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Three names were proposed to the
sovereign's choice : that of M. Wassi-
lief was one of the three. He has not
been appointed; but, in proposing
him, the synod sufficiently testified
that it would have wished to see him



seated in its midst, raised to the high-
est dignity to which, in Russia, a mem-
ber of the secular clergy can pretend.

After the energetic act of the met^
ropolitan of Belgrade and the words
of the archpriest Wassilief, it remains
for us to quote the Levant HercMy an
English and Protestant journal pub-
lished at CoDStantinople. In its num-
ber of the 20th September, 1865^ that
paper endeavors to make the Angh'can
clergy understand that they flatter
themselves with a delusive hope if
they believe in the possibility of a
union, or even of an alliance, between
the two communions.

It results from all we have just
said that if the Anglo-Americans have
entertained the project of Protestant-
izing the Greek Church, they must
perceive that the enterprise is more
arduous than they had supposed. The
Russians, on their side, must see that
it is not so easy to make the Anglican
Church enter into the bosom of theirs.
As to establishing the intercommunion
between the two churches without
having come to an agreement on
questions of faith, it is a dream which
the archpriest Wassilief must have
dispelled once and for ever.



NEW PUBLICATIONS.



Reason in Religion. By Frederic
Henry Hedge. Boston : Walker, Ful-
ler & Company, 245 Washington St.
1863. Pp. 458.

The author of this work, who is a
professor in Harvard University, en-
joys a deservedly high reputation as an
accomplished scholar and writer, and
is looked upon bv numbers of intelli-
gent and thoughtra persons, especially
m Massachusetts, as their most revered
and trusted guide in religious matters.
On that account whatever he writes is
worthy of consideration. In the work
before us he has not attempted a syste-
matic treatise on the topic indicated in
his title, but has thrown together a



series of essays touching on it and its
kindred topics, indicating difficulties
more than aiming at solving them,
and suggesting a method by which
anxious minds may separate a certain
modicum of belief which is practically
certain and safe from that which is
doubtful, and wait patiently until they
can ^et more truth by the slow progress
of science.

Any one who looks in this work for
metaphysical solutions which are satis-
factory or plausible of the great theo-
logical problems will be disappointed.
The author sees too clearly the want of
sufficient data, and the want of a suffi-
cient criterion in his system, to attemi>t
to dogmatize much. We think tma



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431



course more sensible and honest than
the opposite. At the same time, it lays
open the defects of his system ; but so
much the better, and so much the
more hope of getting at the truth. He
cannot satisfy, however, either the con-
sistent rationalist or the consistent be-
liever in revelation. On the ration-
alistic side he has received a severe
criticism from the Christian Examiner,
To a Catholic the positively theological
part of His work has but little interest.
Some incidental topics are handled
with considerable acuteness and abil-
ity, as, for instance, the quality of sin
and evil, the relation between spirit
and matter, the compensations of prov-
idence, etc. The impartial testimony
of such a bold and subtle critic as the
author in favor of certain facts and doc-
trines — e, g., miracles, the resurrection,
future punishment, etc., is of value.'
There are half truths, incidental
thoughts, scintillations of light, through
the book, which sho^ how much the
author^s merits arc his own, and his de-
fects those of the system he was trained
in. The style in which he writes has
many most admirable and peculiar
qualities, fitting it to be the vehicle of
the highest kind of thought. Never-
theless, although we do not question
the author's scholarship in his own
proper field of study, what he says of
specially Catholic questions and matters
appears to us commonplace, superfi-
cial, and sometimes quite gratuitously
introduced. Through a want of care
in studying up the Catholic question,
he has made one or two quite remark-
able mistakes. One of these is in
speaking of the synod of Valentia as if
it were a general council. Another is
the statement that Pope Hild^brand
(St. Gregory VII.) has not been can-
onized. These remarks are by the
way, for we are not attempting to
follow Dr. Hedge over the area covered
by his essays for the purpose of contro-
verting his positions.

The real point of interest it a work
like this is the author's thesis respect-
ing the source and criterion of Religious
truth. If we differ here, there is very
little use in discussing the particular
conclusions or inferences we draw re-
specting doctrine. While the differ-
ence continues, it is better to ke^pp the
discussion upon it ; if we ever come to
an agreement, it. will be comparatively
easy to proceed with the discussion of
specific doctrines.



Although Dr. Hedge does not proceed
by a formal analytic method, yet he has
a thesis, and states it intelligibly in his
chapter on " The Cause of Reason the
Cause of Faith." In philosophy he is a
Kantian, and in theology he adopts the
system condemned in the late encyclical
of Pius IX. under the name of " moder-
ate rationalism." According to him,
we cannot get the idea of God, or of
spiritual truths, from pure reason. All
we know of these truths comes from
revelation, and the truths of revelation
are subject to the critical judgment of
reason, which cannot originate, but can
approve or reject, conceptions of spirit-
ual truth.

There are two rather serious ob-
jections to this theory. The first is,
that it destroys reason by denying to it
either the original intuition of God,
or the capacity of acquiring the idea of
God by reflection; without which it
has no capacity of apprehending or
judging of the conception of God pro-
posed to it by revelation. The second
is, that it destroys revelation, making
it identical with the conscience or
moral sense ; that is, individual and sub-
jective. What is this revelation or in-
spiration in the spiritual nature of an
individual? Is it his reason or intelli-
gence elevated and illuminated ? That
cannot be ; for then reason and rejcla-
tion are identical, and the proposition
that* we know nothing of spiritual
truths by reason would be subverted.
What then is it ? We can conceive of
nothing in the spiritual nature of man
which IS not reducible to intelligence or
will. It must be will, then. But will is a
blind faculty. It is a maxim of philos
ophy, "Nil volitum, nisi prius cog-
nitum." The will cannot choose the
supreme good unless the intelligence
furnishes it the idea of the supreme
good. Y6u cannot have a revelation
without first establishing sound ration-
alism as a basis. Reason may be in-
debted for distinct conceptions even of
those truths which it is able to demon-
strate to an exterior instruction given
immediately by Almighty God throujsrh
inspiratioiL But it must have the orig-
inal idea or intuition in itself which is
explicated by this instruction and is its
ultimate criterion of tnith. If by rev-
elation is understood merely the out-
ward assistance given to the mind to
develop its own idea and attain the full
perfection of reason, there is no sense
in distinguishing revelation from phil-



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osophy, science, or the light of reason
itself, since all alike come from God.
A revelation, properly so called, is a
manifestation of truths above the
sphere of reason — truths which reason
cannot demonstrate from their intrinsic
contents. In this case, reason can only
apprehend the evidence of the fact that
they are revealed, that they are not con-
trary to any truths already known, and
that they have certain analogies with
truths perceived by reason. But they
must be accepted as positively and
absolutely true only on the author-
ity of revelation. You must therefore
be a pure rationalist, and maintain that
we )iave no knowledge of any truth be-
yond that which the educated intelli-
gence of man evolves from its own
primitive and ultimate idea; or you
must accept revelation in the Catholic
sense, as proposed by an extrinsic au*
thority. Dr. Hedge eives us no basis
for either science or faith. There can-
not be a basis for faith without one for
science ; and give us a basis sufficient for
science, we will demonstrate from it
the truth of revelation.

We conclude by quoting one or two
remarkable passages, which show that
the author instinctively thinks more
soundly and justly than his theory will
logically sustain him in doing :

'^The mass of mankind must re-
ceive their rcUgion at second-hand, and
receive it on historical authority, as
they receive the greater part of all
their knowledge.^*

'^We want a teacher conscious of
God^s inpresence, claiming attention as
a voice out of the heavens. We want
a doctrine which shall announce itself
with divine authority; moi a system of
moral philosophy, but the word and
kingdom of God. Without this stamp
of divine legitimacy, without the wit-
ness and signature of the Eternal,
Chiistianity would want that which
alone gives it -weight with the mass of
mankind, and the place it now holds in
human things'* (pp. 64, 242.)

Well spoken I spoken like a philoso-
pher, like a Christian, like a Catholic I
Apply now Kant's and Dr. Hedge's
principle of practical reason. They
say, Mankind feel the need of a God,
therefore there is and has alwap been
a God. So we say, Mankind feel and
always did feel the necessity of an in-



fallible church, of a distinct, positive,
dogmatic faith. Therefore they exist,
and always did exist. Only in the
Catholic Church are these wants real-
ized; therefore the Catholic Church is
the true Church of God.

Tqb Comflstb Works of St. Joket
OF THE Cboss, etc. Edited by the
Oblate Fathers of St. Charles. Lon-
don: Longmans & Company. 1864.

This is the most su}>erb work on
spiritual subjects in our English Catho-
lic literature. Mr. Lewis has made his
translation in such a manner as to merit
the highest encomium from the late
Cardinal Wiseman, who has written the
preface to the edition. The paper, ty-
pography, and mechanical execution are
m the highest style of English typo-
graphical art. The fathers of St.
Charles deserve the thanks of the entire
English-speaking Catholic and literary
world for this costly and noble enter-
prise which they have achieved.

It is needless to say that the works of
St. John of the Cross are among the

Shest specimens of genius and spirit-
wisdom to be found in the Spanisli
language or any other. St. John was a
poet of the first order, and an equally
great philosopher. In this view alone
his works are worthy of profound
study. The base of his doctrine is the
deepest philosophy, and its summit is
ever varied and enlightened by the
glow of poetic fervor. It is philoso-
phy and poetry, however, elevated, pu-
rified, and hallowed by sacred inspira-
tion, and derived' not merely from
human but from divine contemplation.
As a book for spiritual readmg and
direction, it is most proper for a certain
class of minds only, who have difficul-
ties and inward necessities for which
they cannot find the requisite aid in the
ordinary books of instruction. It is
also the best guide for those who
have the direction of persons of this
character.*

Wb learn that the Messrs.^ Apple ton
have in press, and will soon publish
'' The Temporal Mission of the Holy
Ghost," by the Most Rev. H. £. Man-
ning, Archbishop of Westminster, which
has just been issued by the Loogmans^
of London,



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THE



CATHOLIC WORLD.



VOL. n., NO. lO—JANUART, 1866.



Pranslated flrom Le Ck>rro8poiidant

LEIBNITZ AND BOSSUET.*



Etert friend of letters must greet
with sincere pleasure the literary en-
terprise of M. dc Careil in undertak-
ing a complete edition of the writings
of Leibnitz, a large part of which
has hitherto remained unpublished
and even unknown, and especially to
make that great genius live anew for
us in all bis fulness and integrity. No
greater literary undertaking ever se-
duced the imagination of a young eru-
dite, is better fitted to attract the sym-
pathy of the European republic, or
more difficult of execution. For it
was precisely the peculiarity of Leib-
nitz that, while he labored to embrace
with a firmness of grasp never equal-
led the whole of moral and physical
nature, all things real, ideal, or possi-
ble, in one and the same system, he
uniformly abstained from giving, in
his writings, to that system its full
and entire development. Possessing
the amplest and most complete mind
that ever lived, he took no care to
give 'to any of his works the seal of
completeness and perfection. The in-



• *' aSuvns de Leibftitz, pvUiees pofjr la pre-
mihrtf[A*€raprU U$ ManuncriU, avec des notes
et wta kUroduction,^^^ I>ar A. Fuacher de CarcU.
PUrU: Firmin-Dldot. Tomeal. etIL

▼01. II. 28



yentor of so many methods, mathe-
matical and metaphysical, he never
arranged his ideas in a methodical or-
der. He leads his readers, with a rap-
id and firm step, through a labyrinth
of abstract conceptions and boundless
erudition, but he suffers no hand but
his own to hold the guiding thread.
He has lef\ us numerous tracts and
fragments of great value indeed, but
no work that reveals the unity of his
system, and gives us a summary of his
doctrines. There is no summa of the
Leibnitzian science and philosophy.
We might say that, by a sort of co-
quetry, while he sought to know and
explain everything in nature, he took
care that the secret of his own heart
should not for a moment escape him.

Hence it becomes important to
bring together and arrange in their
natural order his scattered members>
so as to give them the cohesion
they lack, to combine his several per-
sonages, the philosopher, the moralist,
the geometrician, the naturalist, the
erudite, the diplomatist, and the
courtier, in one living being, and pre-
sent the giant armed at all points as
he came forth from the hands of
his Maker. Hence also tlie difficulty



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Leibnitz and Bossuet.



of the task. It requires to accomplish
it the universalitj of tastes, if not of
faculties, possessed bj the model to be
reconstructed. It presents one of
those cases in which to reproduce na-
ture it is almost necessary to equal
nature, and to resuscitate is hardlj
less difficult than to create. Only a
Cnvier is able to collect and put in
their place the gigantic bones and
powerful fins of Leviathan.

Ab Jove principium, M. de Careil
begins with theology. These two vol-
umes placed at the head of his edition
are taken up with writings some of
which had already been printed, oth-
ers had remained in manuscript, but
all subjected to a careM revis^n and
enriched by learned notes, which
pertain exclusively to matters of relig-
ion. If the ancient classification,
which gave to theology tiie precedence
of all other matters, had not every
claim to our respect, we might, per-
haps, permit ourselves to find fault
with this arrangement of the works of
Leibnitz, which will cause, I am sure,
some surprise to the learned public
His theological writings wei*e his first
neither in the order of time nor in the
order of merit. He did not open his
brilliant career with religious discus-
sions, nor was it by them that he was
chiefiy distinguished, or lefl his deep-
est trace. He made in theology, no
discoveries as fruitful as the infinitesi-
mal calculus, and gave it no prob-
lems that have fetched so many and
so distant echoes as his theories of op-
timism and monadology. Why, then,
open the series with those writings
which did not begin it, and whidi
do not give us its summary, and give
the precedence to works, merely acces-
sory and of doubtful value, over so
many others which earlier, more con-
stantly, and more gloriously occupied
his laborious life?

There is still another objection to
this distribution of matters which M.
de Careil has made. The theo-
logical writings of Leibnitz consist
almost exclusively in his correspond-
ence, and are parts of the negotia-



tion for the reunion of the differ-
ent Christian communions of which,
for a brief time, he was the medium.
Correspondences are admirable means
of gaining an insight into the private
and personal character of men whose
public life and works are already
known, but taken by themselves they
are always obscure and difficult to be
understood. The reason is, that peo-
ple who correspond are usually mu-
tual acquaintances, and understand
each other by a hint or half a word.
They are familiar with contempora-
ry events, and waste no time in nar-
rating them, or in explaining what
each already knows. Facts and ideas
are treated by simple allusions, intelli-
gible enough to the correspondents,
but unintelligible to a posterity that
lacks their information. The corre-
spondence of Leibnitz, which M. de
Careil publishes, is far from being free
from this grave inconvenience. Leib-
nitz appears in it in the maturity of
his age, and the full splendor ^of his
renown. He speaks with the authori-
ty of a philosopher in full credit, and
of a counsellor enjoying the confi-
dence of an important Gk'rman court
His correspondents treat him witli
the respect due to an acknowledged
celebrity, and even a power. In the
course of the discussion he is carry-
ing on he introduces many of his
well known metaphysical principles,
but briefly, as ideas familiar to those
whom he addresses, and less for the
purpose of teaching th^n of recalling
them to the memory.

His manner of writing, of rush-
ing, so to speak, in medictt rec,
takes the inexperienced reader by
surprise, and appears to conform to
the adventurous habits of dramatic
art much more than to the sound rules
of erudition, which proceeds slowly,
with measured step, marking in ad-
vance the place where it is to -plant
its foot Few among us are sufficient-
ly acquainted with the facts in detail
of the life of Leibnitz, or know well
enough the secret of his opinions, to
be able to render an account to our-



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selves of the part we see him — a lay-
citiaseD — playing among emperors,
kings, princes, and prelates, or the re-
lation that subsists between his sys-
tem of monads and scholastic theolo-
gy. Hence it often happens that we
neither know who is speaking,
nor of what he is speaking. This
frequently causes us an embanass-
ment to which M. de Careil is him-
self too much a stranger to be able
sufficiently to compassionate it He
has lived ten years with Leibnitz in
the Library of Hanover, his habitual
residence, and he knows every linea-
ment of the face of his hero, and —
not the least of his merits — deciphers
at a glance his formless and most
illegible scrawL We are not, there-
fore, astonished that in his learned in-
troductions and his notes, full of mat-
ter, he makes no account of difficulties
which we in our ignorance are utterly
unable to overcome.

But we are convinced that the
knowledge the editor has acquired by
his invaluable labors would have been
fiur more available to his readers if he
had condensed it into a detailed biogra-
phy, such as he only could write, than
as he gives it, scattered at the begin-
ning of each volume, or in a note at
the foot of each page. An historical
notice, comprising &e history of the
intellect as well as of the life of Leib-
nitz, an exposition of ideas as well as
of facts, and the arrangement of the
didactic works according to the order
of their subjects and their importance,
foUowed by the fragments and corre-
spcmdence, the order adopted by
nearly aU collectors of great poly-
graphs, would, it seems to us, have
been much better, and simply the dic-
tate of reason and experience. Introduc-
ed by M. de Gareil into the monument
he erects not by the front, through the
peiistyle, but by a low, side door, we
run at least great risk of not seizing
the whole in its proportioas.

I confess that I have also a person-
al reason for regretting the arrange-
ment adopted by M. de Careil. I had
oocasion formerly, among the sins of



my youth, to examine, with very little
preparatory study I admit, and in docur
ments by no means so abundant and so
exact OS those which are now placed
within our reach, the negotiations pur-
sued by Leibnitz for the union of
Christian communions, which take u)
the whole of these two volumes. Fron
that examination, along with that of a.
small tract naturally attached to it,
I came, on the religious opinions of
the great philosopher, to certain con-
clusions which I set forth in the d2d
number of the first series of this peri-
odical, which M. de Careil, even then
deeply engaged in this study of Leib-
nitz, has ^It it his duty, in a discus-
sion marked hy great urbanity, to
combat. It is my misfortune to pe]>
sist in those conclusions, and more
strenuously than ever in consequence
of the new light which seems to me to
be furnished by this publication, and to
which I cannot dispense myself from
briefly recurring. In so dping I fear
that I shall appear to some readers to
have sought or to have accepted too
readily an occasion for resuming a
discussion of little importance, and
which probably few except myself re-
member. M. de Careil, I hope, will
do me the justice to acquit me of a
thought so puerile. Nobody would
have been more eager than myself to
admire, in the picture he presents us,
the figures which naturally occupy the
foreground ; but if the eye is forced
to pause at first on some insignificant
detail, it perhaps is not a defect of
taste in the spectator ; may it not be
a defect of skill in the artist ?



I.



Thbsb reserves made, we proceed
to examine, with some care, the
changes rendered necessary, by this
new and complete edition, in the opin-
ion previously adopted by the biogra-
phers of Leibnitz in regard to the
religious negotiation of which he was
for a moment the accredited medium,
and in which we find mingled the great
name of Bossuet Several important



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436



Leibnitz and Boisuet.



points are mach modified by the doo-
mnents now brought to l^ht for the
first time.

We learn, in the outset, that the ne-
gotiation for the union of the Protest-
ant communions Mrith the H0I7 See
was far more important than is com*
monly thought, and was continued for
a much longer time. The earliest
documents in relation to it published
by M. de Careil date from 1671,
whilst the previous editors of Leib-
nitz and Bossuet suppose that the
first overtures were made onlj in the
year 1690, a difference of twenty
years ; and it appears from these docu-
ments, hitherto perfectly unknown,
that it was precisely- during those
twenty years that success came the
nearest being obtained, and that the
highest influences were employed to
obtain it.

During this period, from 1670 to
1690, the Catholic revival of the
seventeenth century was at its apogee,
and nearly all the Grerman sovereigns
were animated by a strong desire to
effect thfi religious pacification of
their subjects. The wounds caused
by the Thirty Years* War were hardly
dosed by the peace of Westphalia, and
every one felt the mortal blow which
religious dissension had struck to the
Germanic power by breaking the old
unity of the empire. Beside, all eyes
were turned toward France, where
religion and royalty seemed to move
on together in perfect harmony, and
displayed an unequalled splendor.
France, under her young monarch,
Louis XIV., was at once the object of
envy and of dread ; and the re-estab-
lishment of religious unity in Ger-
many, torn by mutually hostile com-
munions, seemed to the sovereign
princes the only means of resembling
France, and at the same time of re-
sisting her twwer.

When, therefore, Rogas Spinola,
confessor to the empress, the wife of
Leopold L, at firat Bishop of Tina, af-
terward of Neustadt, a man of mild
temperament and sound sense, be-
came the intermediary agent of the



general desire fi)r peace, and after
having sounded the leading Protest-
ant theologians, went to Bcwne to as-
certain the extent of the concessions
to which the maternal authority of the



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