steam-power, and these religious
buildings stand out prominent upon
the widest street in California.

A brief allusion to the work carried
on in this church, and we come to a
.conclusion. We have already re-
ferred at some length to the sermon
and lecture-going habit of the Ameri-
cans, and to the conquests which the
Catholic Church alone has the power
to make among them, by addressing
herself to their good qualities, and thus
leading them to God by the cords of
Adam. Long ago the archbishop per-
ceived this, and acted promptly by
planting in the capital, in addition to
the busy, active secular clergy, this
community of St Ignatius, with its
leisure, ttdent, and training, to meet
special i*equirements ; and statistics
would show with what success his
grace's plans have been crowned.
But we must pass on, and confine our
notice to a particular industry of the
society, which at San Francisco has
received a special blessing. Or rather,
it is not a specialty of the society, but
a common arm in the armory of the
Church ; we refer, to the system of so-
dalities and confraternities. The idea
was first introduced by St. Frauds
and St. Dominic in their third orders,
and was perfect^ and practically



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tipplied to Tsrioas devout enils by
St.^ Charles, St. Ignatias, and St
Philip, in the sixteenth century
Su Charled covered his diocese with
confraternities* as with so many nets.
St, Philip organized the little oratory,
and the Jesuits wherever they estab-
lish themselves are careful to found
the sodality of the B. Virgin, and that
of St. Joseph as the patron of the Bona
Morsy in their colleges or among the
frequenters of their public churches.
Nothing can exceed the importance of
theser sodalities and confraternities,
and we dwell on the subject all the

* more willingly, because of our own
need of their more perfect develop-
ment and spread among ourselves. It
strikes us that such associations are
faiore than ever desirable in countries
like England and America, where ex-
ternal dangers and seductions are so
numerous and insidious, and ecclesias-
tical influence so limited.

In Catholic countries the population
is studded with religious houses, con-
vents, and commuDities, and the priest-

, hood is numerous, visible to the eye of
the public, clothed in its own dress,
affecting all classes of society, and



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