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one else recognize the terror and the
beauty of cloud scenery. The well-to-
do man knows the clouds only as they
affect his pleasures. Life is not de-
pendent upon them, and he ther^ore
misses that true enjoyment which
springs from reality. On the whole,
he thinks with the Epicurean that rain
ought to fieOl b/ night, whilst his wife



sighs for Italy and blue skies. Bat
let us, on the contraij, love the grey
cloud, and rather hold with that fine
old skipper, who, after enduring six
months of unbroken weather in the
Bay of Naples, cried out on seeing a
doud, ^'THim out, boys, turn out;
here's weather as is weather ; none of
your everlasting blue skv." Let ua
rather love the storm-rack that beats
against our island. This it is that gives
the color to the cheeks of our maidens ;
this that has moulded our features,
and deepened the lines of our faces,
and hardened the national character.

Let us be thankful, with Mr. Ras-
kin, that nowhere can the swiftness of
the rain-cloud be seen as in England,
nowhere in such perfection as among
the Derbyshire hills; nowhere the
keenness of the storm be felt as on a
Yorkshire wold.* But in these days
even the power of the elements is
threatened. We have seen in Derby-
shire, when the west wind blows, the
doughs filled, not with troops of clouds
dashing slantwise up the valleys, but
choked with dull rolling Lancashire
smoke ; seen, under this canopy of fog,
the snow on the Edges turn yellow and
brown. One by one, too, the blast
furnaces are burning up the Yorkshire
moors. And instead of white wreaths
of clouds crowning the wolds, a pillar
of fire lights them up by night, and a
cloud of smoke darkens them by day*

Luckily the sea-coast still remains
unpolluted. And if any one really
wishes to study the clouds, let him go
to the North Yorkshire and Northum*
berland coasts in winter. Then will
he understand something of their ma-
jesty and power ; then will he see the
true purple wind-tints, see the sky a
wilderness full of strjuige weird crea-
tures — "wild hogs," those purple
hump-backed clouds running one after
another in a line, and the "Flying
Devil and his imps" marshalling the
storm, which is banking up out of the
German ocean; see, too, the " Norway
bishop" rise-— a man's figure dothcd

• *' Modem Faintert," ToL t., ]part tU.. chap.



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in white, with oatatretcbed arms, un-
der whose ban manj a fisherman fix^m
Staithes and Runswick has sunk ; see
the figure melt and disappear in a
mist of sleet and snow and hail ; and
then, last of all, see ^the weather^
gleam," when all objects loom against
Sie one pale rift of skj, as ships loom
in an east wind.

These sights have never been paint-
ed, and never can. Even Turner
cannot give them. For who can give
that which is the greatest pleasure in
watching the clouds, the feeling of
change ? Yon cannot paint the move-
ment of the rack, as the vapor shifts
from form to form, now a mountain,



now a dragon, now a fish, each change
answering to the changes of the spirit.
Onlj the poets can paint the clouds
and their lessons-— only Shdlej and
Shakespeare. But put awaj even
Shakespeare himselfi Love them,
study them from nature. And, as St.
Chrjsostom sajs, the poor man, more
than anj one else, enjoys ^ the Inzurj
of the elements." The lawyer may
hold ctf^us solum efiu ad ccdum ; but
he who most enjoys the clouds, as with
all things else, is their real possessor.
And the artist and the poor man,
though they may not have a rood of
Iground to caU their owp, here rejgn
over an empire.



Tnuulated from the Gtornum.

MALINES AND WttRZBURG.

A SKETCH OT THE CATHOLIC CONGBESSKS HELD AT ICALINES AND WI^RZBURa.
BY AETDBBW NIBDERMASSER.



CHAPTER n.

ABT.

The Catholic reunions, both in Bel-
g^um and in Germany, have taken a
special interest in Christian art; for
religion is at once the source and the
end of true art *< Beligion," says
Lasanlx, ^ is the soul of every useful
measure, the vivifying principle in the
life of nations, the permanent basis of
true philanthropy. In its infancy, as
wen as during its most flourishing
periods, at all times and among all na-
tions, art has ever been the handmaid
of religion. What is the last and
highest aim of architecture? The
erection of churches. How has
acnlpture won its noblest triumphs?
In pagan antiquity, by representations
of the heathen deides ; since the dawn of
Christianity, by presenting to the admi-
ration of the world statues of our Sav-
iour and his saints. In like manner the
noblest subjects of painting have been
furnished by religion, and by history,
both sacred and pro&ne. And do we



not meet with the same phenomenon in
music and religions poetry? Hence
we may safely conclude that art is the
barometer of a nation's civilization,
and above all of its religious status.
A people animated with a lively faith
will not hesitate to manifest it out-
wardly, sparing neither trouble nor
expense, and art affords the most suit-
able means of giving expression to its
feelings. If, on the other hand, art is
neglected by a nation, it is a certain
sign that its mental and spiritual con-
dition is abnormal ; that it must be un-
der the influence of some disturbing
agency.

Art, in its relations to religion and
the Church, is one of the subjects that
have claimed the attention of the
Catholic congresses; they discussed
tbe principles of religious architecture,
painting, sculpture, and of church mu-
sic ; they considered the subject of dec-
orating the sanctuaries of religion in
all its branches, and examined the
highest and most important problems
of art

Art| as cultivated during the fli'St



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agee of ChriBtianity and during tbe
middle ages, is a subject complete in
itself, for we can trace its use, its prog>-
resB, and decay, as well as the devel-
opment of the ideas which gave it
life. Between Ouiatian and pagan
art there is no doubt a connecting
link; in fact, we may safelj assert
that in this respect, no leass than in all
others, there is a great unbroken
chain- that unites the present age with
antiquity. Still, no one can deny that
there is a great and immense differ-
ence between Christian nations and
those of antiquity. For, since the birth
of .Christianit;^^, we may trace in history
a new, active, and all-pervading prin-
' ciple. What the greatest mincb of
the pagan world scarcely suspected,
has become the common property
of all nations and of all men. Chris-
tianity is built on fbundations very
different from those on which rested
the cumbrous fabric of paganism. It
has impressed an original character
on art, in every branch of which it
has produced results of undoubted ex-
cellence, worthy of our admiration.
Christian art suffers not by comparison
with the masterpieces of antiquity.
Narrow-minded and prejudiced per-
sons only will maintain that the
Greeks alone excelled in the arts.
The independence and excellence of
Christian art, compared with that of
classic Greece and Rome, is by no
means generally admitted; for many
are unwilling to allow to the Church
the credit, which it may justly claim,
of promoting and patronizing the arts.
During the last century art has lacked
its proper basis — truth, for art is
founded on truth. But since nations
have been led astray by the erroneous
idea that art was revived at Florence,
and thence spread over all Europe, it
has lost its independence, confined
itself to mere imitations of the Greeks
and Romans, and gradually decayed
more and more. In the history of
art no period appears darker than the
so-called age of renaissance, and
since then Christian art has been
either misunderstood or entirely de-



spised. Not long ago the master-
pieces of Gothic architecture wero
looked upon as barbarous; paintingB
on wood which had for ages graced
the European temples were removed,
broken to pieces, and burnt, and ahara
of the most elaborate workmanship
were treated as mere rubbish. Tb
level to the ground the noble cathe-
drals of the thirteenth and fourteenth
centuries was considered a service to
art. And this was - done, not by the
ignorant, but by the protectors of
learning; nay, by artists themselves,
who were foremost in the work of
destruction. A French architect pub-
lished an essay to prove that it would
advance the interests of art to turn
the cathedral of Spires into a ware-
house. On the cathedrals of Cologne
and Strasbourg, also, French ardii-
teCts, living at the beginning of
the nineteenth century, had pro-
nounced sentence of condemnation.
No later than 1825, when Charles
X. was crowned in the cathedral of
Rheims, the heads of two hundred stat-
ues were struck oS, through fear that
the statues might be thrown «down on
occasion of the royal salute. No one
seems to have thought of fastening
the images ; in fact, why should they
trouble themselves about the work-
manship of barbarians? During the
revolution of 1789, -the French had
unfortunately acquired too much skifl
in smashing the statues that crowned
their grandest cathedrals.

During the period of which we
speak, how false was the appredation
of what is beautiful in art ! To man's
proud spirit it is humiliating, indeed,
to know his own weakness; to know
that for years he may remain in the
darkness of error, without having the
strength to burst the chains that fet-
ter him.

At the beginning of the present
century more correct ideas on this
subject were entertained and spread
by several eminent Grerman artiatSy
and for the last thirty years justice has
been done to the claims of the middle
ages. Actively (Operating with Uua



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morement, the Catholic oonventio&B
of Grermanj and Belgium have
achieved many desirable results. *

At Malines, in 1864, the sectionr for
CbrtBtian art was very numerously
attended ; more than a hundred arch-
aeologists and artists from every coun-
. try in Europe had there met to take
part in lively and interesting debates
on Christian art, whilst seventy mu-
sicians, professionals, and amateurs
held their sessions in another part of
the building. Several years ago, I
was present at the genend meeting of
the German architects at Frankfort,
but I own that in interest their discus-
sions fell far below those to which I
listened at Malines. In 1857, at the
general reunion of the Christian art
associations in Grermany, which met
at Begensburg, several hundred com-
missioners were present, and on that
occasion were displayed. the same en-
thusiasm, the same freshness and in-
terest, which distinguished the discus-
sions at Malines. But (iiis zeal has
long died out ; the Christian art associ-
ations of Germany never met again;
and at Wurzburg, Frankfort, and Aix-
la-Chapelle, the Catholic conventions
scarcely deigned to notice Christian
art*

The chairman of the section for
Christian art at Malines was Viscount
du Bus de Ghisignies. The viscount's
appearance is noble and striking; he
seems to have been born to conunand.
In the heat of the combat du Bus
never loses his self-possession; his
clear and steady eye watches the battle ;
not a word escapes his notice ; £ur
and unprejudiced, he deals out equal
justice to all. If the opinions of a
speaker clash with his own, he twirls
his martial moustache with more than
ordinary vigor ; but he allows to every
one the rights he may justly claim.
As chairman, his duties are not unat-
tended with difficulty. Romans and
Teutons, Frendmien and Britons,
Dutchmen and Belgians, meet alter-
nately in friendly strife ; many a blow
is exchanged, principle clashes with
principiey and deeply-seated preju-



dices are uprooted. Convinced that
the harmony of mind, as that of
sounds, is the product of contrast, da
Bus acted in accordance with his con-
victions and nobly fulfilled the task
assigned him. The debates of his sec-
tion were more animated and more
instructive than those of any other.

At the right of du Bus sat the vice-
president of the section. Professor
Cartuy vels, of Louvain, a man well-
versed in parliamentary usage, in
which he was excelled by no one ex-
cept, perhaps, by A. Rcichensperger.
A young cleigyman from Brabant^
Cartuyvels displays a master mind;
equally skilled in aesthetics and in the
philosophy and Instory of art, the
value of these acquirements is en-
hanced by his knowledge of the litur-
gy, of canon law, and of holy writ.
He is thoroughly acquainted with the
works of the great masters of Ger-»
many and Italy. His words proclaim
the enthusiasm with which he devotes
all the faculties of his soul to the ser»
vice of Christian art

Always prepared to speak, he bold-
ly upholds the principles which he
deems correct. He defends them with
ardor and confidence of success, and
he seldom fails to carry his point ;
few are able to cope with him. It
was a glorious sight to see A. Beieh-
ensperger and Cartuyvels engaged in
discussion ; for

^ BabUmest beftnty eomes to light
When powerftil extremes unite I "

James Weale was a representative of
England and £ngUsh art at Malines.
For many years Weale has made
Bruges his home, and exerted consid-
erable influence on Belgian art ; never-
theless, he is a thorough Englishman.
He is a convert and a disciple of Canon
Oakley. By becoming a Catholic^
as is often the case in England, Weale
incurred pecuniary losses ; but this
sacrifice has only purified and
strengthened his love for the Church*
The trials he has undergone have un-
veiled the heroic qualities of his heart
The greater number of English con-
verts (and this no one whohas had



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Hie happiness of personal aoquaint-
ance wich them will tfispute) are men
distinguished for their great learning
and affable manners, and Weale is
no exception to this rule. His princi-
ples of art are rigorous, I had ahnoat
said ezdasive, but he is convinced
of their correctness. In his views he
is unique and definite ; he propounds
them with uncommon clearness and
precision. When opposing false prin-
ciples, he is not very choice in his ex-
pres»ons, generally preferring the
strongest. Weale is the uncompro-
mising enemy of all sham and equivo-
cation. In die domain of art fails at-
tainments are immense, lie knows
England, the Netherlands, Germany,
France, and Italy. His quick eye in-
stantly discovers the merits of a
painting. That the deigy may be-
come familiar with every branch of
^ Christian art, is his most ardent de-
sire. At Bruges Weale publishes
**Z« Beffroi** an arduBological jour-
nal; he would have been die most
suitable candidate for the newly
founded duur of archaoology at Lou-
vain.

Having spoken of Weale, we are now
led to notice his friend Bethune, of
Ghent He is a painter, but confines
himself chiefly to painting on glass.
Brought up in the school of the cele-
brated English architect, Welby Pugin,
who, though only forty years of age
when he died, in 1852, had already built
more than two hundred churches and
chapels, his figures are distinguished
by purity of style ; he carries out in
practicethe theories of Weale. How-
ever, he does ^t by any means reject
everything modem, but judiciously
seeks to combine the beauties of the
modem with those of the ancient style
of art. Bethune is remarkable both
for his piety and his learning, and
this accounts for the charm and m-
stractiveness of his conversation. He
admires Germany and German art,
without being blind to its defects ; on
the contrary, his criticisms on the best
productions of modem German paint-
ing are severe, not to say harsh.



His paintings on glass are in marked
contrast to the productions of the
Munich schooL He does not delight
in great historical paintings on gh^s,
which tend to make us forget that we are
looking at a window, but seeks to at-
tain unity of design by subordinating
his picture to the plan of the archi-
tect In the debates at Malines, Be-
thune did not take so prominent a part
as Weale. Another active member
of the section of Christian art waa
Bethune's brother, Canon F. A« L.
Bethune, professor of archaeology in
the seminary at Bmges. Among the
French members, Lavedan deserves
to be mentioned in the first instance.
He is a well-known French jouraaliaty
who seems to have a great taste for
the fine arts. With untiring ardor he
spoke on every question discussed, and,
in spite of being somewhat prolix, his
remarks were always listened to with
pleasure. Although noted rather fcnr
wit and polite literature than for depth
of learning, he was master of the situ-
ation, and to unhorse him was not an
easy task. He pleaded eloquently for
the establishment of a permanent art
exhibition. Whilst Lavedan, like
Weale, applies himself to the theory
of art, Jaumot, like Bethune, b a prac-
tical artist Of the few artists that
France can boast of, Jaumot is <me of
the best ; but he was not permitted te
exhibit his cartoons, and has not met
with the encouragement so indispensa-
ble to the artist Jaumot ccumplained
of this at Malines, and maintained
that the Belgian clergy are much bet-
ter acquainted with the principles of
Christian art than the clergy of
Frtoce. The Abbe Carion attracted
attention by his profound knowledge
of archaeology ; all his remarks prov-
ed that he understands thoroughly the
subject he treated, though he does not
present his ideas in so pleasing a
manner as others. Any seminary
may justly be proud of such profes-
sors as Messrs. Carion, Bethune, and
Cartuyvels. No one contributed
more to the merriment of the assem-
bly than Van Schendel, of Antwetpi



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aQ old painter, who delights in sketch*
es of Dutch familj life. He railed at
eveiything, and at times he became
quite sarcastic To find fault seemed
to be his sole purpose ; whether justly
or not, was of little t^nscquence. He
succeeded most admirably in boring
the chairman. Yan Schendel seems
to dislike the French language, for he
always preferred to speak Dutch. I
might speak of many more, but I
shall only mention Delbig, a German
painter, residing at Liege; Alfred
Geelhand, Leon de Monge, Martin,
Isard, Mommaerts, of Brussels : Bor-
deau ; de Fleury, an enthusiastic ad-
mirer of Flandrin, the gi-eat French
painter; Van de Necker, the Abb6
Huguet, and the Abbe Van Drival.

I cannot forbear speaking of A.
Reichensperger, of Cologne. For al-
most a quarter of a century Reichen-
sperger has been the champion of
Christian art, not only in Germany,
where he is looked upon as the fore-
moet defender of German art during
the middle ages, but also in France
and England. Li Cologne he had
been at the head of the society for
completing the cathedral. Li the
Prussian chambers at Berlin he has
always exerted himself in favor of
true art. He was president of the
general meeting of the Christian art
unions, held at Regensburg in 1857,
and distinguished himself as an orator
at the congress of artists that as-
sembled at Antwerp some years ago.
He was also present at Malines, and
his presence was of great advantage
to the Romanic delegates. Reichen-
sperger is delighted to meet with op-
position; nay, he calls it forth, for with-
out it he appears dissatisfied. In fact,
a debate is impossible without opposi-
tion. At Malines, it is true, oppo-
nents were not wanting, but he van-
quished them alL Manfully uphold-
ing his German principles, he con-
vinced many of their correctness.
Reichensperger has often earned ap-
planse, he has been the hero of many
a parliamentary triumph, during the
twelve years that he has been consid-

VOL.



ered one of the five best speakers in
the Prussian parliament, but in the
Petit Seminaire at Malines he gained
his most brilliant successes. His
French may not at all tiines be classi-
cal; but his pointed expressions
charmed his French audience. His
style is not florid, but his speeches
sparkle with wit, humor, and sarcasm.
His ready logic completely astounded
his adversaries. All his remarks
called forth thundering applause,
which finally grew so noisy that the
chairman of 5ie first section, ^^ Lei
(Euvres BeUgieuses" deemed it neces-
sary to interfere and request a little
more moderation.

But what was the subject of all
these learned deliberations? Many
questions were discussed, and variety
constituted one of the principal charms
of the proceedings, -^thetics Mere
treated in the first place ; the learned
speakers philosophized concerning the
ideas of truth, of goodness, and of
beauty. One hundi^ed and two years
have rolled by since Baumgarten, the
father of aesthetics, died. In 1750
and 1758 he published the two vol-
umes of his celebrated work entitled
" ^sthetica,'* For more than a hun-
dred years, therefore, aesthetics have
been cultivated with more or less zeal,
but with very little succe/s; the
science seems to stagnate because the
principles on which it is based are un-
sound. Hence most books on sesthet-
ics are loathed. The best among the
recent works on this subject was writ-
ten by Lasaulx ; but a philosophy of
art, from a Catholic point of view,
we do not yet possess, for Dursch's
"iEsth.etics*^^ has many defects. Jacobs'
" Art and the Church" might, if com-
pleted, have supplied a want long felt.

The discussions on the beautiful led
to no important results. Of more
practical consequence was the resolu-
tion condemning French pictures.
Mommaerts made an attempt to es-
tablish in Brussels a society whose ob-
ject was to be the diffusion of pictures
artistically unobjectionable. At Paris
MenioUe, assisted by German artists,
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Medina and WSrzburg.



intends to do the same for France,
where hitherto Schalgen, of Diissel-
dorf, has, so to saj, held a monopoly.
I hope that both projects maj be suc-
cessful, and escape the fate of manj
similar enterprises, which are nipped
in the bud. In all likelihood no simi-
lar society will do so much good, and
extend its influence so far, as the Dlis-
seldorf association for the diffusion of
good pictures.

Much time was spent in discussing
the establishment of museums like
those of Sydenham and Kensington,
near London, and in listening to
speeches on fresco paintings, on the
stations of the cross, on exhibitions of
works of art, and on the encourage-
ment of artists. On motion of Weale,
a resolution was adopted to found a
Belgian national museum at Louvain,
and Reichensperger prevailed on the
assembly to pledge itself to further the
completion of St. Rombaut's cathedral
at Malines.

Let this suffice* The musicians
would complain, perhaps, were we to
j^s them unnoticed. At the request
of the general committee at Brussels,
Canon Devroye and Chevalier H.
Van Elewyk had prepared eight
theses for discussion. These proposi-
tions treat of choral music, of the ed-
ucation xof organists, of the influence
of religious music, of the establish-
ment of societies for the promotion of
church music, and the like. It was
proposed to found a musical academy,
in which a special department for reli-
gious music is to be established.

Canon Devroye presided ; his in-
teresting remarks were always listened
to with pleasure. Dr. Paul Alber-
dingk-Thijm, of Amsterdam, formerly
of Louvain, was vice-president He
is well acquainted with Gregorian mu-
sic and church music in general — of
Grerman music also ; even of our most
common popular songs he has a
thorough practical knowledge; many
of our German songs he renders with
exquisite taste. We shall see more
of him hereafter. Verooitte, of Paris,
was chosen to be honorary vic^presi-



dent. He is well known in France.
He founded the academy for religious
music in Paris, which has been in suc-
cessful operation for some time, and
has contributed materially to raise the
character of religious music in that
country. Chevalier Van Elewyk has
done all in his power to establish in
Louvain a society for the promotion
of church music, and his exertions
were not in vain. A society having
the same object in view was formed
at Amsterdam. At Malines there
were also several organ-builders,
whose practical advice was of great
advantage to the musical section ; the
foremost among them were Cavaille-
CoU, of Paris ; Mercklin, of Brussels ;
and Loret, of Malines.

One of the most remarkable per-
sonages at the congress was F. Her-



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