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oae a member of this socie^. In a
tliird case I hare recently detected
incipient cataract (peripheric strise) in
a gentleman supposed to be suffering
from commenetng glaucoma.

'* It is of frequen t occurrence to find
the c^>sule c^ the lens stained with
blad: spots; these are stains left by
the avral pigment, and occur usually
aHer an attack of iritis, when the iris
has been in contact with the lens.
When the iris has been adherent, a
oomplete ring of pigment may often be
se»i on the surface of the lens. A
day's experience at any ophthalmic
dmique can mostly show examples
of this condition; but it is only when
these d^xMitB are numerous, and in
the eentral line of vision, that they be-
oome troublesome. Tliey are then
met with as the sequences of severe
cfaoroido-iritis, and usually coincide
with firther mischief in the vitreous
and choroid.

** The vitreous, under the influence
most commonly of choroiditis, and
usually syphilitic choroiditis, presents
alterations of the most striking char*
aeter for ophthalmoscopic observation.
The patients who offer these changes
complain usually of cousiderable dun-
neae <^ si^t, which cm examination is
found to include both diminution in
tbe aeuteness of visual perception, and
restriction in IhafiM of vtiioni or ex-
teat of any object seen at once. The
great source of trouble to them is, that
when they lift the eye or move the
head, black corpuscles, or streaks, or
webe float before their eyes, and ob-
scure the object at wfaidii they are
looking ; and when the eyes are kept
atilly these &11 again and disappear.
Sixaminenow the eyesof «ich anone,
and you wiU see that the phen^miena



deseribed are due to the existence of
actual shreds, corpuscles, or webs of
flbrous and albuminous exudation,
which float in the vitreous, and at each
motion of the eye rise in clouds and
obscure the fundus, so that you can
barely see it, or perhaps not atalL
These conditions, I say, are mostly
specific, but not invariably. They
are sometimes the result of scrofula,
and probably of other forms of ch<H
roiditis.'*

Here, then, are a large number of
cases in which the ophthalmoscope
transports us at once from the regions
of the known to the unknown. There
are other classes of cases equally
striking. Let me take illustrative ex-
amples. Two persons apply for ad-
vice, ccHUf^ining that the sight has
been gradually growmg more and
more dim, perhaps in one eye,^^it
may be in both. The progress of the
disease has been insidious and nearly
painless. The eyes are to all exter-
nal appearance healthy, except proba-
bly that in both patients the pupOs
are partially dilated and sluggish.
The ophthahnoscope helps us to solve
the problem.

The one is a case, it may be, of
slow atrophy of the optic nerve, pro-
ceeding from central disease of the
braiuh— from pressure on the optic
tracts of nerve within the skull, cr
from defective nutrition following
losses of blood. We find the nerve
glistening white and slightly cujqped,
the arteries small, the fundus others
wise healthy. In the other we recog-
niae at once, in the fulness of the
veins, their pulsation, and the marked
excavation of the optic disc, the indi-
cations of excessive tension of the eye-
ball and undue pressure of the nerve.
The first requires careful constitu-
tional treatment and a long course of
studied hygiene and medication; the
secoiid cfldls for direct and immediate
interference, with the view of reliev-
ing the intra-ocular pressure* In tbe
diagnosis of this great dass <rf glauco-
matous disease of the eye— disease



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126



JSuide tks Ey9*



characterised bj loss of vision, some-
times slow and sometimes rapid, but
always characterized by definite oph-
thalmoscopic signs: cupping of the
disc, pulsation, fullness of the yems,
and it may be more or less haziness
oi the transparent media — ophthalmo-
scopy has rendered a most brilliant and
inestimable service. Prior to the in-
troduction of the use of this instm-
ment the disease was of an unknown
pathology; its results .were fatal to
vision, but there were no means of
diagnosing the conditions attending
the earlier stages, and blindness fol-
lowed almost certainly and inevitably.
The investigation of the disease has
brought us a remedy in the excision
of a portion of the iris — a practice in-
troduced by Yon Grafe, of Berlin, and
of which the success is in suitable
cases most gratifying.

Another series of examples may be
chosen to illustrate the application of
ophthalmoscopy. I avoid giving de-
tails here, but it is perhaps right to
say that these are not fanciful sketches,
* but notices of cases in my experi-
ence and taken from my note-books
of practice. Two persons are asking
for advice as to the management of
their eyes for short-sightedness. Are
both to receive the same advice ? The
ophthalmoscope alone can furnish pos-
itive data. With this we may dis-
cover a staphylomatous condition of
the back of the eye, a bright excentric
marg'm around the optic disc and
edg^ with black pigment. Examin-
ing it closely, we may find that this
pigmented edge giv^ evidence of pro-
gressive inflammation at the back of the
eye, and extending to continuous and
increasing atrophy and retrocession of
the coats of the eye. This person is
in danger of becoming rapidly made
short-sighted or of losing sight alto-
gether. We must prohibit the use of
concave glasses for a certain length of
time, and must adopt active and effec-
tual measures for subduing the atro-
phic inflammation. In the other patient
the ophthalmoscope may show us but
Btile stretching or waste, a&d that not



progressive, and will enable us then
to calm his fears, to prescribe appropri-
ate glasses, and to dismiss him to his
occupation with ease of mind and
safety. So with sudden lose of sight
from intra^ocular haemorrhage, the
ophthalmoscope gives us information
which could never have been guessed
at without it, and guides us, not only
to the local knowledge, but to the con-
stitutional information essential for
cure.

There are certain condidons of the
eye which may warn any one that it
is desirable that the condition of the
vision ought to be investigated by the
ophthalmoscope. Rapidly increasing
short-sightedness is one of the most
marked, and when this becomes asso-
ciated with weakness of sight and loss
of acuteness in the perception of small
objects, the warning is very oi^gent
A diminution in the field of vision is
another important indication of inter-
nal changes in the eye, of whidi only
the ophthalmoscope can detect the true
nature. It would be difficult, perhaps,
to say whether more mischief is done
and more sufiering is caused by the
total neglect of such symptoms or by
their ignorant palliation by the aid of
common spectacles, chosen empirically,
because they fetcilitate vision for the
time. The great use of the ophthal-
moscope, then, is this : that it arms ns
with an instrument of predsion, by
which we can determine the precise
local condition of the parts of die eye
in which the function of sight is resi-
dent and through which it is regulated.
If it cannot do all that we might ask,
it is because the sense of sight is in
truth a cerebral function, of which the
eye is only an instrument; and in
dealing with cerebral afiections of the
sight, it can indeed give us informatiaED
which without it we should lack, bat
it leaves still to be desired more inti-
mate acquaintance with first causes,
which at present we can only discuss
inferentially. To the amateur in
science, and to the lover of nature, it
discloses an exquisite spectacle, un-
known till now, that carrieB obserrm-



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The POgrima^ io Ksvlaar^ 127

tkm into the inner chambers of the Iit- which I had made for the purpose, and

ing eye, and displays its wonders and was examined, by the aid of a modifica*

its beauties. The observation is per- tion which I devised of Liebreich's de-

fectlj painless, and may easily be ef- monstmting ophthalmoscope, by many

feeted : rabbits, for example, submit score of observers. Mine has the ad*

to it with great calmness and ctmipos^ vantage of being adapted for use even

ure, and at the College of Physicians' amid a blaze of Hght, and it cannot easi-

fotr^ last year, a litde pet white rah- ly be disarranged ; two qualities valu-

bit of mine sat up calmly in a box id>le in an instrument for demonstration.



From The Lamp.

THE PILGRIMAGE TO KEVLAAB.

FBOM THE GSBMAN.



Thb mother stood at the window.
The son he lay in bed ;

** Here's a procession, Wilhelm ;
Wilt not look outr* she said.

^ I am so ill, my mother,
In the world I have no part ;

I think upon dead Gretchen,
And a death-pang rends my heart.''

^ Rise up ; we will to Kevlaar;

Will staff and rosary take ;
God's Mother there will cure thee,—

Thy sick heart whole will make."

The Church's banner fluttered,
The Church's hymns arose ;

And unto fair Coin city
The long procession goes.

The mother joined the pilgrims,

Her sick son leadeth she ;
And both sing in the chorus,

<< GdoU ie^st dUf Marie r*

n.

The holy Mother in Kevlaar

To-day is well arrayed,—
To-day hath much to busy her.

For many sick ask her aid.

• •* FMlBod bo thon, )CU7 1 '•



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128 I%0 Pilgrimage to Kevlaar.

And mnnj sick people bring lier

Such oflPerings as are meet;
Manj waxen lunbs thejr bring her,

Manj waxen hands and feet.

And who a wax band bringeth,
His hand is healed that day ;

And who a wax foot bringeth,
With sound feet goes awaj.

Many went there on cratches <

.Who now on the rope can spring;

MuiT plaj now on the viol

Whose hands could not touch a string.

The mother she took a waxen light.
And shaped therefrom a heart ;

** Take tliat to the Mother of Christ," she said,
^ And she will heal thj smart."

He sighed, and took the waxen heart,
And went to the church in woe ;

The tears from his eyes fell streaming,
The words froQi his heart came low. '

<< Thou that art highly blessed,
Thou Mother of Christ I" said he ;

** Thou that art queen of heaven,
I bring my griefs to thee.

I dwell in C5ln with my mother ;

In C5ln upon the Rhine,
Where so many hundred chapels

And so many churches shine.

And near unto us dwelt Gretchen ;

But dead is Gretchen now.
Marie, I bring a waxen heart, —

My hearths despair heal thou.

Heal thou my sore heart-sickness ;

So I will sing to thee
Early and late with fervent love,

* Gehk segst duy Marie P "

m.

The sick son and the mother ^
In one chamber slept that night ;

And the holy Mother of Jesus
Gild in with footsteps light

She bowed her over the sick man's bed.
And one &ir hand did lay



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2^ Ancient Laws of Ireland,



129



Upon his throbbing bosom,

Then smiled and passed awaj.

It seemed a dream to the mother,
And she had jet seen more

But that her sleep was broken,
For the dogs howled at the door.

Upon his bed extended

Her son lay, and was dead ;

And o*er his thin pale visage streamed
The morning's lovelj red.

Her hands the mother folded.

Yet not a tear wept she ;
But sang in low devotion,

^ Gelobt seytt dtij Maris F



Mabt Howrrr.



From The Header.
THE ANCIENT LAWS OF IRELAND.



Jneient Laws of Ireland. Vol. I.
Printed for Her Majesty's Station-
erj Office. (London: Longman.
Dublin: Thorn.)

Thjs is a curious book, throwing
some glimmerings of light upon a very
remote and obscure period of Irish
history. In 1852 a government com-
mission, called the ^^Brehon Law
Commission," was issued to the Lord
Chancellor of Ireland, Lord Bosse,
Dean Graves, Dr. Fetrie, and others,
appointing them to carry into effect
the selection, transcription, and trans-
lation of certain documents in the
Gaelic tongue containing portions of
the ancient laws of Ireland, and the
preparation of the same for publica-
tion. In pursuance of this, the com-
missioners empWed Dr. O'Donovan
and Professor O'Curry, two Gaelic
scholars of high distmction, to trans-
cribe and translate various Jaw tracts
in the Irish language in the library of
Trinity College, Dublin, of the^yal

VQU n. 9



Irish Academy, of the British Museum,
and in the Bodleian Library at Oxford.
The transcriptions occupy more than
5,000 manuscript pages, including all
the law tracts which it was thought
necessary to publish, and have nearly
all beei} translated; but the two
chosen scholars did not live to com-
plete and revise their translations.
The portion now published was pre-
pared for the press by W. Neilson,
Hancock, LL.D., first in conjunction
with Dr. O'Donovan, and, after his
death, with the Rev. Mr. ClVIahony,
professor of Irish in the university
of Dublin. It is a volume of some
800 pages, the Irish on one page and
the translation opposite, containing
the first part of the Smchus Mot (we
are not told how much is to follow),
treating of the law of distress or dis-
traint, with an Irish introduction, and
various Irish glosses and commentaries
on the text

The title Senchus Mot (pronounced
« Shanchus M6r^) for which seven or



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130



ITte Ancient Laws of Ireland.



eight different derivations are sug-
gested, appears to mean " the great old
laws," or " the great old decisions."
The chief manuscripts of it which are
known to exist are three in Trinity
College, Dublin, and one in the Har-
leian collection in the British Museum,
and the earliest of these is assigned
to circa A.D. 1300. But quotations
from the Senchus Mor are found in
" Cormac's Glossary," the greater part
of which was probably composed in the
ninth or tenth century, and the date
of the original compilation is put by
good judges, on various evidence, at
▲.D. 438 to 441. It is, in short, a
codification and revision, under the
direction of St. Patrick, of the judg-
ments of the pagan Brehons. Three
kings, three poets, and three Chris-
tian missionaries (of whom Patrick
was one) were combined in this work,
and the code then established remained
the national law of Ireland for nearly
twelve centuries. Tiie pagan laws
embodied in this revised code were in
force during a period of unknown
antiquity, prior to the inti-oduction of
Christianity to the island.

" The Senchus Mar has been se-
lected by the commissioners for early
publication' as being one of the oldest
and one of the most important por-
tions of the ancient laws of Ireland
which have been preserved. It ex-
hibits the remarkable mocfification
which these laws of pagan origin . un-
derwent, in the fifth century, on the
conversion of the Irish to Christianity.

" This modification was ascribed so
entirely to the influence of St. Patrick
that the Senchus Mor is described as
having been called in after times
* Cain Patraic,' or Patrick's law.

"The Senchus Mor was so much
revered, that the Irish judges, called
Brehons, were not authorized to abro-
gate anything contained in it..

" The original text, of high antiquity,
has been made the subject of glosses
and commentaries of more recent date ;
and the Senchus Mor would appear
4o have maintained its authority
«mong the native Irish until the be-



ginning of the seventeenth century, or
for a period of 1,200 years.

^'The English law, introduced by
King Henry the Second in the twelfth
century, for many years scarcely pre-
vailed beyond the narrow limits of the
English pale (comprising the present
counties of Louth, Meath, TVosimeath,
Kildare, Dublin, and Wicklow).
Throughout the rest of Ireland the
Brehons still administered their an-
cient laws amongst the native Irish,
who were practically excluded from
the privileges of the English law.
The Anglo-Irish, too, adopted the Irish
laws to such an extent that efforts
were made to prevent their doing so
by enactments first parsed at the
parliament of Kilkenny in the fortieth
year of King Edward HI. (1367), and
subsequently renewed by Stat. Henry
VIL, c. 8, in 1495. So bite as the
twenty-fourth and twenty-fifth years of
the reign of King Ileniy Yiu! (1534)
George Cromer, archbishop of Ar-
magh and primate of Ireland, obtained
a formal pardon for having used the
Brchon laws. In the reign of Queen
Mary, 1554, the Earl of Kildare ob-
tained an eric of 340 cows for the
death of his foster-brother, Robert Nu-
gent, under the Brehon law.

" The authority of the Brehon laws
continued until the power of the Irish
chieftains was finally broken in the
reign of Queen Elizabeth, and all the
Irish were received into the king^s im-
mediate protection by the proclama-
tion of James I. This proclamation,
followed as it was by the complete
division of Ireland into counties, and
the administration of the English laws
throughout the entire country, ter-
minated at once the necessity for, and
the authority of, the ancient Irish laws.

" The wars of Cromwell, the policy
pursued by King Charles 31. at the
restoration, and the results of the rev-
olution of 1688, prevented any revival
of the Irish laws; and before the
end of the seventeenth century the
whole raca of judges (Brehons) and
professors (Ollamhs) of tlie Irish laws
appearf to have become extinct."



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The Ancient Laws of Ireland.



131



Portions of the text of the Senchu9
MoTy as we now have it, are held Jbj
Gaelic scholars to be in the language
of the fifth century, in what was called
the Berla Feini dialect; other por-
tions translated from that ancient form
into Graelic of the thirteenth century.
Various ancient Irish glosses and
commentaries accompany the texty
and also an introduction of high an-
tiquity, giving an account of the origin
of the Senchus Mor.

"Patrick came to Erin to baptize
and to disseminate religion among the
Giaeidhil — u «•, in the ninth year of,
Qie reign of Theodosius, and in the
fourth year of the reign of Laeghair^
[pronounced Layorie or Lajrie], son
of Niali; king of Erin." The com-
bination of the Roman pagan laws
with Christian doctrine in the Theo-
dosian code received imperial sanction
in A.D. 438, and was at once adopted
both in the eastern and western em-
pires. St. Patrick, Dr. Hancock re-
marks, a Roman citizen, a native of
a Roman province, and an eminent
Christian missionary, would be cer-
tain to obtain early intelligence of the
great reform of the laws of the empire
and of the great triumph of the Chris-
tian church. Having now been six
years in Erin, and established his
influence there, he attempted success-
fnlly a similar reform in that remote
island, and the composition of the
Senchm Mor was accordingly com-
menced in that same year, 438, and
completed in about four years.

**• In ancient Irish books the name
of the place where they were com-
posed is usually mentioned. The in-
troduction to the Senchus Mor con-
tains this information, but is very
peculiar in representing the book as
having been composed at different
places in different seasons of the year :
< It was Teamhair ' in the summer
aad in the autumn, on account of its
cleannesd and pleasantness during
these seasons ; and Rath-guthaird was
the place during the winter and the
spring, on accomit of the n^aryess of
Its fire-wood and water, and on ac-



count of its warmth in the time of
winter's cold.'

" Teamhair, now Tara, was, at the
time the Senchus Mor was composed,
the residence of King Laeghair^, the
monarch of Erin, and of his chief poet
Dubhthach Mac ua Lugair, who took
such a leading part in the work.

" Teamhair ceased to be the residence
of the kings of Ireland afler the death
of King Dermot, in a.d. 565, about a
century and a quarter afler the Ssn^
chus Mor was composed. Remains
are, after the lapse of nearly 1,400
years, to be still found, the most re-
markable pf their kind in Ireland,
which attest the ancient importance of
the place."

In the introduction a curious ac-
count is given of SL Patrick's manner
of dealing with the existing " profes-
sors of the sciences," and his admission
of the claim of inspiration on behalf of
his pagan predecessors.

" Patrick requested of the men
of Erin to come to* one place to
hold a conference with him. When
they came to the conference the gos-
pel of 'Christ was preached to them
all ; and when the men of Erin heard
of the killing of the living and the
resuscitation of the dead, and aU the
power of Patrick since his arrival
in Erin, and when they saw Laeg-
hair^ with his Druids overcome by the
great signs and miracles wrought in
file presence of the men in Erin, they
bowed down, in obedience to the will
of God and Patrick.

^^Then Laeghair^ said: ^It is ne-
cessary for you, O men of Erin, that
every other law should be settled and
arranged by us, as well as this.' ^ It is
better to do so,' said -Patrick. It was
then that all the professors of the
sciences la Erin were assembled and
each of them exhibited his art before
Patrick, in the presence of every chief
in Erin.

"It was then that Dubhthach was
ordered to exhibit the judgments and
all the poetry of Erin, and every law
which prevailed among the men of
Erin, through the law of nature, and



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132



The Ancient Laws of Ireland.



the law of the seers, and in the judg-
meots of the island of £rin, and in
the poets.

" They had foretold that the bright
word of blessing would come — u e^
the law of the letter ; for it was the
Holy Spirit that spoke and prophesied
through the mouths of the just men
who were formerly in the island of ^
Erin, as he had prophesied through
the mouths of the chief prophets and
noble fathers in the patriarchal law ;
for the law of nature had prevailed
where the written law did not reach.

" Now the judgments of true nature
which the Iloly Ghost had spoken
through the mouths of the Brehons and
ju3t poets of the men of Erin, from the
first occupation of this island down to
the reception of the faith, were all
exhibited by Dubhthach to Patrick.
WtiAt did not clash with the Word
of God in the written law and in
the New Testament, and with the con-
sciences of the believers, was confirmed
in the laws of Ihe Brehons by Patrick
and by the ecclesiastics and the chief-
tains of Erin; for the law of nature
had been quite right, except the faith
and its obligations, and the harmony of
the church and the people. And this
is the Senchtu Mor,

"NinQ persons were appointed to
arrange this book — ^viz., Patrick, and
Bcnen, and Cairaech, three bishops ;
Laeghair^, and Core, and Dair^, three
kings ; Rosa — i. e., Mac-Trechim, and
Dubhthach — i, e., a doctor of the
Berla Feint, and Fergus — t. «., a poet

" Nofis, therefore, is the name of this
book which they arranged — i, e., the
knowledge of nine persons — ^and we
have the proof of this above."

And in one of the ancient commen-
taries on the introduction we are
told:

" Before the coming of Patrick
there had been remarkable revela-
tions. W-hen the Brehons deviated
from the truth of nature, there ap-
peared blotches upon their cheeks;
as first of all on the right cheek of Sen
Mac Aige, whenever he pronounced a
£edse judgment, but they disappeared



again when he had passed a true judg-
ment, etc

** Connla never passed a false judg-
ment, through the grace of the Holy
Ghost, which was upon him.

^ Sencha Mac Col Cluin was not
wont to pass judgment until he liad
pondered upon it in his breast the
night before. When Fachtna, his son,
had passed a false judgment, if, in the
time of fruit, all the fruit of the terri-
tory in which it happened fell off in
one night, etc ; if in time of milk, the
cows refused their calves; but if he
passed a true judgment the fruit was
perfect on the trees ; hence he received
the name of Fachtna Tulbrethaeh.

"Sencha Mac Aililla never pro-
nounced a false judgment without get-
ting three permanent blotches on his
face for each judgment. Fitliel had
the truth of nature, so that he pro-
nounced no false judgment. Morann
never pronounced a judgment without
having a chain around his neck.
'When he pronoanced a false judgment
the chain tightened around his neck.
If he passed a true one it expanded
down upon him.**

Core andDaire were territorial chief-
tains, or minor kings. Lacghair^, son
of Niall of the Nine Hostages, was
monarch of Erin ; his reign commenc-
ed A.D. 428, four years before the ar-
rival of Patrick, and ended with his
life in 458, one year after the founda-
tion of Armagh by that great Chris-
tian missionary. Laeghaire is usual-



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