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weight would be doubled, and we
should drag our limbs with pain. In
Saturn, owing to the compression of
the vast light globe and its rapid rota-
tion, a man who weighs twelve stone
at the equator we^hs fourteen stone
at the pole. Though vast in size, the
density of the planet is small, for
which reason «we should not find our-
selves very much heavier by change
of ground from earth to Saturn. We
should be cold, for Saturn gets only a
ninetieth part of the earth's allowance
of light and heat. But then there is
no lack of blanket in the House of
Saturn, for there is a thick atmosphere
to keep the warmth in the old gentle-
man's body and to lengthen the Sat-
umian twilights. As for the abate-
ment of light, we know how much
light yet remains to us when less than
a ninetieth part of the sun escapes
eclipse. We see in its brightness, as
a star, though a pale one, the reflec-
tion of the sunshine Saturn gets,
which if but a ninetieth part of our
share, yet leaves the sun of Saturn
able to give &ve hundred and sixty
times more light than our own bright-
est moonshine. And then what long
summers ! The day in Saturn is only
ten and a half hours long, so that the
nights are short, and there are twenty-
four thousand six hundred and eight-
een and a half of its own days to the
Satumian year. But the long win-
ters ! And the Satumian winter has
its gloom increased by eclipses of the
sun's light by the rings. At Saturn's
equator these eclipses occur near the
equinoxes and last but a little while,
but in the regions corresponding to our
temperate zone they are of long du-
ration. Apart frooi eclipse, the rings
lighten for Saturn the short summer
nights, and lie perhaps as a halo under
the sun during the short winter days.



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272



SKpf of Ab JRm.



Fhm CbMkbera^a Jonnud.
SLIPS OF THE PEN.



When Mrs. Caxtoa innocentlj
made her wiser-half the &ther of an
anachroiiism, that worthy scholar was
much troubled in consequence. His
ftDacfaronism was a living one, or he
might have comforted himself by re-
flecting that greater authors than he
had stood in the same paternal prt^dic-
ament. Our old English dramatists
took tremendous liberties this way,
nerer allowing considerations of time
and place to stand in the way of any
allusion likely to tell with their audi-
ence. Shakespeare would have been
slow to appreciate a modem mana-
ger's anxiety for archaeological fidelity.
His Greeks and Romans talk about
cannons and pistols, and his Italian
clowns are thorough cockneys, famil-
iar with every nook and corner of
London. And so it is with other ca*
terers for the stage. Nat Lee talks
about cards in his tragedy of " Hanni-
bal f Otway makes Spartan notables
carouse and drink deep; Mrs. Cow-
ley's Lacedaemonian king speaks of
the niffhea still Sabbath; D'Urfey's
ancient Britons are familiar with Pu-
ritans and packet-boats; and Rymer
(though he set himself up for a critic)
supplies a stage direction for the rep-
resentative of his Saxon heroine to
pull off her patches, when her lover
desires her to lay aside her orna-
ments.

When Colman read "Inkle and
Yarico " to Dr. Moseley, the latter ex-
claimed : « It won't do. Stuff 1 Non-
sense ! "— « Why ? " asked the alarm-
ed drainatist.— ->" Why, you say in the
finale:



* Come let ne dance and aine.
While all Barbadoea* beUa ahall rin^ I'



cusable enough ; but when Milton de-
scribed

" A green mantling Tine,
That crawlB along the aide of yon small hlU,^*

he must certainly have forgotten he
had laid the scene of *^ Comas " in
North Wales. Ernest Jones, d^
scribing a battle in his poem, ^ The
Lost Army," says :

** Delay and doubt did more that hoar
Than bayonet-charge or carnage shower ;**

and some lines further on pictures his
hero

" All worn with wonndf , when day was low.
With severed sword and shattered shield ;**

thus making his battle rather a trial
of the respective powers of ancient
and modern weapons than a conflict
between equally-armed foes. Mr.
Thackeray perpetrates a nice little an-
achronism in " The Newcomes," when
he makes Clive, in a letter dated 183-,
quoting an Academy exhibition cri-
tique, ask : " Why have we no picture
of the sovereign and her august con-
sort from Smee's brush ?*' — ^the author,
in his anxiety to compliment the artist,
forgetting that there was no consort
till 1840.

A bull in a china-shop is scarcelj
more out of place than a bull in a se-
rious poem, but accidents will happen
to the most regular of writers. Thus
Milton's pen slipped when he wrote :

*' The sea-girt ialea
That like to rich and various gem^ inlof
The unadorned bosom of the deep ;'*

a quotation reminding us that the fiir
Torite citation,



** Beanty when unadorned, adorned the most, '
It won't do; there is but one bell in
th^ island I" This mistake was ex- is but a splendid bull, beautiful for ita



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8fyi (fikel^.



•273



boldness. Thomson was an adept at - . "How mm, ye heavent i grow you

«. ▲i^ 1. 11 1 • A. So proQd, that yon mast needs pat on curled locks.

making pretty bulls ; here is another : auS <siothe younetf in periwige of are r

Nearlj equalled in abaurditj bj this
from Nat Lee's << (Edipus :**



^ He SAW her cbarmls^, but be saw not balC
The chamu her dowuc&at modesty concealed ;"

as tf it were possible to see some of
them, although thej were concealed.
Pope, correet Pope, actually tell us :

M Young Mars in hie boundless mind.
A work V ouUaet immortal Rome designed.*'

The author of ""The Spanish
Rogue'' makes **9l sSleat noise" in-
yade the ear of his hero. General
Tajlor immortalized himself bj per-
petrating one of the grandest balis on
record, in which he attained what a cer-
tain literarjr professor caMs ^a peffec"
tioH hardly to be surpassed." In his
presidential address he announced to
the American Congress that the United
States were at peace with all the worldj
and continued to dierlsh relations of am-
ity with the rest of mankind. Much
simpler was the blunder of an EngUsh
officer, during the Indian mutiny, who
informed thcT public, through the
TimeMy that, thanks to the prompt
measures of Colonel Edwardes, the
Sepoys at Fort Machison ^ were all
unarmed and taken aback, and, being
called upon, laid down their arms."
There was nothing very astonishing
in an Irish newspaper stating that
Robespierre ^ left no children behind
him, except a brother, who was killed
at the same time ;" but it was startling
to have an English journal assure us
that her majesty Queen Victoria was
''the last person to wear another
maiCt crown."

A single ill<-chosen word often suf-
fices, by the suggestion of incongru-
ous ideas, to render what should be
sublime utterly ridiculous. One can
hardly believe that a poet like Dry-
deu could write :

■^My floul it packing up, tad luat on wis|(,"

Snch a line would have come with
better grace from the author of ** The
Courageous Turk," a play containing
the following curious passage :

VOL, XL 18



"Sach trembling ghoet shall rise.
And leaTe their grUly k&g without a waiter.**

When the news of Captain Cook's
death at Owhyhee came to England,
the poetasters, of course, hastened to
improve the occasion, and one of the
results of their enthusiasm was a
monody commencing :

" Minerva in hearen disconsolate mourned
The lose of her Cook ;**

an opening sufficient to upset the grav-
ity of the great navigatoi^s dearest
friend.

Addison lays it down as a maxim,
that when a nation abounds in physi-
cians it grows thin of people. Filli-
buster Heaninpen seems to have
agreed with the essayist, or he would
hardly have informed Greneral Walk-
er, in one of his dispatches, that
.^ Doctors Rice and Wolfe died of the
cholera, and Dr. Lindley sickened,
after which the heakh of the camp vis-
ibiy imprwedJ* Intentionally or not,
the stout-hearted soldier suggests that
the best way of getting rid of the
cholera is to make short work of the
doctors. Among the obituary notices
in a weekly paper, not many months
ago, there appeared the name of a
certain publican, with the following
eulogium appended to it: ^'He was
greatly esteemed for his strict probity
and steady conduct through life, he
having been a subscriber to the ' Sun-
day Times' from its first number."
This is a worthy pehdant to Miss
Hawkins's story of the undertaker
writing to the corporation of London,
" I am desired to inform the Court of
Aldermen, Mr. Aklcrman Gill died
last night, by order of Mrs. Gill f
and not far short, in point of absurd-
ity, is Madame Tussand's announce-
ment of the exhibition of the ^^^
of the notorious Palmer, <'who was
executed at Stafford with two hun-



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Saints ofAe Dueri.



dred other celebrities*^ The modem
fashion of naming florists' flowers
must be held responsible for the very
dubious paragraph we extract from a
gardening paper: ^Mrs. Legge will
be looked af^er; she may not be so
certain as some, but she was neyer-
theless very fine in the earlj part of
the season. Lady Popham is useful,
one of the old-fashioned build, not
quite round in the outline, but makes
up well.'*

Thackeray seems to have had an
intense dislike to the trouble of revi-
sion, for his popular works, especially
those published periodically, abound
in trivial mistakes, arising from haste,
forgetfulness, and want of care. The
novelist mortally wounds an old lady
with a candle instead of a candlestick,
and afterwards attributes her death to
a stone staircase. Newcome senior is
colonel and major at one and the same
time; Jack Belsize is Jack on one
page and Charles on another; Mrs.
Raymond Gray, introduced as Emily,
is suddenly rechristencd Fanny ; and
Philip Permor on one occasion be-
comes transformed into the author^s
old hero, Clire. With respect to the
Iast*mentioned gentleman, author and



artist seem to have differed, for while
Mr. Thackeray jc^ta about Clive's
beautiful whiskers and handsome
moustaches, Mr. Doyle persists to the
end in denying young Newcome's
possession of those tokens of mao-
hood.

It is not often that an author b sa-
tirical upon his own productions ; but
Charles Dickens has contrived to be
so. Describing the old inns of the
Borough, in his "Pickwick Papers,"
he says they are queer places, widi
galleries, passages, and staircases wide
enough and antiquated enough "to
iumish materials for a hundred ghost-
stories, 8uppo$ing we should ever he
reduced to the lamentaUe necessity of
inventing any." How little could Box
have anticipated certain charming
Christmas books witching the world a
few years later ! So, also, " American
Notes,'' Mr. Jefferson Brick, and the
transatlantic Eden lay unsuspected in
the future, when he made Old Wellor
suggest Mr. Pickwick's absconding to
America till Dodson & Fngg were
hung, and then returning to his native
land and writing "a book about the
'Merrikens as 'ill pay all his expenses
and more, if he blows 'em up enough I"



From The Month.

SAINTS OF THE DESEBT.

BY THB BBV. J. H. KEWHAN, D.D.

1. Abbot Antony said: The days are coming when men will go mad;
and, when they meet a man who has kept his senses, they will rise up against
him, saying, ^ You are mad, because you are not like us."

2. While Arsenius was still employed in the imperial court, he asked of
God to lead him in the way by which he might be saved.

Then a voice came to him : ^' Arsenius, flee the company of men, and thou
art in that saving way."

8. Abbot Agatbo said : Unless a man begin with the observance of the Pre*
cepts, he will not make progress in any one virtue.



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SatnH of the De$erL 275

4. Abbot Amtaaonas said: Sucb be thj thougbt as tbat of malefactors in
prison. For tbej are ever asking, ^Wbere is the judge? and ^hen is he
ooming 7^ and thej bewail themselves at the prospect

5. Holy Epiphanins said : To sinners who repent God remits even the prin-
dpal ; bat from the jast he exacts interest.

6. Abbot Sjlvanus had an ecstacj : and, coming to himself, he wept bitterlj.
^ What is it, mj father?*' said a novice to him*

He made answer : Because I was carried up to the judgment, Omj son, and
I saw many of our kind going off to punishment, and manj a secular passing'
into the kingdom.

7. An old man said : If you see a youngster mounting up to heaven at
his own will, catch him bj the foot, and fling him to the earth; for such a
flight doth not profit,

8* Abbot Antony fell on ^ tune into weariness andigloom of. spirit ; and he
eried out, ''Lord, I wish to be saved ; but my searchmgs of mind wiU not let

And, looking round, he saw some one like himself, sitting and working, then
rimng and praying, then sitting and rope-making again. And he heard the
•ngel say : ^ Work and pray ; pray and work ; and thou shalt be sav^.**

9« Arsenius, when he was now in solitude, prayed as before.* ''Lord, lead
me along, the way of salvation." And again he heard a voice, which said :
*^ Flight, silence, quiet ; these are the three sources of sinlessness."

10. " Which of all our duties,** asked the brethren, " is the greatest labor ?*
Aggtho answered : " Prayer ; for as soon as we begin, the devils try to stop us,
since it is their great enemy. Rest comes afler every other toil, but prayer is
a struggle up to the last breath."

11. Abbot Theodore said: "Other virtue there is none like this, to make
naught of no one."

12. Abbot Sylvanus said : " Woe to the man whose reputation is greater
than his work."

18« Holy Epiphanius said: " A great safeguard agamst sin is the reading of
the Scriptures ; and it is a precipice and deep gulf to be ignorant of the Scrip-
tures."

14. Once a monk was told, "Thy father is dead." He answered: "Blaspheme
nol ; my Father is immortal."



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IfifCtfCony



MISCELLANY.



7^ D&ad iS^— The level of the
Dead Sea is at last finally settled by
the party of Royal Eagineers, under
Captain Wilson, who were sent by the
Ordance Survey for the purpose of sir-
veying Jerusalem and levelling the
* Dead Sea. The results of the survey
are being prepared for publication.
The levelling from the Mediterranean
to the Dead Sea was performed with
the greatest possible accuracy. The
depression of the surface of the Dead
Sea on the 12th of March, 1865, was
found to be 1,293 feet, but from the
line of drift-wood observed alon^ the
border of the Dead Sea it was found
that the level of the water at some pe-
riods of the year stands two feet six
inches higher, which would make the
least depression 1,289*5 feet. Captain
Wilson also learnt from inquiry among
the Bedouins, and from European resi-
dents in Palestine, that during the early
summer the level of the Dead Sea is
lower by at least six feet ; this would
make the greatest depression to be as
near as possible 1,298 feet Most of the
previous observations for determining
the relative level of the two seas gave
most discordant results. The Dead
Sea was found by one to be 710 feet
above the level of the Mediterranean,
by another to be on the same level, by
another to be 710 feet lower, and by
another to be 1,446 feet lower ; but the
most recent before that now p;iven, by
the Due de Luynes and Lieutenant
Vignes of the French navy, agrees with
the present result in a very remarkable
manner.

Elozoon in Irdamd, — ^The fossil Rhizo-
pod is not confined to Uie Canadian
rocks. Mr. W. A. Sanford has discov-
ered Eozoon in the green marble rocks
of Connemara in Ireland. His asser-
tion that it is to be found in these de-
Sosits at first excited ver^ grave
oubts as to the accuracy of his ob-
servations. Since his first announce-
ment of the discovery, his specimens
have been examined by the distinguish-
ed co-editor of the ** Geological Ma^a-
Bine" (Mr. H. Woodward), and this
gentleman fully confirms Mr. Sanford^s
opinion. In the specimens prepared



from Connemara marble, ^< the various-
formed chambet^B — ^thc shell of varying
thickness — either very thin, and ^-
versed by fine tubuli, the silicate filling
which resembles white velvet-pile, or
thick, and traversed by brush-like
threads, are both present. Although
the specimens were not so carefully
prepared as those mounted for Dr. Car-
penter, still the structure was so plainly
perceptible as to render the dit^osia
mcontrovertible."

The MtnU Cmia Tunnd.— The follow-
ing particulars of the state of the works
at Mont Cenis will be read with inter-
est. We owe them to a recent report
of M. Sommeiller, the engineer in
charge. The length of the tunnel from
Bardonndche to Modena is 12,220 me-
tres, and, at the end of 1804, 2,322
metres had been pierced on the Bar-
donnfiche side, whilst the work had ad-
vanced 1,763 metres from the Modena
end, making in all 4,085 metres— nearly
a third of the whole distance. From
the 1st of January to the 10th of June
of the present year the progress of the
work has been considerably augmented,
upwards of 654 metres having been ac-
complished. The excavation is now,
however, retarded by a mass cf gran-
ite, which lessens the work of the ma-
chinery by one-third. The presence of
this impediment was almost exactly
predicted by MM. Elie de Beaumont
and Sismonda, who stated, as a result
of their survey, that granitic rocks
would be met with at a distance of
1,500 or 2,000 metres from the mouth
of the tunnel on the Italian side.

lAgkUiing, — ^M. Boudin has recently
laid before the Academy of Sciences a
return of the deaths which have been
caused by the action of lightning in
France during the period 1835-63.
During these thirty years 2,238 persons
were struck dead. Among 880 victims
during 1854-63, there were but 248 of
the female sex; and in several instances
the lightning, falling amon^ groups of
persons of both sexes, especially struck
those of the male sex, and more or less
spared the females. In a great number of
cases flocks of more than 100 animals^



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277



catUe, bogs, or shcop, have been killed,
wbile tbe sbepberds or herdsmen in
tbeir midst have remained uninjured.
In 1833, of 34 persons killed in the
fields, 15, or nearly half, were struck
under trees ; and oi 167 killed between
1841^3, 21 had taken shelter uAder
trees. Reckoning, then, at only 25 per
cent, the proportion struck under trees,
we find that of 6,714 struck in France
nearly 1,700 might have escaped the
accidents which occurred to them by
avoiding trees during storms.

More about ike JSTde. — ^Another source
of the Nile has been discovered by the
adventurous Mr. Baker, whose name has
been frequently mentioned of late
Among i^eographers. But this so-called
source is a lake only, the Luta Nzige,
about two hundred and sixty miles
Ion«^, and of proportionate breadth,
which lies between the lake discovered
by Captain Speke and the heretofore
explored course of the Nile. Tbe sreat
river flows from one to the other, Knrm-
ing on the way the Karuma waterfall,
one hundred and twenty feet in height,
in which particular it represents the
Niagara Fall between lakes Erie and
Ontario. But it sterns right to remark
that the true source of the Nile has not
yet been discovered, and that it must
be looked for at the head of one of the
streams which flow into the upper lake
— ^the Victoria Nyanza of Speke. That
the two lakes are reservoirs which keep
the Nile always flowing, may be ac-
cepted as fact ; but to describe them as
sources is a misuse of terms. If lyt.
livingstone, in his new exploration,
should get into the hill-country above
the Victoria Nyanza, we might hope to
hear that the real source, the fountain-
head, of the Nile had been discovered.
It is worthy of remark that these lakes
of the Nile are laid down and describ-
ed in old books on the geography of Af-
rica. Ptolemy mentions them; and
they are represented in some of the
oldest Arabian and Portuguese maps.
It is well known to scholar^ that the
Emperor Nero sent two officers expressly
to search for the head of the Nile. '' I
myself^'' vnrites Seneca, " have heard the
two centurions narrate that after they
had accomplished a long journey, being
furnished with assistance by the king
of Bthiopia, and being recommended
by him to the neighboring kings, they
penetrated into far distant regions, and



came to immense lakes, the termination
of which neither the inhabitants knew
nor could any one hope to do so, be-
cause aquatic plants were so densely
interwoven in the waters." This de
scription holds good to the present
day; and it is thought that certain
rocks seen by the centurions mark the
site of the Karuma Falls. Mr. Baker
describes his voyage down the Luta
Nzige as ^^ extremely beautiful, the
mountains frequently rising abruptly
from the water, while nunierous cata-
racts rush down their furrowed sides.

The water is deep, sweet,

and transparent," and, except at the out-
let of the river, the shores are free from
reeds. " Mallegga, on the west coast of
the lake, is a large and powerful coun-
try, governed by a king named Kajoro,
who possesses boats sufficiently large
to cross the lake." *•*■ About ten miles
from the junction," he writes, " the chan-
nel contracted to about two hundred
and fifty yards in width, with little
perceptible stream, very deep, and
banked as usual with high reeds, the
country on either side undulating and
wooded. At about twenty miles from
Magungo, my voyage suddenly termi-
nated; a stupendous waterfall, of
about one hundred and twenty feet per-
pendicular height, stopped all further
progress. Above the great fall, the
river is suddenly confined between
rocky hills, and it races through a gap,
contracted from a grand stream of per-
haps two hundred yards width to a
channel not exceeding fifty yards.
Through this gap it nmes with amaz-
ing rapidity, and plunges at one leap
into a deep basin below."

The Burning WeU at Broaeley, — ^Mr.
John Randall, F.G.8., writes to the
^^ Geological Magazine" anent this ex-
tinct petroleum spring. The so-called
burning well has ceased to exist for
nearly a century. It was fed by a
spring, and petroleum and naphtha also
found their way from rents in the rock
into the water of the well. Springs of
petroleum on a much larger scale are
met with in the neighborhood, and the
yield of them was formerly much

greater than at present. Many hogs-
eads from one oi these were exported
some years ago under the name of
"Bettou's British Oil," The rocks
were tapped by driving a level through
one of the sandstone rocks of the coal



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Mucdlany,



measures; but these are now drained;
and very little is found to flow from
them.

The Origin of tha 8aU inthsDead Sea,
— One of our most distinguished explo-
rers of the Holy Land attributes the in-
tensely saline character of the Dead
Sea to the hill of Jebell Usdum. This
is a huge ridge of salt, about a mile
wide, and running N.E. and S.W. for a
distance of three miles and a half, then
due N. and S. for four miles further.
It is situated near the southern extrem-
ity of the Dead Sea, and renders that
portion of it much more salt than the
northern portion. Further, Mr. Tris-
tram thinks that it is the proximate
cause of the saltness of the Dead Sea,
the drainage to which has been dissolv-
ing away portions of salt, and carrying
it to the Dead Sea, ever since the eleva-
tion of the ridge of Akabah separated
the latter from the Red Sea, or since
the desiccation of the ocean, which ex-
isted to the Eocene period, presuming
(which seems most probable) that the
fissures of the Ghor were of submarine
origin, and that the valley itself was
during the Tertiary period the north-
ernmost of a series of African lakes, of
which the Red Sea was the next. — Geo-
logical Magazine.

Iron Implementi in Orannogues, — ^In a
letter addressed to the London Header^
by Mr. George Henry Kinahan, some
important points relative to the an-
tiquity of iron, and the necessity for
seeking for traces of this metal, havo
been dwelt upon. Whila investigating
one of the largest crannogues or artifi-
cial islands in Loughrea, County Gal-
way, Ireland, he found only stone im-
plements, with the exception of a rude
knife, which appeared to be of some
sort of bronze. Bat he observed facts
which woujd seem to indicate that iron
implements had been in use among the
inhabitants of the crannogues. These
fiicts are as follows : 1st, AH the stakes
that were drawn had been pointed by



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