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80 frail an aspect speak so boastfully ;
and it seemed even then to my inex-
perienced mind, that my Lady Surrey,
who had so humbly erewhile accnsed
herself of cowardice and lamented her
weakness, should be in a safer plight,
albeit as yet unreconciled.

The visit I have described had
histed some time, when a servant came
with a message to her ladyship from
Mr. Hubert Rookwood, who craved
to be admitted on an urgent matter.
She glanced at me somewhat surprised,
upon which I made her a sign that she
should condescend to his request ; for
I supposed he had seen Sir Francis
Walsingham, and was in haste to con-
fer with me touching that interview ;
and she ordered him to be admitted.
Mrs. Bellamy and her daughter rose
to go soon after his entrance; and
whilst Lady Surrey conducted them to
the door he asked me if her ladyship
was privy to the matter in hand.
When I had satisfied him thereof, he
related what had passed in an inter-
view he had with Sir Francis, whom
he found ill-disposed at first to stir in
the matter, for he said his frequent re-
monstrances in favor of recusants had
been like to bring him into odium
with some of the more zealous Protest*
antSj and that he must needs, in every



ease of that sort, prove it' to be Ihs
sole object to bring such persons mote
surely, albeit slowly, by means of tol-
eration, to a rightfiil conformity ; and
that with regard to priests he was
very loth to interfere.

^I was compelled,* quoth Habert,
^ to use such arguments as fell in with
the scope of his discourse, and to flatter
him with the hope of good results in
that which ho most desired, if he would
procure Mr. Sherwood's release, which
I doubt not he hath power to effect
And in the end he consented to lend
his aid therein, on condition he should
prove on his side so far conformable
as to suffer a minister to visit and con-
fer with htfh touching religion, which
would then be a pretext for his release,
as if it were supposed he was well dis-
posed toward Protestant religion, and
a man more like to embrace the
truth when^ at liberty than if driven
to it by stress of confinement Then
he would procure," he added, «* an or-
der for his passage to France, if he
promised not to return, exc^ he
should be willing to obey the laws.**

" I fear me much,** I answered, " my
father will not accept these terms
which Sir Francis doth offer. Me-
thinks he will consider they do involve
Bome lack of the open profession of his
faith."

^It would be madness for one in
his plight to refbse them," Hubert
exclaimed, and appealed thereon to
Lady Surrey, who said she did in-
deed think as he did, for it was not
like any better could be obtained.

It pained me he should refer to her,
who from conformity to tlie times
could not well conoeive how tender a
Catholic conscience should feel at the
least approach to dissembling on this
point

"Wherem," he continued, "is the
harm for to confer with a minister, or
how can it be construed into a denial
of a man's faith to listen to his argo-
ments, unless, indeed, he feels himself
to be in danger of being shaken by
them?"

'^ You very well know/' I ezdiaimed



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OontUmee Sherwood.



177



with some wannth, ^' that not to be mj
meaning, or wliat I suppose his should
be. Oar priests do constantly crave
for pablic disputations touching reli*
gion, albeit they eschew secret ones,
which their adversaries make a pre-
text of to spread reports of their ina-
bility to defend their &ith, or willing-
ness to abandon it But heayen for-
bid I should anyways prejudge this
question ; and if with a safe conscience
— and with no other I am assured will
he do it — my ^ther doth subscribe to
this conditioD, then God be praised for
itr

^ But you will moTO him to it, Mis-
tress Constance 7* he said.

*< K I am so happy,^ I answered,
** as to get speech with him, yerily I
will entreat him not to throw away
bis life, so precious to others, if so be
he can save it without detriment to his
conscience."

** Conscience r Hubert exclaimed,
"methinks that word is often misap-
pli^ in these days.**

* How so ?" I asked, investigating
his countenance, for I misdoubted his
meaning. Lady Surrey likewise
seemed desirous to hear what he
should say on that matter.

" Conscience," he answered, ** should
make persons, and mostly women,
careful how they injuro others, and
cause heedless suffering, by a too great
stiffness in refusing conformity to the
outward practices which the laws of
the country enforce, when it affects
not the weightier points of faith, which
Ood forbid any Gatholic should deny.
There is often as much of pride as of
virtue in such rash obstinacy touching
small yieldings as doth involve the
ruin of a fiunily, separation of parents
and ohildren, and more evils than cA
be thought of."

«* Hubert," I said, fixing mine eyes
on him with a searching look he cared
not, I ween, to meet, for he cast his on
a paper he had in his hand, and raised
them not while I spoke, '< it is by such
reasonings first, and then by such
small yieldings as you commend, that
have been led two or three
voun. 12



times in their lives, yea, ofiener per-
haps, to profess different religions,
and to take such contradictory oaths
as have been by turns prescribed to
them under different sovereigns, and
Grod each time called on to witness
their peijuries, whereby truth and
fttlsehood in matters of fidth shall come
in time to be words without any mean-
ing."

Then he: ^You do misapprehend
me, Mistress Constance, if you think
I would counsel a man to utter a false-
hood, or fdign to believe that which in
his heart he thinketh to be false. But,
in heaven's name, I pray you, what
harm will your father do ff he listens
to a minister's discourse, and suffers it
to be set forth he doth ponder thereon,
and in the meantime escapes to
France? whereas, if he refuses the
loophole now offered to him, he causeth
not to himself alone, but to you and
his other friends, more pain and sor-
sow than can be thought of, and de-
prives the Chureh of one of her ser-
vants, when her need of them is
greatest"

I made no reply to this last speech ;
for albeit I thought my father would
not accede to these terms, I did not so
far trust mine own judgment thereon
as to predict with certainty what his
answer should be*. And then Hubert
said he had an order from Sir Francis
that would admit me on the morrow
to see my father ; and he offered to go
with me, and Mistress Ward too, if I
listed, to present it, albeit I alone
should enter his celL I thanked hixo^
and fixed the time of gur going.

When he had left «8, ^LsAy Surrey
commended his zeal, and also his mod-
erate spbit, whidi did charitably
allow, she said, for such as conformed
to the times for the sake of others
which their reconcilement would very
much injure.

Before I could reply she changed'
this discourse, and, putting her hands
on my shoulders and kissing my fore-
head, said,

^ My Lady Lumley hath heard so
much from her poor niece of one Mis-



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178



Gfleaninffs from the Natural JBUtory of the Tropict.



troas Constance Sherwood, that ahe
doth greatly wish to see this joung
gentlewoman and retj resolved pa-
pist." And then taking me bj the
arm she led me to that lad/s cham-
ber, where I had as kind a welcome



as ever I reeeiTed from any one from
her ladyship, who said ^her dear
Nan's friends should be always aa
dear to her as her own,** and added
many fine commendations greatly ex*
ceeding my deserts.



[TO BS OOMTOimD.]



Trom The London <^rterl7 Beriew.

GLEANINGS FROM THE NATURAL HISTORY OF THE

TROPICS.



Abt.VL — 1. A NarraHveof Travels on
the Amazon and Bio NegrOy etc. By
Alfred R. Wallace. London : 1853.

2. Himalayan Journals ; or^ Notes of
a Naturalist in Bengal^ the Sikkim,
and Nepal Himalayas. By Joseph
D. Hooker, M.D., R.N., F.R.S.
London: 1854.

3. Three Visits to Madagascar during
the Tears 1853, 1854, 1856, with
Notices of the Natural History of
the Country, etc. By the Rev. W.
Ellis, F.H.S. London : 1859.

4. 2%a Tropical World: A Popular
Scientific Account of the Natural
History of the Animal and Vegetable
Kingdoms. By Dr. G. Hartwig.
London : 1863.

5. The Naturalist on the River Ama-
zons: A Record of Adventures, Halh
its of Animals, etc., during eleven
Tears of Travel By Henry Wal-
ter Bates. London : 1863.

Thb naturalist will never have to
complain, with Alexander, that he has
no more. worlds to conquer, so inex-
haustible is the wide field of nature,
and so numerous are the vast areas
which as yet have never at all, or
only partially, been explored by trav-
ellers. What may not be in store for
some future adventurer in little known
regions; what new and wonderful
forms <^ animala and plants may not



reward the zealous traveller, when ao
less than eight thousand species of an-
imals new to science have been dis-
covered by Mr. Bates during bis
eleven years' residence on the Ama-
zons ? Nor is it alone new forms of ani-
mated nature that await the enterprise
of the naturalist; a whole mine oi val-
uable material, the working of which
is attended with the greatest pleasure^
lies before him in the discovery of new
facts with regard to the habitl^ stme-
ture, and local distribution of animals
and plants. It is almost impossible to
exaggerate the importance to the philo-
sophic naturalist of such studies in
tliese days of thought and progress.
The collector of natural curiosities
may be content with the possession
of a miscellaneous lot <^ objects, but
the man of science pursues his inves-
tigations with a view of discovering,
if possible, some of those wonderful
laws which govern the organic world,
some of the footprints of the Creator
in the production of the couotless
forms of animal and vegetable life
with which this beautiful world
abounds.

We purpose in this article to bring
before tJie reader's notice a few glean-
ings from the natural history of the
tropics, merely surmising that we shall
linger with more than ordinary pleas-
are over the productions of tropical



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179



Soatli America, of which Mr. Bates
has charniinglj and most instnictiyelj
written in his recentlj published woij^
whose title is given at the head of this
article; we shall pause to admire, with
Dr. Hooker, some of the productions
of the mighty Himalayan mountains ;
and we may also visit Madagascar in
company with so trustworthy a trav-
eller as Mr. Ellis.

The ancients, before the time of
Alexander's Indian expedition, were
unacquainted with any tropical forma
of plants, and great was their astonish-
ment when the^ fiiist beheld them :

*^ Gigantic forms of plants and ani-
mals," ^ Humboldt says, ^ filled the
imagination with e^Lciting imagery.
Writers from whose severe and scien-
tific -style any degree of inspiration is
elsewhere entirely absent, become poet-
ical when describing the habits of the
elephant, — ^the height of the trees, <to
tiie summit of which an arrow cannot
reach, and whose leaves are broader
tfian the shields of infantry,' — the
bamboo, a light, feathery, arborescent
grass, of which single joints {intemo-
did) served as four-oared boats, — and
the Indian fig-tree, whose pendant
branches take root around the parent
stem, which attains a diameter of
twenty-eight feet, * forming,' as Onesi-
critns expresses himself with great
truth to nature, ^ a leafy canopy simi-
lar to a many-pillared tent.'" *

It is not possible for language to de-
scribe the glory of the forests of the
Amazon, and yet the silence and gloom
of the Brazilian forests, so often men-
tioned by travellers, are striking real-
ities. Let us read Mr. Bates's impres-
dons of the interior of a primeval for-
est:

" The silence and gloom," he says,
"are realities, and the impression deep-
ens on a longer acquaintance. The
few sounds of birds are of that pensive
and mysterious character which in-
tensifies the feeling of solitude rather
than imparts a sense of life and cheer-
fitiiie&s. Sometimes in the midst of

Ootmo«,«*To].U.,p.ttBw 8abind*fTinmsIii«



the stIUness a sudden yell or scream
will startle one ; this comes from some
defenceless fruit-eating animal which
is pounced upon by a tiger-cat or
stealthy boarconstrictor. Morning and
evening the howling monkeys make a
most fearful and harrowing noise,
under which it is difficult to keep up
one's buoyancy of spirit. The feeling
of inhospitable wildness which the
forest is calculated to inspire is in-
creased tenfold under this fearful up-
roar. Often even in the still hours
of mid-day a sudden crash will be
heard resounding afar through the
wilderness, as some great bough or
entire tree fails to the ground. There
are beside many sounds which it is
impossible to account for. I fi>und
the natives generally as much at a
loA in this respect as myself. Some-
times a sound is heard like Ihe clang
of an iron bar against a hard hollow
tree, or a piercing cry rends the air;
these are not repeated, and the suc-
ceeding silence tends to heighten the
unpleasant impression which they
make on the mind. With the natives
it is always the curnpira, the wild
man, or spirit of the forest, which pro-
duces all noises they are unable to
explain."

Mr. Bates has some exceedingly
interesting observations on the tend-
ency of animals and plants of the
Brazilian forests to become climbers.
Speaking of a swampy forest of Par&
he says :

'^The leafy crowns of the trees,
scarcely two of which could be seen
together of the same kind, were now
fiir away above us, in another world
as it were. We could only see at
times, where there was a break
above, the tracery of the foliage
against the clear blue sky. Some-
times the leaves were palmate, at
others finely cut or feathery like the
leaves of mimosas. Below, the tree
trunks were everywhere linked to-
gether by sipos; the woody, flexible
stems of climbing and creeping trees,
whose foUage is far away abovoi
mingled with that of the latter inde-



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Cfkaningi fnm the Natural HUtory of the Tropice.



lent trees. Some were twisted
in strands like cables, others had thick
stems contorted in eveir varietj of
shape, entwining snake-like round the
tree-trunkS| or forming gigantic loops
and coils among the lai^r branches ;
others again were of zigzag shape or
indented like the steps of a staircase,
sweeping firom the ground to a giddy
height."

Of these climbing plants he adds :

^It interested me much afterward
to find these climbing trees do not
form any particular ^nilj or genus.
There is no order of plants whose
especial habit is to climb, but species
of many of the most diverse fimiilies,
the bu& of whose members are not
climbers, se^n to have been driven
by circumstances to adopt this habit.
The orders Leguminosse, Guttifene,
Bignoniacese, Moraceie, and others,
fiiniish the greater number. There
is even a climbing genus of palms
(I)esm<mcus)f the species of which
are called in the Tupf language Jaci-
t^a. These have slender, thiddy-
spined, and flexuous stems, which
twine about the latter trees from one
to the other, and grow to an incredible
length. The leaves, which have the
ordinary pinnate shape characteristic
of the family, are emitted from the
stems at long intervals, instead of be-
ing collected into a dense crown, and
have at their tips a number of long
recurved spines. These structures
are excellent contrivances to enable
the trees to secure themselves by in
climbing, but they are a great nuis-
ance to the traveller, for they some-
times hang over the pathway and
catch the hat or clothes, dragging ojQT
the one or tearing the other as he
passes. The number and variety of
climbing trees in the Anmzon forests
are interesting, taken in connection
with the fact of the very general tend-
ency of the animals also to become
climbers.*'

Of this tendency amongst animals
Mr. Bates thus writes :

'^All the Amazonian, and in fact all
South American monkeys, are climb-



ers. There is no group answering to
the baboons of the old world, wMch
Ijje on the ground. The gallina-
ceous birds of die country, the represen-
tatives of the fowls and pheasants of
Asia and AMca, are all adapted by
the position of the toes to perch on
trees, and it is only on trees, at a great
height, that they are to be seen. A
genus of Plantigrade Camivora, allied
to the bears (Gercoleptes), found only
in the Ajnazonian forests, is entirely
arboreal, and has a long flexible tail
like that of certain monkeys. Many
other similar instances could be enu-
merated, but I will mention only the
Geodephaga, or carnivorous ground
beetles, a great proportion of whose
genera and species in these forest re-
gions are, by the structure of their
feet, fitted to live exclusively on the
branches and leaves of trees."

Strange to the European must be
the appearance of the numerous
woody lianas, or air-roots of the para-
sitic plants of the family AraceOj of
which the well-known cuckoo-pint, or
Arum maculatumj of this country is a
non-epiphytous member, which sit on
the branches of the trees above, and
"hang down straight as plumb-lines,"
some singly, others in leashes ; some
reaching half-way to the ground,
others touching it, and taking root in
the ground. Here, too, in these for-
ests of Fard, beside palms of various
species, "some twenty to thirty feet
high, others small and delicate, with
stems no thicker than a finger," of the
genus Bactrisy producing bunches of
fruit with grape-like juice, masses of
a species of banana ( Urania Anuzon"
%ccC)y a beautiful plant with leaves
" like broad sword-blades," eight feet
long, and one foot broad, add fresh in-
terest to the scene. These leaves rise
straight upward alternately from the
top of a stem ^yb or six feet high.
Various kinds of Marants, a family of
plants kch in amylaceous qualities (of
which the MararUa arundinaceay
though not an American plant, yields
the best arrowroot of commerce},
dothe the ground, conspicuous for their



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Gleanings from the Natural Hittory of Ae Tropia.



181



broad gloesj leaves* Ferns of beau-
tiful and varied forms decorate the
tree^ranksi together with the large
ileshj heart-shaped leaves of the Fo-
thos plant Gigantic grasses, such as
bamboos, form arches over the path-
ways. " The appearance of this part
of the forest was strange in the ex-
treme, description can convey no ade-
quate idea of it The reader who
has visited Kew, may form some no-
tion bj conceiving a vegetation like
that in the great palm-house spread
over a large tract of swampy ground,
but he must fancy it mingled with
large exogenous trees, similar to our
oaks and elms, covered with creepers
and parasites, and figure to himself
the ground encumbered with fallen
and rotdng trunks, branches, and
leaves, the whole illuminated by a
glowing vertical sun, and reeking with
moisture r Amid these "swampy
shades'* numerous butterflies delight
to flit An entomologist in England
id proud, indeed, when he succeeds in
captaring the beautiful and scarce
Camberwell beauty ( Vanessa cmtiopa)
or the splendid purple emperor {Apa-
tura iris)j but these fine species do
not exceed three inches in expanse of
wing, while the glossy blue-and-black
Morpho AehUles measure six inches
or more. The velvety black PapUio
SesosiriSf with a large silky green
patdi on its wings, and other species
of this genus, are ahnost exclusively
inhabitants of the moist shades of the
forest The beautiful JEptcalea ancea,
" one of the most richly colored of the
whole tribe of butterflies, being black,
decorated with broad stripes of pale
blue and orange, delights to settle on
the broad leaves of the Uraniae and
other similar plants.** But like many
other natural beauties, it is difficult to
gain possession of, darting off with
lightning speed when approached.
Mr. Bates tells us that it is the males
only of the different species which are
brilliantly colored, the females being
plainer and often so utterly unlike
their partners that they are generally
held to be different species until prov-



ed to be the same. The observations
of this admirable naturalist on other
points in the history of the butterflies
of the Amazons, are highly important
and deeply interesting. We must re-
cur to this subject by-and-by.

We cannot yet tear ourselves away
from these forests of Pard. We can
well understand the intense interest
with which Mr. Bates visited these
deliffhtfiil scenes month after month,
in different seasons, so as to obtain
something like a fair notion of their
animal and vegetable productions. It
is enough to make a naturalises mouth
water for a week together to think of
the many successful strolls which Mr.
Bates took amid the shades of these
forests. For several months, he tells
us, he used to visit this district two or
three days every week, and never
failed to obtain some species new to
him of bird, reptile, or insect:

**This district," he says, "seemed
to be an epitome of all that the humid
portions of the ParA forest could pro-
duce. This endless diversity, the
coolness of the air, the varied and
strange forms of vegetation, the en-
tire freedom from mosquitoes and
other pests, and even the solemn
gloom and silence, combined to make
my rambles through it always pleas-
ant as well as profitable. Such places
are paradises to a naturalist, and if he
be of a contemplative turn there is no
situation more favorable for his in-
dulging the tendency. There is some-
thing in a tropical forest akin to the
ocean in its effects on the mind — man
feels so completely hi9 insignificance
there and the vastness of nature. A
naturalist cannot help reflecting on
the vegetable forces manifested on
so grand a scale around him.**

Mr. Wallace and Mr. Bates are
well-known advocates of Mr. Darwin's
theory of natural selection. The for-
mer gentleman was Mr. Bates's com-
panion in travel for four years, and
he has published a veiy interesting
account of his voyage on his return
to England. Whatever differences dt
opinion there may be with respect to



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183



GUaninffS from the MUural History of the TVopia^



the celebrated work which Mr. Dar-
win gave to the world four or five
years ago, unbiassed and thoughtful
naturalists must recognize the force
with which the author supports many
of his arguments, and the fairness
with which he encounters every dif-
ficulty. The competition displayed by
oi^anlsed beings is strikingly mani-
'fested in the Brazilian forests. So
unmistakable is this fact, that Bur-
meister, a Grerman traveller, was
painfiilly impressed with the contem-
plation of the emulation and ^ spirit
of restless selfishness" which the veg-
etation of a tropical forest displayed.
** He thought the soilness, earnestness,
and repose of European woodland
scenery were far more pleasing, and
that these formed one of the causes of
the superior moral character of Euro-
pean nations ;** a curious question,
which we leave to the consideration of
moral philosophers. The emulation
displayed by the plants and trees of
the forests of Fard is thus spoken of
by Mr. Bates:

^ In these tropical forests each plant
and tree seems to be striving to outvie
its fellow, struggling upward toward
Ught and air — ^branch, and leaf, and
Btem — regardless of its neighbors.
Parasitic plants are seen fastening
with firm grip on others, making use
of them with reckless indifference as
instruments for their own advance-
ment. Live aod let live is clearly
not the maxim taught in these wilder-
nesses. There is one kind of parasitic
tree very common near Par^ which
exhibits this feature in a very promi-
nent manner. It is called the Sipd
Matador, or the Murderer Liana. It
belongs to the fig order, and has been
described by Von Martins in the
^Ajtlas to SpixandMartius's Travels.'
X observed many specimens. The
base of its stem would be unable to
bear the weight of the upper growth ;
it is obliged, therefore, to support itself
on a tree of another species. In this
it is not essentially different from
other climbing trees and plants, but the
way the matador sets about it is pecu-



liar, and produces certainly a disagree-
able impression. It springs up close
to the tree on which it intends to fix
itself, and the wood of its stem grows



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