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by AnschUtz and Baron Dr. von
Hertling. Do not the Catholics out-
number the Protestants in Germany ?
No one knew Germany and its tribes
better than Frederick B^hmer, of
Frankfort, and he always maintained
that the CathoUcs can boast of ad
many able men as the Protestants,
and that southern Grermany, far from
being inferior, surpasses the northern
races in mental abilities. To carry
out the programme laid down above
will require our best energies, but we
must, moreover, found a new university
a purely Catholic and free institution,
untrammelled by state dictation, and
entirely under the direction of the
Church. To do this the bishops, the
nobles, and the clergy must use tlieir
best endeavors ; but the professors, too,
must do their share, and not look on
with cold indifference, as is the case
with most of them. If the state en-
croaches unceasingly on the rights of
the Church in the realms of science,
and if its tyranny persistently op-
presses the most able votaries of sci-
ence because they are Catholics, why
should we not rely on ourselves,
and seek strength in union ? There
is neither truce nor rest for us until
we are not only equal but superior to
our opponents in every branch of
science.

Since its organization, two yearvS
ago, the university committee has done
all in its power to promote the good
cause. One of the most zealous mem-
bers is the young Prince Charles, of



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Malines <md Wurzburg,



Lowenstein-WeiiUieim, who has been
Babstituted for the deceased Ck>iuit
Brandis.

Gaoon MoafiGuig, of Majence, spoke
on the university question at WUrz-
burg in 1864. Of all the members of
the convention he was best fitted to
do justice to the subject Since 1848
Dr. Moufimg has been present at al-
most every one of the sixteen general
conventions, and whatever good has
been accomplished by them he has
promoted and encoum^^ed. Connect-
ed with most of the Catholic move-
ments of our age, he understands the
feelings of his CathoUc countrymen
and knows how to give forcible and
opportune expression to them; at
times his woids are irresistible, like
the mountain torrent. At Munich he
delivered a discourse on the Holy
Father and his difficulties ; in Aix-la-
Chapelle he thundered against the
want of principle and of true manli-
ness which distinguishes our times;
at Frankfort he ridiculed anti-Catholic
prejudices, and at Wiirzbui^ he con-
vinced his hearers of the necessitj of
a Catholic university. But the school
question, also, and the relations be-
tween capital and labor, he has lately
treated in an admurable manner. ^ 11
fatU Sire de tan tempt^ is Moufang's
motto, and hence he is one of the rep-
resentative men of public opinion in
Catholic Germany, and when he com-
bats the enemies of the Church the
advantage is always on his side. On
the nineteenth of December, 1864, Dr.
Moufang celebrated the twentj-fiflh
anniversary of his ordination. Hun-
dreds of priests from the dioceses of
Mayence, Limburg, and Freiburg were
present on this solemn occasion, which
they will cherish for ever in their
memory. Dr. Moufang's name imme-
diately suggests that of Canon Hein-
rich. They are a "jwir nchiU fro-
truwP in litentnre as well as in public
life, emulating the example of Raess
and Weiss and of Axignstcis and Peter
Beichensperger. At the age of thir-
ty, after promoting the organization of
the first genend convention at May-



ence, Dr. Heinrich was appointed sec-
retary of the national council held at
Wttraburg in 1848. Since 1848 he
distinguished himself at almost ail the
general conventions by his activity and
the zeal he displayed in furthering
every Catholic enterprise. He is equal-
ly active in the committees, in the se-
cret and in the open sessions. He is not
only a fkvorite speaker, but also a
skilful controversialist and a journal-
ist of no mean ability. He published
the best reply to Renan, and afl a
theologian and jurist he is able to cope
with any adversary.

Pro£ Hafinor is the worthy col-
league of Mou&ng and Heinrich.
He cultivates th9 science which Aris-
totle and Plato pronounced the sub-
limest of all sciences — philosophy.
But Haffner is a phikwoj^ier who is
intelligible even to ordinary mortals ;
he nudkes a practical use of his know-
ledge, and is a favorite at the Rhenish
dubs. In fact, there is no reason why
he should not be so. His speeches are
instructive, sublime in conception, and
well writt^i. The details are well
arranged and he has due r^ard for
literary perspective. His incompara*
ble humor is unmixed with biting sar-
casm, and his figures are exquisitely
beautiM. • Haffiier^s speeches are
perfect gems. Long may you live,
noble son of Suabia !

The Mayence delegates form an
attractive group, and they all work
right earnestly for the success of the
conventions. Beside those already
noticed, I shall mention Dr. Hirschel,
canon of the cathedral, who presided
at the first general meeting of the
Christian art unions at Cologne in
1856; Monsignore Count Max von
Gralen, who delivered an elegant dis-
course on the Blessed Virgin at Aix-
la-Chapelle ; Professors Holzammer
and Hundhausen, profound schoUrs;
Frederic Schneidier, president of the
young men's associations in the dio-
cese of Mayence ; and Falk, president
of the social clubs or casinos.

Councillor Phillips, of Vienna, Is
generally chosen chairman of the eeo-



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HI



tion of science and the press. Bichly
does he deserve this distmcdon, for
Phillips is an ornament to German
literature, and his work on canon law
is a ^monumerUum aare perenmw^'
which will be numbered among the
German 'classics. On the Catholic
press, too, Phillips has conferred a
great benefit, for, in ooigunction with
Jareke and Joseph von Gorres,
he founded the '< Historico-Political
Journal,'' of Munich, which he edited
for a long time, assisted by Guido
Grorres. Being sent as a delegate to
the Frankfort Parliament, Phillips
was numbered among the men of ^ the
stone house ;" that is to say, he belongs
ed to the GathoUc party, and became
the associate of Dollinger, Lasaulx,
Sepp, Fdrser, Geritz, Dieringer, Von
Badly, and otiiers who took an active
part in the debate on the relations
between church and state. Since
1862 Phillips has been chairman of
the committee on the establishment of
the Catholic university. The speeches
of the learned professor were remark-
able for the force of their arguments
and the clearness of their ideas. His
committee reports are to the point,
and he presides with tact and
ability.

Privy Councillor Bingseis deliver-
ed telling speeches at Aix-la-Chapelle
and Munich ; at Frankfort and Wiirz-
burg he did not make his appearance,
being already too mudli bowed down
by age. Rmgseis was bom in 1785.
In the literary world he occupies a
prominent position ; but he has always
been more successfhl as an orator than
as a writer. His appearance is in-
spiring, his words enthusiastic. The
simplicity of his heart, his pleasing
cordiality, and the unchanging fresh-
ness of his intellect, endear him to all
with whom he comes in contact ; yet
he is one of the men who have brave-
ly weathered aU the storms of our age.
He resembles an oak that proucUy
withstands every hurricane.

Baron von Mby was president of
the Wiirzburg convention. From
1832 to 1837 he lectured on consti-



tutional and international laws, and
from 1887 he was for ten years pro-
fessor at Munich, at a time when the
feme of the Munich university attract-
ed hundreds of young men to the
Bavarian capital, when all Germany
knew that there was a great Catholic
university at Munich, and when, in
the words of Moufeng, ** Grorres, Rings-
eis, Dollinger, Mohler, Slee, Phillips,
Moy, Windischmann, and their col-
leagues, formed the central group of
Catholic Munich." Baron von Moy
presided at Wttrsbnrg with much tact
and success. Age has already made its
mroads, but his voice is still rich and
agreeable. He is untainted by the
ungenial formality of our German
professors. In him solid piety is
coupled with affability, cordiality, and
benevolence, and adorned by true
Catholic cheerfulness.

The Catholic professors, on the
whole, have taken little interest in
these conventions, because the majori-
ty of them are unacquainted with
real life. There are exceptions, how-
ever, such as those mentioned above.
Schulte, of Prague, also, has displayed
a laudable zeal in every convention
until 1862. He favors true progress,
and earnestly wishes the Catholics
not only to rival but surpass the Prot-
estants in every respect. Sometimes he
is a little too exacting in his demands ;
his expressions are rather strong, and
his strictures on abuses are not suffi-
ciently tempered with moderation.
Schulte is no visionary, for he is thor-
oughly acquainted with the state of the
Church, but he is carried away by a
burning zeal, a kind of holy anger.
Hermann Mtlller, professor at the
Wiirzburg university, a jurist and
philologer, and formeriy well known
as a journalist, was the most handsome
member of the Wiirzburg convention,
and his magnificent beard attracted
universal attention. The university
was likewise represented by Profes-
sors Contzen and Ludwig and by Dr.
Wirsing. Long continued study has
left its traces on the features of Prof.
Yering, of Heidelberg, but it has not



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Malinss and WUrzhurg.



hardened his heart against the claims
of the Catholic cause.

At WUrzburg sixty-three professors
and authors signed an address and
sent it to the Holy Father. In it they
declare their readiness to submit un-
conditionally to the decision of the
Holy See regarding the meeting of
the German Uteratu I cannot refrain
from saying a few words on this meet-
ing) especially as it may be said to
have originated in the general conven-
tions. In facty the sensation caused
by the Wurzburg meeting has by no
means subsided. I have lying before
me Dollinger's " Discourse on the Past
and Present of Catholic Theology,"
and criticisms on it by the Mayence
« Katholik," the Paris "Monde," and
the "Civiltk Cattolica;" also Pi-qf.
Hergenrother's speech at Wiirzburg on
meetings of European scholars, the
pamphlet of Prof. Michelis. of Brauns-
berg, and a cutting reply in the Nov-
ember number of " Der Katholik." To
these I may add the papal brief to the
Archbishop of Munich (December 21,
1863), the despatch of Cardinal An-
tonelli to the nuncio at Munich (July
5, 1864 j, and the letter of tlie Holy
Father to Professors Hergenrother and
Denzinger, dated October 20, 1864. I
fear the matter will take a disagree-
able turn, and that our learned profes-
sors will bring themselves into diffi-
culty. No doubt there is much truth
in Hergenrother's reflections on his
colleagues : " All our learned men are
not as prudent as they should be; they
have not sufficient tact, and are want-
ing in knowledge of the actual state
of things ; many a professor in his
sanctum acquires ideas wholly at va-
riance with real life.**

The Catholic general conventions
will not alter their character in order
to busy themselves with purely scien-
tific concerns ; in short, it cannot be-
come a congress of learned men, nor
a substitute for such a congress.
Fully persuaded of this fact, Prof.
Denzinger declared, in the most ex-
plicit terms, that the meeting of the
German Uteraii was independent of



the sixteenth general convention, which
was nowise responsible for its doing£>.

Moreover, it is a fact to be borne ia
mind, that the Holy See has not for-
bidden such meetings, that the Ger-
man bishops do not wish them to be
interfered with, and that no Catholic
party, as Michelis says, has intrigued
to prevent them.

If, in spite of all this, the matter
does not prosper, the learned men
alone arc to blame. It seems to be
extremely difficult to prevent dissen-
sions among men who devote them-
selves to different branches of science,
to unite in the bonds of friendship
and concord the disciples of the spec-
ulative, the historical, and the practical
sciences. If I belonged to the class
of men of which I am speaking, I
would express my opinions more
fully. Why did not the illustrious
theologians of Tubingen deign to
come to Munich in 1863 ? Why i*
there so slim an attendance (^ Ger-
man professors at the Catholic con-
gresses ? Why do the representatives
of sciences so intimately connected re-
main estranged from each other? A
closer union would bring about renew -
ed activity, prejudices would be dis-
pelled, the jealous reserve with which
we now meet on every side would
give way to a more healthy state of
things, and youthful genius would bo
encour^ed by the conviction that they
are stayed and supported by men of
experience and acknowledged merit.

Will the congress of 1863 remain
a fragment, as the general meeting of
the art unions in 1857 ? We hope not.
The best rejoinder to all that has been
said on such meetings would be a gen-
eral European congress of all learned
Catholics, at Brussels, Greneva, or
Frankfort — attended by DoUinger,
Phillips, and Alzog, as the represen-
tatives of Germany ; by Perin, Del-
cour, and de Ram; by Newman, Oak-
ley, Acton, and Robertson ; by Meig-
nan,' Montalembert, and Rio, and by
the Italians Nardi, Cantu, and Oir
soni. The union between the civilix*
ed nations of Europe is becoming



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843



closer day by day; mil our scholars
alone remain stationary and isolated ?
If they follow this course, the day of
retributictfi will soon arrive.

Foremost among the promoters of
scientific progress, during the second
half of the nineteenth century, stands
a Catholic prince, King Maximilian
II. of Bavaria. History tells of few
princes who have so hberally patron-
ized men of science. With royal
munificence he has founded and en-
dowed institutions of learning and
fostered scientific enterprise. He will
always be praised as one of the most
generous patrons of- German science,
and in the history of literature and
science will occupy an honorable posi-
tion. Unfortunately, however, the
ideas of the noble prince were not
realized by the men he protected.
He Hved to be sorely disappointed,
and to discov.er that he had bestowed
his benefits on men unworthy of his
confidence. Bollinger, without men-
tioning the king's mistakes, has done
full justice to his merits. Bollinger
himself holds a princely rank in the
European republic of letters. With
skilful hand he is rearing the im-
mense edifice of a universal Church
history. The comer-stone is already
laid and the foundation completed.
May Grod give life and vigor to the
architect, that he may finish hiB vast
undertaking. Since his famous lec-
tures at the Odeon at Munich, deliv-
ered before a mixed audience in April,
1861, Bollinger has fixed the attention
of men holding the most contrary
opinions both in and out of the
Church. Of late, many have been
disappointed in Bollinger, though
without any reason; they have given
a false meaning to his words — ^misin-
terpreted his intentions. True, he
speaks with a boldness to which all
cannot immediately accustom them-
selves, for he is a thorough enemy
of all mental reservation in theology.
Ue stands on an eminence, surveying
not only our own times but the whole
extent of sacred and profane history,
and combines a correct estimate of the



necessities of the age with a fervent
love of Christ and his Church.

Hergenrother, our revered profess-
or, is in many respects the scientific
complement of BoHinger. If BoUm-
ger at times goes too far, Hergenrother
knows how to explain, to correct, and
to limit his expressions ; this he has
done several times of late. Hergen-
rother is a man of great learning, ac-
quired by continued mental activity;
but he is likewise well acquainted
with the ideas of the present age.
His speech at the Wurzburg conven-
tion was a maj9terpiece, full of clear
and well-defined ideas..

His most active colleague in the
Wurzburg committee was Professor
Hettinger. He is perhaps the most
eminent of living controversialists.
He teaches apologetics, which forms
the transition from philosophy to the«
ology. Hettinger takes a large and
philosophical, but at the same time
truly Christian and Catholic, view of
the world. Every grand and beautiful
idea, both ancient and modem, he^as
made his own ; he has analyzed every
philospphical system, separating tmtli
from falsehood, and has gathdired every
sound principle scattered over the
wide range of philosophical literature.
His controversial works deserve to
be ranked among the classics of the
nineteenth century. His discourses
are listened to with pleasure, whether
he speaks from the pulpit, the profess-
or's desk, or the tribune. At Frank-
fort and Wurzburg he spoke in a ma^
terly style,

Benzinger presided at the WUrz-
burg conference which sent an address
to the Holy Fatlier. He is a deep
theologian, well versed in all pliiloso-
phical systems. His mind is admira-
bly trained, his character settled and
determined, and in leaming, notwith-
standing the frailty of his body, he
has attained an eminence to which few
can aspire. Self-possessed in debate^
sure and cautious in his remarks, a
deep thinker, he exhorted all to for-
bearance, and gave universal satisfac-
tion.



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Malines and Wilrzlmrg*



The Wurzburg professors do honor
to evtry assembly of scholars 4nd to
every Catholic convention.

Abbot Haneberg, of Munich, per-
haps the most venerable "of our Ger-
man monks, bishop elect of Treves, a
linguist who speaks fifteen languages,
a first-rate teacher, who will ever be
remembered by his many disciples as
one of the best pulpit orators in Ger-
many, was a zealous advocate of
the Munich congress of literati. The
circular was signed by Haneberg,
Dollinger, and Prof. Akog, of Frei-
burg. Alzog's manual of ecclesiasti-
cal history is the text-book, not only in
Hildesheim and Freiburg, but in al-
most every seminary in Europe. The
work resembles one of the beautiful
mosaics so much admired in St.
Peter's at Rome, and has been of great
use. Alzog was present at the Frank-
fort conventions.

Prof. Reusch, of Bonn, is one of
our best commentators. He has ren-
dered the Catholics of Germany a
. great service in translating the works
of the English cardinal, for Wiseman's
writings are read by the whole
Church. ^ About a hundred years ago
all Germany perused the productions
of the English free-thinkuig deists,
Shaftesbury, Locke, Morgan, Wools-
ton, and Toland ; at present all read
the works of Wiseman, Faber, New-
man, Marshall, Dalgaim, and Manning.
Toward the close of the last century,
Voltaire, Rousseau, d'AIembert, Dide-
rot, and the other infamous encyclo-
paedists furnished the educated portion
of Germany with intellectual food;
now we eagerly study the writings of
Dupanloup, Montalembert, L. Veuil-
lot, Segur, F. Gratry^ahd Nicolas.
True, Renan too and *^Le Maudit"
have their admirers, but the admira-
ble replies of Dupanloup, Felix,
Freppel, Lasserre, Veuillot, Segur,
Pressens^, Parisis, Scherer, Coquerel,
Lamy, and Nicolas, have likewise
found an extensive circle of readers.
Catholic controversy has never flour-
ished more than at present, when
hundreds of able writers plead the



cause of Christ and of his vicar on
earth.

Professor Yosen, of Cologne, is an-
other eminent controversialist ; he is a
skilful debater, and possesses a thor-
ough knowledge of parliamentary
rules and of the social condition of
Germany. His utterance is rapid, but
he uses no superfluous verbiage, and
every sentence is clear and well brought
out.

Prof. Reinkens, of Breslau, and
Floss, of Bonn, were members of the
executive committee at the Munich
convention of scholars. Not long ago
he dedicated to us his biography of
" Hilary of Poitiers," a work that
may be classed with Mohler's " Atha-
nasius."

Prof. ReiBchV of Regensburg, re-
peatedly a member of different com-
mittees at the general conventions,
and an excellent teacher, whose mem-
ory will ever be cherished by his stu-
dents, is on the point of finishing, in
the course of the present year, his la-
borious translation of the Holy Scrip-
tures. For twelve years he has labor-
ed unceasingly, and the work is the
golden fruit of his labors, and will out-
live many generations. We may
justly place Reischl's translation of
the Bible among our Catholic classics,
such as M6hler*s '* Symbolism," Dol-
linger's '^Pi^anism and Judaism,"
Hefele's "History of the Councils,"
Phillips' "Canon Law," Hettinger's
" Apologetics," Amberger's " Pastoral
Theology," Dieringer's "Book of
Epistles," Lasaulx's "Philosophy of
the Fine Arts," Stockl's " Philosophy
of the Middle Ages," Kleutgen's
"Theology of the Past," "The Le-
gends of Alban Stolz ," etc. Most of
tiiese have appeared since 1848, or
rather within the last twelve years, and
are the precursors of a great Catholic
literary period, for which every prep-
aration seems to be already made. That
our writers are improving in beauty of
style no observer can fail to notice ; as
a proof, I need only mention tiie names
of Haflaer, MoUtor, Redwitz, and
Hahn-Hahn. I cannot pass unnoticed



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345



Stolbeig's « History of the Church,'*
Danbei^ger's ^ History of the Middle
Ages/' Gfrorer's great work on Greg-
ory YIL and his times, and the works
of Frederick von Hurter. " Sepp's
Jenwalem," also, is a work of undoubt-
ed merit Professor Sepp delivered
some brilliant speeches at the first
Catholic general conventions. His
last book is a telling refutation of
Benan and other modem infidels who
deny the divinity of Christ, and de-
serves to be ranked with the writings
of Heinrich, Haneberg, Deutinger, S.
Bronner, Wriesinger, Michelis, Danm-
er, and Hahn-Hahn on the same sub-
ject.

Michelis, of Braunsberg, shows
some of TertuUian's violence; nay,
sometimes he becomes personal in de-
bate, owing to his passionate temper
and hiis somewhat peevish character.
These qualities are coupled with an
ardent love of his religion and his
country, and manly honor and
straightforwardness. His epeech at
Frankfort, in 1862, was well-timed
and called forth immense enthusiasm.
Michelis bears a close resemblance to
Prof. Reminding, of Fulda, who has
lately acquired a great reputation as
a dogmatic theologian. Bemirding
has fbr a long time been a teacher in
England, and is thoroughly acquaint-
ed with English affairs. To him we
may apply the adage : ^' StiU waters
nm deep." He is silent, uncommuni-
cative, and fond of thought His
bright eyes beam with intelligence,
gentleness, and benevolence. Prof.
Janasen held his maiden speech at the
convention of Frankfort, in 1863 ; it
was very successful Janssen is a dis-
ciple of Bohmer, and he, as well as
Ficker, of Innsbruck, and Arnold, of
Marburg, is a worthy successor of
that great historian. He is weU fitted
to wi4te a satisfactory history of Ger-
many, for Giesebrecht's " History of
tbe German Emperors" fails to do
justice to the Church during the mid-
dle ages. There is no longer any
ladL of Catholic lustotians in Giermany,
and the labors of Protestant writers



have rendered the task easy for them.
. Among our Catholic historians I shall
* mention Onno Klopp, of Hanover;
Hoefler, of Prague ; Bader, Huber,
Hergenrother, of Wiirzburg ; Marx, of
Treves ; Dudik,Gindely,Kainpfschulte,
of Bonn ; Niehus, Rump, and Hiils
kamp, of Miinster; C. Will, of Nurem
berg; Lammer, of Breslau, who ha^
lately been appointed professor of
theology ; Remkens, of Bi-eslau ; Alex-
ander iLaufmann, of Werthheim ; Cor-
nelius, Friedrich, and Pichlcr, of Mun-
ich ; Roth von Schreckenstein, Watter-
ich, Dominicus, Ossenbeck, Ennen,
Remling, Junckmann, Kiesel, Bumiil-
ler, Weiss, Kerker, and Alberdingk-
Thym.

These gentlemen should try to meet
very often, for by seeing ourselves re-
flected in others we leam to know
ourselves. Bohmer, Pertz, Chmel,
and Theiner have laid the foundations
of historical research ; on their disci-
ples devolves the task of continuing
the building, and of completing it ac-
cording to &e intentions of their mas-
ters.

My subject is carrying me away,
and I am passing the limits I hvA
marked for myself. How many other
names connected with the Munich re-
union of scholars, or the last Catholic
congress, should I notice in order to do



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