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has no other importance than as show-
ing how conscience at first pronounced
and how a strong hand silenced its
expression*

Thirteen cardinals resolved to
hrave any consequences rather than
consent to a dereliction of duty ; for
their oath, when raised to the purple,
hinds them to maintain at all haziurds
the rights of the Church. The names
of these thirteen were : Cardinals
Mattel, Pignatelliy della Somaglia, di
Pietro, Litta, Saluszo, Ruffo Sdlla,
Brancadoro, Galeffi, Scotti, Gahrielli,
Opizzoni, and ConsalvL The other
fourteen held different shades of opin-
ion, and only agreed in deciding not
to oppose thQ emperor.

The sole means hy which the thir-
teen could protest, under the circum-
stances) was not to sanction the new
marriage hy appearing at the ceremo-
nies. This resolve was accordingly
taken, and the fourteen were apprised.
Mattel, tha oldest cardinal among the
thirteen, called upon most of the four-
teen to acquaint them with the resolu-
tion ; other members of the thirteen
likewise spoke of it to *their col-
leagues ; but no result was produced
on the minds of the fourteen. To the
shame of the latter it must be said
that they afterward untruly declared
themselves Ignorant of the line of con-
duct which the thirteen had intended
to adopt. Consalvi positively asserts
that such was not the case. The thir-
teen spoke with the caution com-
manded by prudence on so delicate a
matter, not seeking ostensibly to pre-
vent the others from following their
own opinions, and anxiaus to avoid
giving any pretext for the accusation of
exciting a feeling against the govern-
ment. But this reserve did not pre-
vent them from clearly expressing
their intention to uphold the rights of
the Pope and of the Holy See by ab-
staining from all participation in the
marriage ceremcmies.

Though called upon by duty to act
in the way mentioned, the thirteen



cardinals naturally wished to avoid, as
much as possible, woonding Napoleon.
With this view Matte! was deputed to
seek an interview with Fesch, for the
purpose of informhig him what course
they felt obliged to pursue. At the
same time Mattel gave him to under-
stand that all publicity might be
avoided, or any bad effect on the pub-
lic obviated, by addressing partial, in-
stead of general, invitations to the
cardinals. This was to be done with
regard to the senate and the legisla-
tive body, and, indeed, the smallness
of the enceinte offered a plausible
pretext; for it was impossible that
all entitled to^ appear on the
occasion could be present. Car-
dinal Fesch evinced great surprise
and anger, endeavoring to reason
Mattel out of this view ; but finding
it was of no use, he promised to speak
to the emperor, who was then at
Compi^gne.

According to Fesch's account, Na-
poleon fiew into a violent passion on
learning the decision cometo by the thir-
teen ; but he declared that they would
never dare to carry out their plot,
and utterly rejected the idea of not
inviting all the members of the Sacred
College.

At the proper time a spedal invita-
tion reached each cardinaL Therowas
no possibility of escape. To feign
illness or invent a pretext they rightly
deemed would be unworthy.

Nevertheless, anxious as they were
to avoid offence, when they came to
consider moro closely the nature of the
different ceremonies, it was considered
by some that they might, without failing
in duty, assist at the two presenta-
tions that wero to take place before
and afler the marriages. Consalvi
was among those opposed to this view
on grounds of honor at least; but,
not to provoke any further schism
in their ranks, the minority yielded,
and this mode of proceeding was de-
cided on. Both marriages were to be
eschewed; but they would assist at
both presentations. The cardinals
hoped thus to prove that they did all



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they poflsiblj oo^Id to please Napo-
leoDy consistently ^th their sense of
duty. It was wo considered highly
desirable to shield the fourteen fixnn
remark as much as could be, for it
was a grievoos matter to right-
minded men to see the honor and
dignity of the Sacred College thus
abased.

Accordingly, on the eyening fixed,
all the cardhials went to St Cknid.
Together with the other dignitaries,
they were in the grand gallery wait-
ing the arriyal of Napoleon and his
new empress, when Fouch6, the min-
ister of police, came np. Consalyi
had been yery intimate with him, but
haying paid scarcely any yisits since
his xetom to Paris, from the motiye9
stated aboye, they had not hitherto
met. Fonch^ drew him aside, and
aaked with much cordiality and inter-
est if it were true that seyeral cardi-
nals refiised to be present at the em-
perox^s marriage.

Consalyi was silent at first, not
wishing to name any one in particular.
But when Fonch6 insisted, saying
that, as minister of police, he knew €£
course all about it, and only asked
through politeness, Consalyi replied
that he bdonged to the number.

*^ Oh, what do you say ?* exclaimed
Pouch^ ^ The emperor was speak-
ing of it this morning, and in his an*
ger named you; but I affirmed that it
was not likely you should be of the set"

Fouchd then pointed out the dan-
gerous consequences of such a pn>-
oeedmg, saying that the non-interven-
tion of the cardinals would seem to
Uame the state, the emperor, and
even to attack the legitimacy of the
future succession of the throne. He
tried to persuade Consalyi to be pres-
ent hiniself at leasts or if ike whole
thirteen would not come to the dyil
marriage, to attend, howeyer, the re-
ligioas ceremony. Consalyi could not
of course consent ; but he told the ef-
forts they had made to ayoid inyita^
tiona for all, and promised, at Fouch^'s
leqaest, to repeat this conyersation to
tbe twelve.



Their discourse was interrupted by
the appearance of the emperor and
empress. Napoleon came in holding
Mitfie-Louise by the hand, and he
pointed out eadb person to her by
name as he drew near. On approach-
ing the members of the Sao^ Col-
lege, he exclaimed, ^Ah, the cardi-
nals r and presented them, one after
the other, with great courtesy, naming
each, and mentioning some qualifica-
tion. Thus'ConsfJyi was designated
as he who arranged the concor£tt

It was said iSterward that Napo-
leon's kindliness had been intended to
win them oyer.

They all bowed in return, without
speaking. When this ceremony was
over, the thirteen returned to Paris
and met at the house of Cardinal Mat-
teL Consalvi then related his con-
yersation with Fouch^; they saw
clearly what there might be to appre-
hend, but none waver^ in the resolu-'
tion taken.

The following day, the civil mar-
riage was celebrated at St Cloud.
The thirteen cardinals abstained from
appearing. Of the fourteen, eleyen
were present: one was ill, and two,
seized with tardy misgiving, said they
were.

Monday, the 2d of April, had been
fixed for the triumphal entrance of
the soyereigns into Paris, and for the
religious marriage in the diapel of the
Tuueries. A successfixl representa-
tion of the arch of triumph was made ;
afterward reproduced in the (me at
the top of the Champs Elys^s. Na-
poleon passed under it, with Marie-
Louise at his side, in a carriage that
afforded a fair view of both to the
spectators* Arriyed at the gate of the
Tnileries, on the Place de U Con-
corde, they alighted, and he led her
tiirougfa the giwdens till they arriyed
at the chapel of the palace, prepared
for the nuptial ceremony.

It was crowded densely, and many
more persons longed to enfter, but
there were thirteen yacant seats I

It had been hoped that Fouch^'s
words would produce some effect, and



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Nap6kwi% Marriage with Mxrie^Louise.



that the thirteen cardinals might, at
least, be induced to attend the re^
ligions marriage. Their seats had
been left up to die last moment ; but as
Napoleon drew near, thej were hast-
ily removed. His eye, however, fell
inmiediatelj on the group of cardinals,
always conspicuous from their red
costume, and as he marked the small-
ness of their number, anger flashed
from his countenance.

Indeed, only twelve cardinals, in-
cluding Fesch, were present One
was r^dlj too ill to go, and two others,
as before, pretended sickness. But,
as thej wrote to this effect, they were
considered as absent from accident.
And they encouraged this version.

During both these days and nights,
the thirteen remained at home, care-
fully abstaining, as became their po-
sition, from all semblance of participa-
tion in any rejoicings.

On the morrow was to take place
the final ceremony of presentation to
both sovereigns seated on their thrones.
All the cardinak went, and, accord-
ing to injunction, in full costume.
Two hours passed waiting for the
doors of the throne-room to be opened*

Then the stream began to move to-
ward the spot in the middle of the
grand galieiy that connects the Tuil-
cries with the Louvre, where Napo-
leon and Marie-Louise were seated
on their respective thrones, surround-
ed by the members of the imperial
family and officers of state.

The crowd entered slowly, one by
one, according to the rule of prece-
dence prescribed, and each individual,
stopping before the throne, made a
profound obeisanoe, passing out after-
ward by the door of the saloon be-
yond*

In conformity with French etiquette
at that time, the senators were first
introduced ; and Fesch had the little-
ness to go in with them, rather than
with the Sacred College. After these
followed the councillors of state and
the legislative body, and then came
the turn of the cardinals. But at this
mcxnent, Napoleon, with imperious



gesture, beckoned an officer toward
him, and gave a hasty order to have
all the cardinals who had not been
present at the marriage immediately
expelled from the ante-chamber, as he
should not condescend to receive them.
The messenger was precipitately quit-
ting the hall, when Napole6n, with
rapid change of thought, called him
back, and ordered that only Cardinals
Opizzoni and Consalvi should be
turned out But the officer, confused,
did not clearly seize this second order,
and imagining that the two cardinals
named were to be more particularly
designated, acted accordingly.

The scene that followed may be
conceived. It rises up vividly. The
order for expulsion was as publicly
intimated as it had been publicly
given ; and scores of eager eyes turn-
ed on the thirteen culprits so ignomin-
iously dismissed. The report of what
was coming got whispered from hall
to hall, and flew on to the numerous
groups that thronged even the vesti-
bule and staircase ; if the buzz ceased
as the cardinals drew near, it followed
swiftly on their receding steps, while
they traversed each apartment
Friends began to tremble for their
personal safety: the bloody tragedy
of Yincennes rose up in remembnuice
to many an anxious heart

Their equipages had disappeared in
the confusion of the day. The Paris-
ian crowd were astounded that morn-
ing to mark thirteen rich scarlet
dx^sses wending about in seardi of
conveyances or homes.

Within the palace, meanwhile, pre-
cedence, contrary to custom, had been
given the ministers; but after them
the other cardinals were at length in-
troduced. As each, in turn, drew
near the thrones, and, not feeling very
pleasantly we may believe, made his
respeetftil salutation. Napoleon was
giving way to a rapid flow of violent
language. Sometimes he addressed
the empress, or sometimes those stand-
ing near. The Sacred College, as a
bcd^y, came in for its share of abuse ;
but two cardinals were special objects



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of reproachful epithets* ^Hemi^ht
spare the others," siad Napoleon, ^as
obstinate theologiana fall of prejudice ;
bat CazdinalB Conaalyi and Opiszooi
he never could forgive." Opizsoni
iras ongratefal, owing, as he did, to
him (Napoleon) the archbishopric of
Bologna, and the cardinal's hat ; hot
Gooaahi was the most goiltj of alL
^Coosalvi,'' cried the emperor, wann«
ing as he went on, ^ does not act from
theological prejadice : he is incapable
of that; but he hates me for having
caased his &11 from the ministry.
And this is now his revenge. He is
a deep politidan, and he seeks now
to lay a subtle snare, whereby hereaf*
ter to attack the legitimacy of afritare
bur to the throne."

Marie-Lonise, accostomed to the
stalely etiqaette of Austria, must have
been rather surprised at this outburst
Periii^ her own destiny, as bride of
that crowned soldier of fortune, did
not then look quite so brilliant to her.
It » easy to fancy courtiers around
with their varied shades of amaae,
horror, and fear at such delinquency,
and its consequences, painted on their
&ces.

Conaalvi tells us in his memoir on
the marriage, and also in that of his
private life, that the fury of Napoleon
on the day of the religious ceremony
had been so intense, Uiat on coming
oat from chapel he actually ordered
thiee cardinals to be shot, afterward
confining the sentence to Consalvi
abne. And the cardinal each time
says that he probably owed his life to
the intervendon of Fouch^.

But in a note which 2^ Gr^taneau-
Joly mentions as detached from the
memoirs, Consfdvi writes thus of Na-
poleon : ^ In his fits of anger,— -ofren
more feigned than real, especially at
first, — ^he would threaten to have per'-
unu $koty as he frequently did with re-
gard to myself; but I am persuaded
that he never would have signed the
order for execution. More than once
I have heard his devoted followers
and intimate confidants relate that the
ffiorder of the Duke d'Enghien had



been a surprise rather than a deliber*
ate act of will. I should not be as-
tonished at the truth of this, for it was
a useless crime, leaving only shame
and romorse, which Boni^rte' might
easily have spared himself."

The contradiction in these passages
is remarkable. M. CMtineau-Joly
does not give the date of the note, so
we aro reduced to oo]:\}ecture. It
seems likely to have been written at
a later period, when the downfall of
Napoleon would naturally call forth
from Consalvi the deepest charity and
most lenient interpretations. The
two memoirs, it will be remembered,
wero penned during the cardinal's
captivity at Bheims.

The day after their expulsion, those
among the cardinals who were bish-
ops had orders to resign their sees im-
mediately, under pain of imprison-
ment. They signed the deed as re-
quired, but with the {unoviso of the
Pope's consent. At eight o'clock on
the same evening each one received a
short note from the minister of pub-
lic worslup, enjoining him to wait on
that frinctionary in an hour's time, for
the purpose of hearing the emperorii
orders.

The whole thirteen met in the min-
ister's ante-chamber, and were intro-
duced together to his cabinet Fouch^
was with him, and from a kindly in-
tention, says Consalvi. Both seemed
grieved at the business they had to
transact

As soon as Fouch^ pero^ved Con-
salvi, he exclaimed,

'^Ah, cardinal, I warned you the
consequences would be terrible. What
pains me most is that you should be
of the number."

Consalvi thanked him for his sym-
pathy, but said he was prepared for
all that might follow.

The thirteen wero then made to sit
down in a cirole, and the minister of
public worship b^an a long dis-
course, which could not much have
benefitted the culprits, as only three
understood FrondL The substance
of it was that they had committed a



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Magpokon^9 Marriage wiik Maris^Lwiu^



state cnme, and were guilty of irea*
80D, having conspired against the em-
peror. The proof of l£is lay in the
secrecy they had obseryed toward
him (the minister) and toward the
other cardinals. They ought to have
spoken to him as their superior, and
he would have enlightened them with
regard to their erroneous idea of the
privative right belonging to the Pope
in matrimonial cases between sover-
eigns. Their crime, he said, might
have the most serious oonsequenoes
on the public tranquillity, unless the
emperor succeeded in obviating them,
for their mode of acting had tended to
nothing less than to cast doubts on
the legitimacy of the succession to the
throne. He concluded by declaring
that the emperor, judging the cardi-
nals to be rebels guilty of conspiracy,
had ordered them to be informed :

1. That they were from that mo-
ment deprived of all their property,
ecclesiastical and patrimonial, for the
sequestraticm of which measures had
been already taken.

2. That his majesty no longer
considered them as cardinals, and for-
bade them henceforth to wear any en-
signs of that dignity.

8. That his majesty reserved to
himself the ri^t of afterward decid-
ing with regard to their persons.

And the minister gave them to un-
derstand that a criminal action would
be brought agtunst some.

Even going back as fully as we can
to the ideas of the times, there is
something equally startling and absurd
in the noticn of a lay minister of state
undertaking to enlighten princes of
the church on matters of canon law,
coolly naming himself as their supe-
rior, and treating them to a long hom-
ily <m their duties and misdemeanors.
The same pretensions are doubtless
reproduced in all revolutionary times ;
but still the absurdity strikes us forci-
bly as we read this account

Consalvi replied that they were er-
roneously accused of conspiracy and
rebellion^Hsrimes unworthy of the
purple, and also of their individual



characters. No secret, he said, had
been made of their opinion to the
other cardinals, though it had been ex-
pressed without seeking to gain prose-
lytes. If they had not communicated
with the minister, they had neverthe-
less spoken quite openly to Cardinal
Fesch, their own colleague and the
emperor^s undo, begging him to lay
their determination, founded solely on
motives of conscience, before Napo-
leon. Consalvi also explained how
they endeavored to avoid all the blame
now laid to their charge by requesting
partial invitations, which request, Sf
complied with, would have prevented
their views from being made public.
The other two cardinals who could
speak French likewise expressed
themselves in similar terms.

Both ministers appeared convinced,
and, regretting the emperor had not
himself heard their defence, suggested
that they should write it out for hb
perusaL No difficulty was made in
complying with this proposal. The
ministers then said that the cardinals
must not, however, bring forward the
real motive of their absence, namely,
the Pope's right, as that was just what
irritated Napoleon; but lay the cause
to sickness, or some excuse of that
kind. The cardinals declined taking
this course, as incompatible with their
duty.

Here we must remark that the
whole scene appears to us got up to
make them yield at last ; but Consalvi,
ever charitable, says not a word to
that effect.

One of the ministers then tried to
make out a draft of a letter for the
emperor that should be satisfactory to
both parties ; and one of the cardinala
had the imprudence to copy these
rough sketches, for the purpose of
comparing them and seeing after-
ward what could be done. The min-
ister insisted much on having the pa-
per then and there drawn up, as Na-
Eleon was going to travel, and would
ire Paris immediately. But Con-
salvi, pleading his colleagues' ignor-
ance of the French language, sno-



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eeeded at length in obtquning consent
ibr them to retire together and delib-
erate among themselves.

It was eleven o'clock when thej
withdrew ; and some of the cardinals
had the further imprudence to assure
the ministers that the expressions used
bj the latter liad been faithfully copied.

As soon as Consalvi was alone with
his cf^eagues and oould speak freely,
he showed them the full meaning of
the French terms sn^ested, and the
impropriety, to say the least, of using
than. All agreed to hold staunchly
lo their duty. But now appeared the
further difficulty, ereated by having
eopied the ministers' words, which it
would thus be impossible to seem to
forg^ Fouch4 was to see Napoleon
soon after leaving them, and would
dodbdess hasten to assure him that
the cardinals were writing a letter
C0Dfi>rmable to his wishes. Thus Na-
poJeon, prepared for submission, would
give way to tenfold anger on finding
the reverse.

The letter was dictated by consci-
ence alone, but its expressions were
as much as possible tempered by pru-
dence. Every- word was carefully
weighed; and five hours passed in
drawing it up. By its tenor, they
sought to exculpate themselves from
ail Buapicion of revolt and treason,
saying that the real cause of their ab-
sence was because the Popo was ex-
dnded from the matter; that they had
not pretended thereby to institute
themselves judges, or cast any doubts
amcMig the public either on the valid-
ly of the first marriage,' or the legiti-
macy of the children that might follow
the second. In conclusion, they as-
sared Napoleon of their sulmussion
and obedience, without making any re-
quest for the restoration of ^eir {nto-
perty or their purple. The thirteen
signed by order o£ seniority in the
caidinalate.

Gardmal Litta immediately con-
veyed this document to the minister
of public worship, who pronounced
fam^lf tolerably satisfied. But Na-
poleon quitted Paris the next day



sooner than had been anticipated, and
without giving the audience to the
minister which had been agreed on.
Consequently the latter could not give
the letter then, and h^ informed the
cardinals that they must therefore
conform to the orders already received.
Accordingly they laid aside the en-
signs of their dignity, and hence arose
the designation of black and red car-
dinals. Their property was imme-
diately confiscated, and their revenues,
contrary to custom, were thrown into
the public treasury.

Afker a short excursion in the
Netherlands, Napoleon returned to
Paris. Meanwhile the cardinals had
put down theu* carriages, and hired
more modest abodes, better suited to
their fallen fortunes. Contradictory
rumors were afloat abroad as to their
fate. Two months and a half passed
ere any change took place.

But on the 10th of June each cardi-
nal received a note from the minister
of public worship, appointing a time
for him to call ; two cardinals being
designated for each successive hour.
Cardinals Consalvi and Brancadoro
were those summoned for the first
hour. When they reached his cabi-
net, the minister informed them that
they were to set out for Rheims in
twenty-four hours, and to remain
there until further orders should be
gi^en. Passports were in readiness.
All the other cardinals successively
received a similar sentence ; the only
difierence lay in the place of abode.
They were exiled by twos, and care
was taken to separate those sup-
posed to be intimate. The minister
offered to each cardinal fifty louis
for the expenses of his journey;
some accepted, and others declined;
Consalvi beiog among the latter.
Soon after their arrival in the towns
designated, each cardinal had an inti-
mation ftom the minister that a
monthly pension of 250f. would be
duly paid. Cons^^vi refused to profit
by tlds allowance, and he thinks the
others did the same. On the lOth of
January, 18J.1, both he and his corn-



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NapoUon*8 Marriagt t^AA Mane^Lauise,



panion received a note frbm the snb-
prefect of Rheims, requesting them to
call and give iiiformation on certain
orders that had arrived from the su-
preme anthovitj- in Paris. The two
cardinals went The sub-prefect then
informed them that he was required
to ask what sums thej had received
for their subsistence since their exile
at Rheims, through what conveyance
or persons, from whom, and to what
amount Consalvi was able to an-
swer that he had not accepted a pen-
ny from any one. ^< But how then do
you live, since the government has
seized idl your property?^ "My
banker at Rome sends the necessary
sums through his correspondent at
Paris. Under other circumstances I
would have borrowed from my friends."

This measure of the government
was caused by irritation on learning
that charitable persons had united to
make up a general fimd eveiy month
for the support of the cardinals, and it
was wished to put a stop to the pro-



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